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Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Active Boom Noise Damping of Dodge Durango

2001-04-30
2001-01-1614
Two active boom noise damping techniques using a Helmholtz resonator-based compensator and a lead compensator called a positive pressure feedback have been developed at the University of Dayton [1]. The two damping techniques are of feedback type and their compensators can be implemented in software or hardware (using inexpensive operational amplifiers). The active damping system would rely on a speaker, a low-cost microphone, two accelerometers, and an electronic circuit (or a micro-controller) to add damping to the offending low-frequency vibroacoustic modes of the cavity. The simplicity of the active boom noise damping system lends itself to be incorporated into a vehicle's sound system. The Helmholtz resonator-based strategy is implemented on a Dodge Durango sport utility vehicle. The control scheme adds appreciable amount of damping to the first cavity mode and the first structurally induced acoustic mode of the cabin.
Technical Paper

Shunt Piezo Damping of a Radiating Panel

2001-04-30
2001-01-1576
The performance of shunt piezo damping is demonstrated by adding damping to the first mode of a plate with the dimensions of 28 by 38 cm and thickness of 0.8 mm. A small 1 by 2 inch piezoelectric patch with the thickness of 10 mil is bonded to the plate at a location where strain due to the first mode of vibration is high. The peizo is shunted with a resistance-inductance (RL) circuit, tuned to the first resonance frequency of the plate at 38 Hz. The plate is excited at its first natural frequency and the power spectrums of the acceleration at the center of the plate with and without the damping treatment were measured. These measurements showed that the shunt piezo damping treatment tuned to the first mode added an appreciable amount of damping to that mode.
Technical Paper

Engine Internal Dynamic Force Identification and the Combination with Engine Structural and Vibro-Acoustic Transfer Information

2001-04-30
2001-01-1596
The vibration-generating mechanisms inside an engine are highly non-linear (combustion, valve operation, hydraulic bearing behavior, etc.). However, the engine structure, under the influence of these vibration-generating mechanisms, responds in a highly linear way. For the development and optimization of the engine structure for noise and vibration it is beneficial to use fast and ‘simple’ linear models, like linear FE-models, measured modal models or measured FRF-models. All these models allow a qualitative assessment of variants without excitation information. But, for true optimization, internal excitation spectra are needed in order to avoid that effort is spent to optimize non-critical system properties. Unfortunately, these internal excitation spectra are difficult to measure. Direct measurement of combustion pressure is still feasible, but crank-bearing forces, piston guidance forces etc. can only be identified indirectly.
Technical Paper

Development of an Air Intake System Using Vibro-Acoustics Numerical Modeling

2001-04-30
2001-01-1519
This paper describes the use of Vibro-Acoustics numerical modeling for prediction of an Air Intake System noise level for a commercial vehicle. The use of numerical methods to predict vehicle interior noise levels as well as sound radiated from components is gaining acceptance in the automotive industry [1]. The products of most industries can benefit from improved acoustic design. On the other hand, sound emission regulation has become more and more rigorous and customers expect quieter products. The aim of this work it is to assess the Vibro-Acoustics behavior of Air Intake System and influence of it in the sound pressure level of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Test Based Methods for High Frequency Structureborne Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1523
NVH engineers typically are dealing with issues that relate to shake, harshness and low frequency noise and vibration concerns. However there is a greater importance being placed on dealing with high frequency structureborne noise problems which are related to gear meshing forces and drivetrain dynamics. This paper presents a case study of a high frequency structureborne noise problem. The objective of the paper is to show the application and effectiveness of using various testing based techniques such as Transfer Path, Running modes, and Mobility analysis along with acoustic excited operating deflection shapes for solving these problems in a timely and effective manner.
Technical Paper

Errors in the Driveline System Balancing Process

2001-04-30
2001-01-1504
Single-plane balancing is a very well-understood process, whereby an imbalance vector is determined and then opposed by a similar vector of equal magnitude but 180° out of phase. This is used in many situations to improve machine performance, vibration, noise etc. However, there is inherent in this process a sensitivity to errors of measurement and correction, since a large imbalance vector and the equally large correction vector must be of exactly equal magnitude and exactly 180° apart for perfect balance. This paper examines the effect of errors in measurement of the initial imbalance and correction of it on the residual balance of automotive drivelines. In particular, it examines the effects of the errors present in a system whereby a system balance correction is made, on a driveline assembly, at discrete points around a given plane (at bolt locations). Errors occur in measurement of vibration, in calculating correction masses and in applying those correction masses.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Determination of the noise contributions of engine surfaces

