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Technical Paper

Aircraft Noise Source Identification Using a Microphone Array: Montreal-Trudeau Airport Test Campaign

This paper summarizes the techniques used during a microphone array test campaign performed at Pierre-Elliott-Trudeau Airport in Montréal, Québec (Canada) during the summer of 2012. Emphasis is put on the actual measurement campaign as only a limited amount of analysis has been performed at this stage. An aircraft position tracking tool is presented along with the beamforming algorithms that were used. Over 500 aircraft were recorded during this test. A comparison of known tonal sources associated to a specific aircraft type is made between different airlines in order to evaluate the repeatability of the method.
Technical Paper

A Robust Iterative Displacement Inspection Algorithm for Quality Control of Aerospace Non-Rigid Parts without Conformation Jig

Nowadays, optimization of manufacturing and assembly operations requires taking into account the inherent processes variations. Geometric and dimensional metrology of mechanical parts is very crucial for the aerospace industry and contributes greatly to its. In a free-state condition, non-rigid parts (or compliant parts) may have a significant different shape than their nominal geometry (CAD model) due to gravity loads and residual stress. Typically, the quality control of such parts requires a special approach where expensive and specialized fixtures are needed to constrain dedicated and follow the component during the inspection. Inspecting these parts without jig will have significant economic impacts for aerospace industries, reducing delays and the cost of product quality inspection. The Iterative Displacement Inspection (IDI) algorithm has been developed to deal with this problem.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Safety Monitoring and Assessment Practices

Aircraft systems are designed with reliability, safety and cost effectiveness in mind. The certification of the aircraft is based on tests and results of theoretical analyses that show the compliance with the FAR/JAR requirements. Monitoring for safety for in-service aircraft is an important, critical and extremely complex process. The ultimate objective is to assure that the safety level is equal to the original estimate or better. The manufacturer of the aircraft is particularly responsible for overall monitoring and assessment of all safety related events and corrective actions. Many different philosophies were adopted for this purpose. The safety monitoring and audit strategy is generally based on experience, engineering judgment, event analysis and numerical quantification by using probability theory and statistical tools. The aircraft sequential entry in the service and the aging of their components lead to the non-homogeneity of the fleet.
Journal Article

Control Charts for Short Production Runs in Aerospace Manufacturing

Statistical process control (SPC) has been extensively used in many different industries including automotive, electronics, and aerospace, among others. SPC tools such as control charts, process capability analysis, sampling inspection, etc., have definitive and powerful impact on quality control and improvement for mass production and similar production systems. In aerospace manufacturing, however, applications of SPC tools are more challenging, especially when these tools are implemented in processes producing products of large sizes with slower production rates. For instance, following a widely accepted rule-of-thumb, about 100 units of products are required in the first phase of implementing a Shewhart type control chart. Once established, it then can be used for process control in the second phase for actual production process monitoring and control.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Wing Leading Edge Contamination on the Stall Characteristics of Aircraft

Lessons learned from analysis of in-service icing incidents are described. The airfoil and wing design factors that define an aircraft's natural stall characteristics are explored, including the aerodynamic effects of contamination. Special attention is given to contamination in the form of “roughness” along wing leading edges typical of frost. In addition, the key aerodynamic effects of ground proximity and sideslip/crosswind during the take-off rotation are described. An empirical method, that can be used to predict a wing's sensitivity to wing leading edge roughness, is demonstrated. The paper explores the in-service differences of aircraft that incorporate “hard”, “supercritical” and “slatted” wings. The paper attempts to explain why the statistical evidence appears to favor the slatted wing for winter operations.