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2-Stroke CAI Combustion Operation in a GDI Engine with Poppet Valves

In order to extend the CAI operation range in 4-stroke mode and maximize the benefit of low fuel consumption and emissions in CAI mode, 2-stroke CAI combustion is revived operating in a GDI engine with poppet valves, where the conventional crankcase scavenging is replaced by boosted scavenging. The CAI combustion is achieved through the inherence of the 2-Stroke operation, which is retaining residual gas. A set of flexible hydraulic valve train was installed on the engine to vary the residual gas fraction under the boosting condition. The effects of spark timing, intake pressure and short-circuiting on 2-stroke CAI combustion and its emissions are investigated and discussed in this paper. Results show the engine could be controlled to achieve CAI operation over a wide range of engine speed and load in the 2-stroke mode because of the flexibility of the electro-hydraulic valvetrain system. Presenter Yan Zhang, Brunel University
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Fuel Stratification in a Twin-Spark Three-Valve SI Engine

In order to take advantage of different properties of fuel components or fractions, a new concept of fuel stratification has been proposed by the authors. This concept requires that two fractions of standard gasoline (e.g., light and heavy fractions) or two different fuels in a specially formulated composite be introduced into the cylinder separately through two separate intake ports. The two fuels will be stratified into two regions in the cylinder by means of strong tumble flows. In order to verify and optimize the fuel stratification, a two-tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique was developed and applied to visualize fuel stratification in a three-valve twin-spark SI engine. This was realized by detecting simultaneously fluorescence emissions from 3-pentanone in one fuel (hexane) and from N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) in the other fuel (iso-octane).
Technical Paper

Effects of Mechanical Turbo Compounding on a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

This paper presents the simulation study on the effects of mechanical turbo-compounding on a turbocharged diesel engine. A downstream power-turbine has been coupled to the exhaust manifold after the main turbocharger, in the aim to recover waste heat energy. The engine in the current study is Scania DC13-06, which 6 cylinders and 13 litre in capacity. The possibilities, effectiveness and working range of the turbo compounded system were analyzed in this study. The system was modeled in AVL BOOST, which is a one dimensional (1D) engine code. The current study found that turbo compounding could possibly recover on average 11.4% more exhaust energy or extra 3.7kW of power. If the system is mechanically coupled to the engine, it could increase the average engine power by up to 1.2% and improve average BSFC by 1.9%.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical and System Dynamics Methods for Modeling Wave Propagation in the Intake Manifold of a Single-Cylinder Engine

The automotive industry is striving to adopt model-based engine design and optimization procedures to reduce development time and costs. In this scenario, first-principles gas dynamic models predicting the mass, energy and momentum transport in the engine air path system with high accuracy and low computation effort are extremely important today for performance prediction, optimization and cylinder charge estimation and control. This paper presents a comparative study of two different modeling approaches to predict the one-dimensional unsteady compressible flow in the engine air path system. The first approach is based on a quasi-3D finite volume method, which relies on a geometrical reconstruction of the calculation domain using networks of zero-dimensional elements. The second approach is based on a model-order reduction procedure that projects the nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the 1D unsteady flow in engine manifolds onto a predefined basis.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Gas Exchange and Fuel-Air Mixing Processes in a Direct-Injection, Gas Fueled Engine

Direct-injection technology represents today a very interesting solution to the typical problems that are generally encountered in SI, gas-fueled engines such as reduced volumetric efficiency, backfire and knock. However, development of suitable injection systems and combustion chamber geometry is necessary to optimize the fuel-air mixing and combustion processes. To this end, CFD models are widely applied even if the influence of the mesh structure, numerical and turbulence models on the computed results are still matter of investigation. In this work, a numerical methodology for the simulation of the gas exchange and injection processes in gas-fueled engines was developed within the Lib-ICE framework, which is a set of libraries and applications for IC engine modeling developed using the OpenFOAM® technology. The gas exchange and fuel injection processes were simulated into a four-valve, pent-roof hydrogen-fueled engine with optical access.
Technical Paper

Development of Fully-Automatic Parallel Algorithms for Mesh Handling in the OpenFOAM®-2.2.x Technology

The current development to set up an automatic procedure for automatic mesh generation and automatic mesh motion for internal combustion engine simulation in OpenFOAM®-2.2.x is here described. In order to automatically generate high-quality meshes of cylinder geometries, some technical issues need to be addressed: 1) automatic mesh generation should be able to control anisotropy and directionality of the grid; 2) during piston and valve motion, cells and faces must be introduced and removed without varying the overall area and volume of the cells, to avoid conservation errors. In particular, interpolation between discrete fields is frequent in computational physics: the use of adaptive and non-conformal meshes necessitates the interpolation of fields between different mesh regions. Interpolation problems also arise in areas such as model coupling, model initialization and visualisation.
Technical Paper

Direct Evaluation of Turbine Isentropic Efficiency in Turbochargers: CFD Assisted Design of an Innovative Measuring Technique

