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Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Catalysts - A Novel Approach to Reduce Hydrocarbon Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

1995-10-01
952419
A novel approach was proposed and investigated to reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions from spark-ignition engines using in-cylinder catalysts. The unburned hydrocarbons in spark-ignition engines arise primarily from sources near the combustion chamber walls, such as flame quenching at the entrance of crevice volumes and at the combustion chamber wall, and the absorption and desorption of fuel vapour into oil layers on the cylinder wall. The proximity of these sources of unburned hydrocarbons to the wall means that they can be reduced significantly by simply using in-cylinder catalysts on the combustion chamber walls, in particular on the surfaces of the crevice volumes. A platinum-rhodium coating was deposited on the top and side surfaces of the piston crown, and its effects on the engine combustion and emission characteristics were examined in this experimental investigation.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Soot Formation in a High-Speed Direct-injection Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960841
A number of tests were conducted on a 2.5 litre, high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine running at various loads and speeds. The aim of the tests was to gain understanding which would lead to more effective use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for controlling exhaust NOx whilst minimising the penalties of increased smoke emission and fuel consumption. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, in-cylinder sampling of combustion gases was carried out using a fast-acting, snatch-sampling valve. The results showed that the effectiveness of EGR was enhanced considerably by cooling the EGR. In addition to more effective NOx control, this measure also improved volumetric efficiency which assisted in the control of smoke emission and fuel consumption. This second of two papers on the use of EGR in diesel engines deals with the effects of EGR on soot emission and on the engine fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Combustion and NOx Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-injection Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960840
A number of tests were conducted on a 2.5 litre, high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine running at various loads and speeds. The aim of the tests was to gain understanding which would lead to more effective use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for controlling exhaust NOx. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, extensive in-cylinder sampling of combustion gases was carried out using a fast-acting, snatch-sampling valve. The results showed that the effectiveness of EGR in suppressing NOx was enhanced considerably by intercooling the inlet charge and by cooling the EGR. A companion paper (SAE 960841) deals with the effects of EGR on soot formation and emission [1].
Technical Paper

A Mathematical Model for In-Cylinder Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Spark-Ignition Engines

1996-05-01
961196
Our earlier experimental study has shown that exhaust unburnt hydrocarbon emissions from spark-ignition engines can be reduced effectively by using in-cylinder catalysts on the surface of the piston top-land crevice. In order to improve the understanding of the process and mechanism by means of which unburnt hydrocarbon emissions are reduced, a phenomenological mathematical model was developed for catalytic oxidation processes in the piston-ring-pack crevice. This paper describes in details the modelling of the processes of the gas flow, mass diffusion and reaction kinetics in the crevices. The flow in the crevices is assumed to be isothermal and at the temperature of the piston crown surface. The overall rate of reaction is calculated using expressions for mass diffusion for laminar flows in channels and a first-order Arrhenius-type expression for catalytic reaction kinetics of hydrocarbon oxidation over platinum.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements and Analysis of In-Cylinder Gases and Particulates in Compression-Ignition Engines

1996-05-01
961168
The extraction of small quantities of gas and particulates from diesel engine cylinders allows time-resolved gas and particulate analysis to be performed outside the engine during a short window of a few degrees crank angle at any stage of the engine cycle. The paper describes the design features and operation of a high-speed, intermittent sampling valve for extracting in-cylinder gases and particulates from diesel engines at any selected instant of the combustion process. Various sampling valve configurations are outlined. Detailed analysis of gas flow through the valve and the performance of the electromagnetic actuator and plunger are given in order to facilitate the design of the sampling valve. Finally, examples of the uses of the sampling valve in a direct-injection diesel engine are provided. These demonstrate how gaseous emissions such as NOx, uHC, CO2, and particulate emissions can be sampled at any part of the combustion process and analysed.
Technical Paper

A Guide to Measurement of Flame Temperature and Soot Concentration in Diesel Engines Using the Two-Colour Method Part I: Principles

1994-10-01
941956
The two-colour method is based on optical pyrometry and can readily be implemented at a modest cost for the measurement of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration in the cylinders of diesel engines. With appropriate modification, this method can be applied to other continuous and intermittent combustion systems, such as those for gas turbine and boiler burners. This paper outlines the theoretical basis of the method, with particular attention being paid to the assumptions relating to the evaluation of the flame temperature and soot concentration. A companion paper deals with the practical problems involved in constructing a working system, including suitable calibration techniques, and assessment of the method accuracy.
Technical Paper

A Guide to Measurement of Flame Temperature and Soot Concentration in Diesel Engines Using the Two-Colour Method Part 2: Implementation

