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Technical Paper

An Investigation into Location and Convective Lifecycle Trends in an Ice Crystal Icing Engine Event Database

In the last several years, the aviation industry has improved its understanding of jet engine events related to the ingestion of ice crystal particles. Ice crystal icing has caused powerloss and compressor damage events (henceforth referred to as “engine events”) during flights of large transport aircraft, commuter aircraft and business jets. A database has been created at Boeing to aid in analysis and study of these engine events. This paper will examine trends in the engine event database to better understand the weather which is associated with events. The event database will be evaluated for a number of criteria, such as the global location of the event, at what time of day the event occurred, in what season the event occurred, and whether there were local meteorological influences at play. A large proportion of the engine events occur in tropical convection over the ocean.
Technical Paper

Studies of Cloud Characteristics Related to Jet Engine Ice Crystal Icing Utilizing Infrared Satellite Imagery

The significant problem of engine power-loss and damage associated with ice crystal icing (ICI) was first formally recognized by the industry in a 2006 publication [1]. Engine events described by the study included: engine surge, stall, flameout, rollback, and compressor damage; which were triggered by the ingestion of ice crystals in high concentrations generated by deep, moist convection. Since 2003, when ICI engine events were first identified, Boeing has carefully analyzed event conditions documenting detailed pilot reports and compiling weather analyses into a database. The database provides valuable information to characterize environments associated with engine events. It provides boundary conditions, exposure times, and severity to researchers investigating the ICI phenomenon. Ultimately, this research will aid in the development of engine tests and ICI detection/avoidance devices or techniques.
Journal Article

Development & Implementation of an Electric Boring Process for the Frame Lug for Main Landing Gear Swing Link on the 777 Airplane

This paper discusses the process development and implementation of an Electric Boring process for boring the Frame Lug for the Main Landing Gear (MLG) Swing Link bushing on the 777 Airplane. Due to the process reliability issues associated with the equipment traditionally used for this process, primarily air driven right angle motors, a boring process using electric motors was developed and implemented for this application. The process development focused on equipment selection based on horsepower/torque requirements, laboratory testing for cutting parameters and bore quality generation, equipment reliability testing under operational loads and process efficiency validation. The implementation programme involved the detail design and fabrication of protective enclosure (explosion proof) hardware to prevent the electric motor and its connections from being contaminated by various fluids used in processes in the vicinity of this application.
Technical Paper

The Challenges Identifying Weather Associated With Jet Engine Ice Crystal Icing

This paper presents the latest findings resulting from ongoing research on jet engine ice crystal icing. It specifically focuses on the challenges for pilots to identify and potentially avoid weather associated with this type of engine icing. The case will be made that jet engine power loss and damage events are not only still occurring, but the overall number of events per year is increasing. Several case studies will be presented to illustrate that each event can vary significantly when viewed from the flight deck even though weather conditions are similar for each. Findings will be presented related to new events that are occurring on engines that were not previously affected along with new engine symptoms. Ongoing meteorological research has shed new light on how to identify weather associated with engine events utilizing infrared satellite imagery combined with atmospheric temperature profiles.
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Fuel Consumption Penalties for an Operational Contrail Avoidance System

Recent work has shown that when an aircraft encounters ambient ice-supersaturated conditions (where contrails may form and persist), it may be possible to avoid contrail formation by shifting cruise altitude up or down 2000 feet. If an aircraft's cruise altitude is shifted from the optimal profile during a portion of the mission, fuel consumption increases. Because on average approximately 20% of distance flown by commercial airliners is through ice-supersaturated regions, this study quantifies the fuel burn penalties for the notional scenario of flying the same fraction of cruise at altitude displacements of +2000, -2000, and -4000 ft. Present aircraft performance data was used to generate accurate fuel burn penalty estimates. This study finds that the net penalties for existing aircraft to fly contrail avoidance shifts vary between 0.2% and 0.7% increase in block fuel consumption.