Turbocharging is playing today a fundamental role not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for both Spark Ignition and Diesel engines. Dedicated experimental investigations on turbochargers are therefore necessary to assess a better understanding of its performance. The availability of experimental information on turbocharger steady flow performance is an essential requirement to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, which is usually achieved by means of simulation models. This aspect is even more important when referred to the turbine efficiency, since its swallowing capacity can be accurately evaluated through the measurement of mass flow rate, inlet temperature and pressure ratio across the machine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Comparison between Stratified Flame Ignition and Micro Flame Ignition in a Gasoline SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Engine

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), has been the subject of extensive research because of their ability to providing simultaneous reduction in fuel consumption and NOx emissions in a gasoline engine. However, due to its limited operation range, combustion mode switching between CAI and spark ignition (SI) combustion is essential to cover the overall operational range of a gasoline engine for passenger car applications. Previous research has shown that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion has the potential to control the ignition timing and heat release process during both steady state and transient operations. However, it was found that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is often characterized with large cycle-to-cycle variations, due to the flame instability at high dilution conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of PPCI Combustion at Low and High Charge Stratification Levels

Partially premixed compression ignition combustion is one of the low temperature combustion techniques which is being actively investigated. This approach provides a significant reduction of both soot and NOx emissions. Comparing to the homogeneous charge compression ignition mode, PPCI combustion provides better control on ignition timing and noise reduction through air-fuel mixture stratification which lowers heat release rate compared to other advanced combustion modes. In this work, CFD simulations were conducted for a low and a high air-fuel mixture stratification cases on a light-duty optical engine operating in PPCI mode. Such conditions for PRF70 as fuel were experimentally achieved by injection timing and spray targeting at similar thermodynamic conditions.
Technical Paper

Study of Flame Speed and Knocking Combustion of Gasoline, Ethanol and Hydrous Ethanol (10% Water) at Different Air/Fuel Ratios with Port-Fuel Injection

In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate characteristics of flame propagation and knocking combustion of hydrous (10% water content) and anhydrous ethanol at different air/fuel ratios in comparison to RON95 gasoline. Experiments were conducted in a full bore overhead optical access single cylinder port-fuel injection spark-ignition engine. High speed images of total chemiluminescence and OH* emission was recorded together with the in-cylinder pressure, from which the heat release data were derived. The results show that under the stoichiometric condition anhydrous ethanol and wet ethanol with 10% water (E90W10) generated higher IMEP with at an ignition timing slightly retarded from MBT than the gasoline fuel for a fixed throttle position. Under rich and stoichiometric conditions, the knock limited spark timing occurred at 35 CA BTDC whereas both ethanol and E90W10 were free from knocking combustion at the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

Analyzing the Limitations of the Rider and Electric Motorcycle at the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb Race

This paper describes a post-race analysis of team KOMMIT EVT’s electric motorcycle data collected during the 2016 Pikes Peak International Hill Climb (PPIHC). The motorcycle consumed approximately 4 kWh of battery energy with an average and maximum speed of 107 km/h and 149 km/h, respectively. It was the second fastest electric motorcycle with a finishing time of 11:10.480. Data was logged of the motorcycle’s speed, acceleration, motor speed, power, currents, voltages, temperatures, throttle position, GPS position, rider’s heart rate and the ambient environment (air temperature, pressure and humidity). The data was used to understand the following factors that may have prevented a faster time: physical fitness of the rider, thermal limits of the motor and controller, available battery energy and the sprocket ratio between the motor and rear wheel.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modelling Study of Octane Number and Sensitivity of Hydrocarbon Mixtures in CFR Engines

Aim of this work is to present and discuss the possibility and the limits of two zone models for spark-ignition engines using a detailed kinetic scheme for the characterization of the evolution of the air-fuel mixture, while an equilibrium approach is used for the burnt zone. Simple experimental measurements of knocking tendency of different fuels in ideal reactors, such as rapid compression machines and shock tube reactors, cannot be directly used for the analysis of octane numbers and sensitivity of hydrocarbon mixtures. Thus a careful investigation is very useful, not only of the combustion chamber behavior, including the modelling of the turbulent flame front propagation, but also of the fluid dynamic behavior of the intake and exhaust system, accounting for the volumetric efficiency of the engine.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study on CAI Combustion in a GDI Engine with an Air-Assisted Injector

Controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion and engine performance and emission characteristics have been intensively investigated in a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was obtained by residual gas trapping. This was achieved by using low-lift short-duration cams and early closing the exhaust valves. Effects of EVC (exhaust valve closure) and IVO (intake valve opening) timings, spark timing, injection timing, coolant temperature, compression ratio, valve lift and duration, on CAI combustion and emissions were investigated experimentally. The results show that the EVC timing, injection timing, compression ratio, valve lift and duration had significant influences on CAI combustion and emissions. Early EVC and injection timing, higher compression ratio and higher valve lift could enhance CAI combustion. IVO timing had minor effect on CAI combustion.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion in a GDI Engine with Single and Split Fuel Injections