1994-10-01
941957
The measurement of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration in the combustion chamber of a running diesel engine can provide useful information relating to the formation of two important exhaust pollutants, NOx and particulates. The two-colour method is based on optical pyrometry and it can provide estimates of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration. The theoretical basis of the method is outlined in a companion paper. This paper deals with the practical problems involved in the construction of a working system, including suitable calibration techniques. The accuracy of the measurements of flame temperature and soot concentration is also discussed using results from a various sources.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Measurements from a Natural Gas Fuelled Engine

1993-03-01
930927
A programme of work is being undertaken to improve the performance of a spark-ignited natural gas engine, that has been converted from a diesel engine. The aim of this work is to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. All experimental data and predictions refer to full throttle operation at 1500 rpm. The work to be reported here will include baseline tests that have been used to calibrate a two-zone combustion model. Particularly important are the predictions of the NOx emissions. The simulation has then been used to predict the effects of using: a higher compression ratio, and a faster burn combustion system. The design philosophy of the resulting fast burn combustion system is discussed, and some preliminary results are presented. There will be a discussion of the ignition parameters that affect the lean burn operation, and the effect of the spark plug gap position is discussed in the context of results from a phenomenological model of turbulent combustion.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of CAI Combustion with Alcohol Fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0843
Due to its potential for simultaneous improvement in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion has been subject to continuous research in the last several years. At the same time, there has been a lot of interest in the use of alternative fuels in order to reduce reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Therefore, this experimental study has been carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol fuels on the CAI combustion process and on the resulting engine performance. The experimental work was conducted on an optical single cylinder engine with an air-assisted injector. To achieve controlled autoignition, residual gas was trapped in the cylinder by using negative valve overlap and an intake air heater was used to ensure stable CAI combustion in the optical engine. Methanol, ethanol and blended fuels were tested and compared with the results of gasoline.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Split Injection in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0605
Over the last decade, the diesel engine has made dramatic progress in its performance and market penetration. However, in order to meet future emissions legislations, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matters' (PM) emissions will need to be reduced simultaneously. Nowadays researchers are focused on different combustion modes which can have a great potential for both low soot and low NOx. In order to achieve this, different injection strategies have been investigated. This study investigates the effects of split injection strategies with high levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on combustion performance and emissions in a single-cylinder direct injection optical diesel engine. The investigation is focused on the effects of injection timing of split injection strategies. A Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder optical engine was used in which conventional experimental methods like cylinder pressure data, heat release analysis and exhaust emissions analysis were applied.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cylinder Deactivation and Variable Valve Actuation on Gasoline Engine Performance

2014-04-01
2014-01-1170
Increasingly stringent regulations on gasoline engine fuel consumption and exhaust emissions require additional technology integration such as Cylinder Deactivation (CDA) and Variable valve actuation (VVA) to improve part load engine efficiency. At part load, CDA is achieved by closing the inlet and exhaust valves and shutting off the fuel supply to a selected number of cylinders. Variable valve actuation (VVA) enables the cylinder gas exchange process to be optimised for different engine speeds by changing valve opening and closing times as well as maximum valve lift. The focus of this study was the investigation of effect of the integration of the above two technologies on the performance of a gasoline engine operating at part load conditions. In this study, a 1.6 Litre in-line 4-cylinder gasoline engine is modelled on engine simulation software and simulated data is analysed to show improvements in fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, pumping losses and effects on CO and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a DI Spark Ignition Engine with Throttled and Unthrottled Operations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1393
In recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of comparison between various operating strategies and alternative fuels at different SI modes. In this research, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valve train system has been commissioned and used to study and compare different engine operation modes. In this work, the fuel consumption, gaseous and particulate emissions of gasoline and its mixture with ethanol (E15 and E85) were measured and analysed when the engine was operated at the same load but with different load control methods by an intake throttle, reduced intake valve duration, and positive overlap.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Fuelled with Different n-Butanol-Gasoline Blends

2014-10-13
2014-01-2668
Biobutanol, i.e. n-butanol, as a second generation bio-derived alternative fuel of internal combustion engines, can facilitate the energy diversification in transportation and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from engines and vehicles. However, the majority of research was conducted on spark-ignition engines fuelled with n-butanol and its blend with gasoline. A few investigations were focused on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines fuelled with n-butanol-gasoline blends. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single cylinder four stroke port fuel injection HCCI engine with fully variable valve lift and timing mechanisms on both the intake and exhaust valves. HCCI combustion was achieved by employing the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy while being fueled with gasoline (Bu0), n-butanol (Bu100) and their blends containing 30% n-butanol by volume (Bu30).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Tumble and Swirl Motions in a Four-Valve SI Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3555
Tumble and swirl motions in the cylinder of a four-valve SI engine with production type cylinder head were investigated using a cross-correlation digital Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Tumble motion was measured on the vertical symmetric plane of the combustion chamber. Swirl motion was measured on a plane parallel to the piston crown with one of intake ports blocked. Large-scale flow behaviours and their cyclic variations were analysed from the measured two-dimensional velocity data. Results show that swirl motion is generated at the end of the intake stroke and persists to the end of the compression stroke. Tumble vortex is produced in the early stage of the compression stroke and distorted in the late stage of the stroke. The cyclic variation of swirl motion is noticeable. The cyclic variation in tumble dominated flow field is much greater.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion in a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3608
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion has been achieved in a production type 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine was based on a Ford 1.7L Zetec-SE 16V engine with a compression ratio of 10.3, using substantially standard components modified only in design dimensions to control the gas exchange process in order to significantly increase the trapped residuals. The engine was also equipped with Variable Cam Timing (VCT) on both the intake and exhaust camshafts. It was found that the largely increased trapped residuals alone were sufficient to achieve CAI in this engine and with VCT, a range of loads between 0.5 and 4 bar BMEP and engine speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm were mapped for CAI fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The measured CAI results were compared with those of Spark Ignition (SI) combustion in the same engine but with standard camshafts at the same speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Dilution Effects on the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Alcohol Fuels