2001-04-30
2001-01-1482
One of the key elements in efforts to minimize the noise emmissionis of engines and other machinery is the knowledge of the main noise radiating surfaces and the relation between measurable surface vibration and the sound pressure. Under the name of Airborne Source Quantification (ASQ), various techniques have been developed to discretize and quantify the source strength, and noise contributions, of vibrating surface patches of machinery or vehicle components. The noise contributions of patches to the sound pressure at specific locations in the sound field or to the total radiated sound power are identified. The source strength of equivalent point sources, the acoustic transfer from the source surface to critical sound field locations and finally the sound pressure contributions of the individual patches are quantified. These techniques are not unique to engine application, but very relevant for engine development. An example is shown for an engine under artificial excitation.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Advanced Engine Cooling Thermal Management System on a Dual Voltage 42V-14V Minivan

2001-05-14
2001-01-1742
Today the worldwide convergence towards stricter fuel consumption and emission regulations is pushing carmakers and suppliers into new fields of innovation. Valeo Engine Cooling, VEC, is contributing towards these goals by applying its thermal management system expertise in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions by using an advanced engine cooling system that incorporated variable speed PWM fans, an electric water pump and an electric water control valve. The paper discusses the benefits in terms of engine cooling, fuel economy and emissions over the FTP drive cycle. The paper gives some examples of advanced engine cooling strategies based on a virtual, predictive metal temperature sensor that is used to actuate the electrical water pump at the desired flow rate. The electrical balance between the 42V pump and fans has also been optimized to reduce the vehicle electrical power consumption and to keep the coolant temperature close to 110°C.
Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

2001-03-05
2001-01-0552
The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effective Computer-Aided Engineering in the Automotive Product Development Stages

2001-03-05
2001-01-0764
This paper show how the automotive product development process is presented in four distinct stages. The specific type of task, to be presented at each stage, is discussed. Specific CAE (Computer-Aided-Engineering) tasks, such as FEA (Finite Element Analysis), to be used at each stage are discussed. Detailed steps to follow are presented, as well as a check list of tasks are included. The changes and increased effectiveness (developed over 15 years of utilization) are discussed.
Technical Paper

Overall Results: Phase I Ad Hoc Diesel Fuel Test Program

2001-03-05
2001-01-0151
The future of diesel-engine-powered passenger cars and light-duty vehicles in the United States depends on their ability to meet Federal Tier 2 and California LEV2 tailpipe emission standards. The experimental purpose of this work was to examine the potential role of fuels; specifically, to determine the sensitivity of engine-out NOx and particulate matter (PM) to gross changes in fuel formulation. The fuels studied were a market-average California baseline fuel and three advanced low sulfur fuels (<2 ppm). The advanced fuels were a low-sulfur-highly-hydrocracked diesel (LSHC), a neat (100%) Fischer-Tropsch (FT100) and 15% DMM (dimethoxy methane) blended into LSHC (DMM15). The fuels were tested on modern, turbocharged, common-rail, direct-injection diesel engines at DaimlerChrysler, Ford and General Motors. The engines were tested at five speed/load conditions with injection timing set to minimize fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Comparative Evaluation of the Q3 and Hybrid Iii 3-Year-Old Dummies in Biofidelity and Static Out-Of-Position Airbag Tests

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC03
A comparison of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old crash test dummies is presented in this paper. The performance of the dummies were compared in sixty biofidelity tests, seventy-seven static out-of-position airbag tests and sixty- three calibration tests. Various time histories and other data pertaining to accelerations, deflections, forces and moments are compared. In addition, the ease of positioning, handling, and the durability of the dummies in various out- of-position test configurations was assessed. Both the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were calibrated to their respective specifications. The Hybrid III 3-year-old met its calibration requirements, while the Q3 did not always meet its own calibration requirements. The calibration specifications of the Q3 dummy need to be re-examined and possibly refined. The biofidelity of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were evaluated in both frontal and lateral test modes.
Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

2003-03-03
2003-01-1044
A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

1997-02-24
970986
The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

Convergence of Laboratory Simulation Test Systems

1998-02-23
981018
Laboratory Simulation Testing is widely accepted as an effective tool for validation of automotive designs. In a simulation test, response data are measured whilst a vehicle is in service or tested at a proving ground. These responses are reproduced in the laboratory by mounting the vehicle or a subassembly of the vehicle in a test rig and applying force and displacements by servo hydraulic actuators. The data required as an input to the servo hydraulics, the drive files, are determined by an iterative procedure which overcomes the non linearity in the test specimen and the test rig system. Under certain circumstances, the iteration does not converge, converges too slowly or converges and then diverges. This paper uses mathematical and computer models in a study of the reasons why systems fail to convergence and makes recommendations about the management of the simulation test.
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