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Technical Paper

Studies on Anti-Slip Regulation Technologies for AMT Vehicles

In order to improve the tractive ability, steering capability and directional stability, etc. of automated mechanical transmission (AMT) vehicles running on the wet and slippery road, the anti-slip regulation (ASR) technologies for AMT vehicles are developed. The significance of ASR for AMT vehicles is introduced; a road friction recognition method based on the deceleration of driving wheels is investigated; a fuzzy anti-slip control system based on adjustment of engine torque is developed and the corresponding experimental verification is conducted. The experimental results denote that the proposed method is effective to eliminate the excessive slip when the AMT vehicle travels on the low friction road.
Technical Paper

A computer-based simulation and test system for the calibration of EFI engine

When the EFI system is used in a specific engine, lots of experiments are needed to optimize the control data (MAP). This work is time and financial consuming. This paper aims to develop a computer-based simulation and test system, which can produce the initial control MAP with good accuracy, and calibrate the ECU on-line. So the experiments are reduced and calibration is accelerated. In order to improve the accuracy of the initial control data, the mathematical models are built not only based on theoretical equations, but also on the control data of typical operation points, which is obtained by the on- line calibration of specific engines. This system can also perform some special calibrations, like "constant pulse width" and "square wave modulation."
Technical Paper

Design and Production of Mg Wheels in China

The high strength-weight ratio and high damping capability of Magnesium alloys implies significant potentials for improving fuel efficiency and vehicle performance with the use Mg wheels. In this paper, a brief review is given of the current state of art in Mg wheel production, followed by a summary of the mechanical and casting properties of Mg alloys. The difficulties that hinder the wide use of Mg wheels are discussed. The R&D activities in China in the fields of Mg wheel design and casting are described. The focus of this paper is on the design and the development of a new squeeze casting process that makes it feasible to produce high-quality Mg wheels with cost efficiency. Finally, the expected commercial use of Mg wheels in the near future in Chinese motorbikes is outlined.
Technical Paper

Crank System Coupling Simulation between Dynamics of Flexible Multi-Body and Hydrodynamic Lubrication

A flexible multi-body system dynamics model of crank system is established based on MSC/ADAMS with the purpose of modeling the crank in internal-combustion engine accurately. The film hydrodynamics model is built up through linking ADAMS and elasticity hydrodynamics subroutines. Coupling analysis between multi-flexible body system dynamics and hydrodynamic lubrication of crank system is processed. Results between the model with the function of film and without the function are compared. Then the journal center loci are given. The effects of different factors such as pressure, temperature, rotating speed and load on the journal center loci are also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Turning Control and Analysis for a Tracked Vehicle with Electric Transmission System

How to control and analyze the turning process of a tracked vehicle with electric transmission system is an important issue. In the paper two turning control methods are presented according to its study. The balance relations of its tractive effort and power versus radius are obtained by the calculation with using the mathematical model of basic turning dynamics and constraint conditions. The model of continuously variable radius turning is implemented by a RBF neural network which is of the better identifying ability, and the more turning results can be given from it. These turning analyses are significant for the electric transmission system.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Real-time Dynamic AMT Test Bench for Simulating Total Road Forces of Vehicle

In this paper the hardware and software of a real-time dynamic test bench for simulating the total road forces of vehicles fitted with Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) is described. First, the purpose and meaning of this research are discussed. And then, we select the hardware components of the test bench system according to the application requirements and complete the system design. Statement of the structure, working principle and function of the system is also included in this part. According to the experimental procedure of simulating total road load forces of vehicle under real-time conditions on the dynamic test bench, the software system is designed using Visual C++ 6.0, CAN bus communication protocol, RS-232, and network technology. Finally, some experimental tests for the system are carried out with the results that this design corresponds to the real-time dynamic requirements.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Analysis on the Influence of Key Parameters of Control Valve on the Performance Characteristics of Electromagnetic Injector

The control valve is the most important implementation part of a high pressure common rail system, and its flow characteristics have a great influence on the performance of an injector. In this paper, based on the structure and the working principle of an electromagnetic injector in a high pressure common rail system, a simulation model of the injector is established by AMESim software. Some key parameters of the control valve, including the volume of the control chamber, the diameter of the orifice Z (feeding orifice), the diameter of the orifice A (discharge orifice) and the hole diameter of the fuel diffusion hole are studied by using this model. The results show that these key structural parameters of the control valve have a great influence on the establishment of the control chamber pressure and the action of the needle valve.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Coordinated Control for AT Upshift Process