A multi-cycle three-dimensional CFD engine simulation programme has been developed and applied to analyze the Controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion, also known as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), in a direct injection gasoline engine. CAI operation was achieved through the negative valve overlap method by means of a set of low lift camshafts. The effect of single injection timing on combustion phasing and underlying physical and chemical processes involved was examined through a series of analytical studies using the multi-cycle 3D engine simulation programme. The analyses showed that early injection into the trapped burned gases of a lean-burn mixture during the negative valve overlap period had a large effect on combustion phasing, due to localized heat release and the production of chemically reactive species. As the injection was retarded to the intake stroke, the charge cooling effect tended to slow down the autoignition process.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Mixture and CAI Combustion in a GDI Engine with an Air-Assisted Injector

The application of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is becoming of more interest due to its great potential of reducing both NOx emissions and fuel consumption. Injection timing has been known as an important parameter to control CAI combustion process. In this paper, the effect of injection timing on mixture and CAI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder GDI engine with an air-assisted injector. The liquid and vapour phases of fuel spray were measured using planar laser induced exciplex fluorescence (PLIEF) technique. The result shows that early injection led to homogeneous mixture but late injection resulted in serious stratification at the end of compression. CAI combustion in this study was realized by using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During tests, the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2400rpm and A/F ratio from stoichiometric to lean limit.
Technical Paper

CAI Combustion with Methanol and Ethanol in an Air-Assisted Direct Injection SI Engine

CAI combustion has the potential to be the most clean combustion technology in internal combustion engines and is being intensively researched. Following the previous research on CAI combustion of gasoline fuel, systematic investigation is being carried out on the application of bio-fuels in CAI combustion. As part of an on-going research project, CAI combustion of methanol and ethanol was studied on a single-cylinder direct gasoline engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was achieved by trapping part of burnt gas within the cylinder through using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During the experiment the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2100rpm and the air/fuel ratio was altered from the stoichiometry to the misfire limit. Their combustion characteristics were obtained by analysing cylinder pressure trace.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray-Wall Interaction on Air Entrainment in a Transient Diesel Spray

The influence of spray-wall interaction on air entrainment in an unsteady non-evaporating diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry. The spray was injected into confined quiescent air at ambient pressure and temperature and made to impact on a flat wall. The air velocity component normal to a cylindrical surface surrounding the spray was measured during the entire injection period, allowing to evaluate the time history of the entrained air mass flow rate. The influence of wall distance and spray impingement angle on air entrainment characteristics has been investigated and the results indicate that the presence of a wall increases the entrained mass flow rate in the region close to the surface, during the main injection period. Normal impingement appears to produce stronger effects than oblique incidence at 30 and 45 deg. A qualitative explanation of the results is also proposed, based on the drop-gas momentum exchange mechanism.
Technical Paper

Variable Geometry Turbocharger Active Control Strategies for Enhanced Energy Recovery

This paper describes the development of the control system for a new type of mechanical turbocharger, the Active Control Turbocharger (ACT). The main difference of ACT compared to its predecessor, the Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT), lies in the inlet area modulation capability which follows an oscillating (sinusoidal) profile in order to match as much as possible the similar profile of the emitted exhaust gases entering the turbine in order to capturing the highly dynamic, energy content existent in exhaust pulses. This paper describes the development of a new controller in an adaptive framework in order to improve the response of the ACT. The system has been modelled using a one-dimensional Ricardo WAVE engine simulation software and the control system which actuates the nozzle (rack) position is modelled in Matlab-Simulink and uses a map-based structure coupled with a PID controller with constant parameters.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing and Valve Timings on CAI Operation in a Multi-Cylinder DI Gasoline Engine

CAI-combustion was achieved in a 4-cylinder four-stroke gasoline DI engine, with all cylinders running in CAI-mode. Standard components were used, with the exception of the camshafts which had been modified in order to restrict the gas exchange process. Results shown in the paper are between a load of 1.45 - 2.65 bar, an engine speed of 1500rpm and at a lambda value of 1.2. As is typical with this type of combustion, reductions in emissions of NOx were recorded as well as a slight decrease in HC emissions, also there was a reduction in the brake specific fuel consumption. The effect that injection timing on factors such as start of combustion, combustion duration and heat release rate are also investigated.
Technical Paper

The Effects on Diesel Combustion and Emissions of Reducing Inlet Charge Mass Due to Thermal Throttling with Hot EGR

This paper is a complementary to previous investigations by the authors (1,2,3,4) on the different effects of EGR on combustion and emissions in DI diesel engine. In addition to the several effects that cold EGR has on combustion and emissions the application of hot EGR results in increasing the inlet charge temperature, thereby, for naturally aspirated engines, lowering the inlet charge mass due to thermal throttling. An associated consequence of thermal throttling is the reduction in the amount of oxygen in the inlet charge. Uncooled EGR, therefore, affects combustion and emissions in two ways: through the reduction in the inlet charge mass and through the increase in inlet charge temperature. The effect on combustion and emissions of increasing the inlet charge temperature (without reducing the inlet charge mass) has been dealt with in ref. (1).