2001-09-24
2001-01-3606
This paper presents results from an experimental programme researching the in-cylinder conditions necessary to obtain homogenous CAI (or HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine. The fuels under investigation include three blends of Unleaded Gasoline, a 95 RON Primary Reference Fuel, Methanol, and Ethanol. This work concentrates on establishing the CAI operating range with regard to Air/Fuel ratio and Exhaust Gas Re-circulation and their effect on the ignition timing, combustion rate and variability, Indicated thermal efficiency, and engine-out emissions such as NOx. Detailed maps are presented, defining how each of the measured variables changes over the entire CAI region. Results indicate that the alcohols have significantly higher tolerance to dilution than the hydrocarbon fuels tested. Also, variations in Gasoline blend have little effect on any of the combustion parameters measured.
Technical Paper

Performance and Analysis of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with CAI Combustion

2002-03-04
2002-01-0420
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was realised in a production type 4-stroke 4-cylinder gasoline engine without intake charge heating or increasing compression ratio. The CAI engine operation was achieved using substantially standard components modified only in camshafts to restrict the gas exchange process The engine could be operated with CAI combustion within a range of load (0.5 to 4 bar BMEP) and speed (1000 to 3500 rpm). Significant reductions in both specific fuel consumption and CO emissions were found. The reduction in NOx emission was more than 93% across the whole CAI range. Though unburned hydrocarbons were higher under the CAI engine operation. In order to evaluate the potential of the CAI combustion technology, the European NEDC driving cycle vehicle simulation was carried out for two identical vehicles powered by a SI engine and a CAI/SI hybrid engine, respectively.
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 2: Effects of Carbon Dioxide

1996-05-01
961167
This is the second of a series of papers on how exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) affects diesel engine combustion and emissions. It concentrates on the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) which is a principal constituent of EGR. Results are presented from a number of tests during which the nitrogen or oxygen in the engine inlet air was progressively replaced by CO2 and/or inert gases, whilst the engine speed, fuelling rate, injection timing, inlet charge total mass rate and inlet charge temperature were kept constant. In one set of tests, some of the nitrogen in the inlet air was progressively replaced by a carefully controlled mixture of CO2 and argon. This ensured that the added gas mixture had equal specific heat capacity to that of the nitrogen being replaced. Thus, the effects of dissociated CO2 on combustion and emissions could be isolated and quantified (chemical effect).
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 3: Effects of Water Vapour

1997-05-01
971659
Water vapour is a main constituent of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines and its influence on combustion and emissions were investigated. The following effects of the water vapour were examined experimentally: the effect of replacing part of the inlet charge oxygen (dilution effect), the effect of the higher specific heat capacity of water vapour in comparison with that of oxygen it replaces (thermal effect), the effect of dissociation of water vapour (chemical effect), as well as the overall effect of water vapour on combustion and emissions. Water vapour was introduced into the inlet charge, progressively, so that up to 3 percent of the inlet charge mass was displaced. This was equivalent to the amount of water vapour contained in 52 percent by mass of EGR for the engine operating condition tested in this work.
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 1: Effect of Reducing Inlet Charge Oxygen

1996-05-01
961165
This is a first of a series of papers describing how the replacement of some of the inlet air with EGR modifies the diesel combustion process and thereby affects the exhaust emissions. This paper deals with only the reduction of oxygen in the inlet charge to the engine (dilution effect). The oxygen in the inlet charge to a direct injection diesel engine was progressively replaced by inert gases, whilst the engine speed, fuelling rate, injection timing, total mass and the specific heat capacity of the inlet charge were kept constant. The use of inert gases for oxygen replacement, rather than carbon dioxide (CO2) or water vapour normally found in EGR, ensured that the effects on combustion of dissociation of these species were excluded. In addition, the effects of oxygen replacement on ignition delay were isolated and quantified.
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