The ever-growing number of interacting electronic vehicle control systems requires new control algorithms to manage the increasing system complexity. As a result, torque-based control architecture has been popular for its easy extension as the torque demand variable is the only interface between the engine control algorithms and other vehicle control systems. Under the torque-based control architecture, the engine and AT coordinated control for upshift process is investigated. Based on the dynamics analysis, quantitative relationship between the turbine torque of HTC and output shaft torque of AT has been obtained. Then the coordinated control strategy has been developed to smooth the torque trajectory of AT output shaft. The designed control strategy is tested on a powertrain simulation model in MATLAB/Simulink and a test bench. Through simulation, the shift time range in which the engine coordinated control strategy is effective is acquired.
Technical Paper

Design Approach and Dimensionless Analysis of a Differential Driving Hydraulic Free Piston Engine

A new method for driving the hydraulic free piston engine is proposed. This method achieves the compression stroke automatically rather than special recovery system. Principle of hydraulic differential drive free-piston engine is analyzed and the control strategy of this novel hydraulic driving engine is also introduced. Then energy balance method is used to design the main parameters of the novel engine. High pressure and secondary high pressure of the hydraulic system are constrained by the combustion parameters and therefore parameters are analyzed. In order to verify the effectiveness of energy balance method, the mathematical model is established based on the piston force analysis and engine working principle. The transient results of dynamics are obtained through simulation. In addition, the effectiveness of the simulation is proofed by dimensionless analysis. It indicates that energy balance method realizes the basic performance of hydraulic free piston engine.
Technical Paper

State Estimation Based on Interacting Multiple Mode Kalman Filter for Vehicle Suspension System

The study of controllable suspension properties special in the characteristics of improving ride comfort and road handling is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Currently, since most suspension control requires the observation of unmeasurable state, how to accurately acquire the state of a suspension system attracts more attention. To solve this problem, a novel approach interacting multiple mode Kalman Filter (IMMKF) is proposed in this paper. Suspension system parameters are crucial for the performance of state observers. Uncertain suspension system parameters in various conditions, e.g. due to additional load, have significant effect on state estimation. Simultaneously, state transition among different models may be happened on the condition of varying system parameters.
Technical Paper

Multi Objective Optimization of Vehicle Crashworthiness Based on Combined Surrogate Models

Several surrogate models such as response surface model and radial basis function and Kriging models are developed to speed the optimization design of vehicle body and improve the vehicle crashworthiness. The error analysis is used to investigate the accuracy of different surrogate models. Furthermore, the Kriging model is used to fit the model of B-pillar acceleration and foot well intrusion. The response surface model is used to fit the model of the entire vehicle mass. These models are further used to calculate the acceleration response in B-pillar, foot well intrusion and vehicle mass instead of the finite element model in the optimization design of vehicle crashworthiness. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated in order to improve vehicle safety performance and keep its light weight. The particle swarm method is used to solve the proposed multi-objective optimization problem.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Occupancy Detection and Occupant Counting System Using Motion Sensors

This paper proposes a low-cost but indirect method for occupancy detection and occupant counting purpose in current and future automotive systems. It can serve as either a way to determine the number of occupants riding inside a car or a way to complement the other devices in determining the occupancy. The proposed method is useful for various mobility applications including car rental, fleet management, taxi, car sharing, occupancy in autonomous vehicles, etc. It utilizes existing on-board motion sensor measurements, such as those used in the vehicle stability control function, together with door open and closed status. The vehicle’s motion signature in response to an occupant’s boarding and alighting is first extracted from the motion sensors that measure the responses of the vehicle body. Then the weights of the occupants are estimated by fitting the vehicle responses with a transient vehicle dynamics model.
Technical Paper

Automatic Generation Method of Test Scenario for ADAS Based on Complexity

ADAS must be tested thoroughly before they can be deployed for series production. Comparing with road and field test, bench test has been widely used owing to its advantages of less labor costs, more controllable scenarios, etc. However, there is no satisfied systematic approach to generate high-efficiency and full-coverage test scenarios automatically because of its integration of human, vehicle and traffic. Most of the test scenarios generated by the existing methods are either too simple or too few to be able to achieve full coverage of requirements. Besides, the cost is high when the ET method is used. To solve the aforementioned problems, an automatic test scenario generation method based on complexity for bench test is presented in this paper. Firstly, considering the fact that the device is easier to malfunction under complex cases, an index measuring the complexity of test case is proposed by using the method of AHP.
Technical Paper

Integrated Brake Squeal with Induced Thermal Stress Analysis

Brake squeal is an instability issue with many parameters. This study attempts to assess the effect of thermal load on brake squeal behavior through finite element computation. The research can be divided into two parts. The first step is to analyze the thermal conditions of a brake assembly based on ANSYS Fluent. Modeling of transient temperature and thermal-structural analysis are then used in coupled thermal-mechanical analysis using complex eigenvalue methods in ANSYS Mechanical to determine the deformation and the stress established in both the disk and the pad. Thus, the influence of thermal load may be observed when using finite element methods for prediction of brake squeal propensity. A detailed finite element model of a commercial brake disc was developed and verified by experimental modal analysis and structure free-free modal analysis.
Technical Paper

A Uniform Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Rig for Modular and Integrated Testing of Commercial Vehicle Electronic Braking System

This paper describes a uniform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HiL) test rig for the different types of Electronic Braking System (EBS). It is applied to both modular testing and integrated testing. This test rig includes a vehicle dynamic model, a real-time simulation platform, an actual brake circuit and the EBS system under test. Firstly, the vehicle dynamic model is a highly parameterized commercial vehicle model. So it can simulate different types of commercial vehicle by different parameter configurations. Secondly, multi-types of brake circuit are modeled using brake components simulation library. So, it can test the EBS control unit independently without the influence of any real electro-pneumatic components. And a software EBS controller is also modeled. So it can test the algorithm of EBS offline. Thirdly, all real electro-pneumatic components without real gas inputted are connected to the real-time test platform through independent program-controlled relay-switches.
Technical Paper

Effects Analysis of Torsion Bar Spring Modelling Precision on Properties of Pre-Setting Process

The study of mechanical properties special in the characteristics of elastic element is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Since torsion bar spring acts as an important part of elastic element, and improves performance of torsion bar spring is of great concern. The effects of the torsion bar spring pre-setting precision on the presetting performance are presented. Based on elastic-plastic theories, the algebraic model of torsion bar spring is established to analyze the stress, torque and residual stress under the yield and plastic conditions in pre-setting process. Then, the stress and strain states of various torsion bar springs in different conditions are simulated using the validated finite element model in ABAQUS software. The simulation results show the effects of torsion error on the pre-setting performance are less than 5% in the pre-setting process.
Technical Paper

An Improved K-Means Based Design Domain Recognition Method for Automotive Structural Optimization

Design optimization methods are widely used for weight reduction subjecting to multiple constraints in automotive industry. One of the major challenges is to search for the optimal design in an efficient manner. For complex design and optimization problems such as automotive applications, optimization algorithms work better if the initial searching points are within or close to feasible domains. In this paper, the k-means clustering algorithm is exploited to identify sets of reduced feasible domains from the original design space. Within the reduced feasible domains, the optimal design can be obtained efficiently. A mathematical example and a vehicle body structure design problem are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Samples Size Effects on Hybrid Surrogate Model Component Surrogates for Crashworthiness Design

Surrogate model based design optimization has been widely adopted in automotive industry. Hybrid surrogate model with multiple component surrogates is considered to be a better choice when simulating highly non-linear responses in vehicle crashworthiness analysis. Currently, the number of component surrogates has to be decided before-hand when constructing of a hybrid surrogate model. This paper conducts a comparative study on the performances of three popular hybrid modeling methods including heuristic computation strategy, and two kinds of optimal weighted surrogates. The effects of samples size on the number of individual surrogates that should be included into the final hybrid surrogate models for crashworthiness responses are investigated. Different hybrid modeling techniques and multiple validation criteria are evaluated. Some observations and conclusions on the selection of component surrogates in hybrid surrogate modeling are given in the end.