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Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Engine Calibration Techniques to Reduce Off-Cycle Emissions

Engine calibrations are inexpensive methods for reducing exhaust emissions since only software modifications are required. The California Air Resources Board staff conducted a test program to investigate the effectiveness of engine calibration techniques to reduce the newly regulated aggressive driving exhaust emissions or “off-cycle” emissions. Consisting of stoichiometric and rich “bias” calibration, these engine calibration techniques were applied to fourteen late-model vehicles. The engine calibration techniques reduced the off-cycle emissions substantially on most vehicles. To comply with the proposed off-cycle standards for California low-emission vehicles and ultra-low-emission vehicles, these techniques will be a cost-effective method to reduce off-cycle emissions.
Technical Paper

California's Revised Heavy-Duty Vehicle Smoke and Tampering Inspection Program

Heavy-duty vehicles account for approximately 30 percent of the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 65 percent of the particulate matter (PM) emissions from the entire California on-road fleet, despite the fact that these vehicles comprise only 2 percent of the same. To meet legislative mandates to reduce excess smoke emissions from in-use heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles, the Air Resources Board (ARB or Board) adopted, in December 1997, amendments to the regulations governing the operation and enforcement of the Heavy-Duty Vehicle Inspection Program (HDVIP or the “roadside” program) and the Periodic Smoke Inspection Program (PSIP or the “fleet” program). The initial roadside program was adopted in November 1990 in response to Senate Bill (SB) 1997 (stat. 1988, ch. 1544, Presley), and enforced from 1991 to 1993. It was suspended in October 1993, when the Board redirected staff to investigate reformulated fuels issues.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Exhaust Emissions from California Phase 1 (without oxygenates) and Phase 2 (with oxygenates) Fuel:A Case Study of 11 Passenger Vehicles

While most studies addressing the fuel effects are based on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), there are limited studies investigating the fuel effects outside FTP test conditions. In this study, we investigated the differences in exhaust emissions from California Phase 1 to Phase 2 reformulated gasoline over a wide range of speed and ambient temperatures. Eleven catalyst equipped passenger vehicles were tested. The vehicles were comprised of three fuel delivery system configurations, namely, three from carburetor (CARBU), three from throttle body injection (TBI), and five from multi-port fuel injection (MPFI) group. Each vehicle was given 60 tests with the combination of two reformulated fuels: Phase 1 (without oxygenates) and Phase 2 (with oxygenates), three temperatures (50, 75, and 100 °F), and ten speed cycles (average speed ranges from 4 mph to 65 mph).
Technical Paper

Formaldehyde Emission Control Technology for Methanol-Fueled Vehicles: Catalyst Selection

The use of methanol as a “clean fuel” appears to be a viable approach to reduce air pollution. However, concern has been expressed about potentially high formaldehyde emissions from stoichiometrically operated light-duty vehicles. This paper presents results from an emission test program conducted for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) to identify and evaluate advanced catalyst technology to reduce formaldehyde emissions without compromising regulated emission control. An earlier paper presented the results of evaluating eighteen different catalyst systems on a hybrid methanol-fueled test vehicle. (1)* This paper discusses the optimization of three of these catalyst systems on four current technology methanol-fueled vehicles. Emission measurements were conducted for formaldehyde, nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), methanol, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen emissions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Gasoline Aromatics Content on Exhaust Emissions: A Cooperative Test Program

A cooperative vehicle exhaust emissions test program was conducted by the California Air Resources Board and Chevron Research and Technology Company. The focus of the program was to determine the effect of aromatics content on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The program consisted of testing nine vehicles on three different fuels. The fuels ranged in aromatics content from 10% to 30%.* Other fuel properties were held as constant as possible. The tests were conducted in two different laboratories. In addition to the measurement of criteria emissions (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and NOx), some of the hydrocarbon emissions were speciated and a reactivity of the exhaust was calculated. Only slight changes in the exhaust emissions and reactivity were observed for a change in aromatics content from 30% to 10%.
Technical Paper

Trends in Emissions Control Technologies for 1983-1987 Model-Year California-Certified Light-Duty Vehicles

An analysis of data provided by-vehicle manufacturers during the California emissions certification process has been performed for 1983-1987 model-year light-duty vehicles. The major change in emission control system design was a decrease in the use of secondary air injection which was used on 75% of 1983 vehicles, but only 50% of 1986 and 1987 vehicles. Exhaust gas recirculation was used on 90% of vehicles from 1983-1987. The sales-weighted certification emission levels of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles were 0.23 g/mile HC, 3.1 g/mile CO, and 0.5 g/mile NOx in 1983. Levels of HC and CO were approximately constant at 0.20 g/mile and 2.7 g/mile, respectively, from 1984-1987 with NOx levels decreasing to 0.4 g/mile for 1987.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from a Vehicle Fueled with Methanol-Containing Additives for Flame Luminosity

Two additive blends proposed for improving the flame luminosity in neat methanol fuel were investigated to determine the effect of these additives on the exhaust emissions in a dual-fueled Volkswagen Jetta. The two blends contained 4 percent toluene plus 2 percent indan in methanol and 5 percent cyclopentene plus 5 percent indan in methanol. Each blend was tested for regulated and unregulated emissions as well as a speciation of the exhaust hydrocarbons resulting from use of each fuel. The vehicle exhaust emissions from these two fuel blends were compared to the Coordinating Research Council Auto-Oil national average gasoline (RF-A), M100, and M85 blended from RF-A. Carter Maximum Incremental Reactivity Factors were applied to the speciated hydrocarbon emission results to determine the potential ozone formation for each fuel. Toxic emissions as defined in the 1990 Clean Air Act were also compared for each fuel.
Technical Paper

California's Heavy-Duty Vehicle Smoke and Tampering Inspection Program

Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles are a major contributor to California's air quality problems. Emissions from these vehicles account for approximately 30% of the nitrogen oxide and 75% of the particulate matter emissions from the entire on-road vehicle fleet. Additionally, excessive exhaust smoke from in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles is a target of numerous public complaints. In response to these concerns, California has adopted an in-use Heavy-Duty Vehicle Smoke and Tampering Inspection Program (HDVIP) designed to significantly reduce emissions from these vehicles. Pending promulgation of HDVIP regulations, vehicles falling prescribed test procedures and emission standards will be issued citations. These citations mandate expedient repair of the vehicle and carry civil penalties ranging from $300 to $1800. Failure to clear citations can result in the vehicle being removed from service.
Technical Paper

Field Test of an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System for the Control of Automotive Oxides of Nitrogen

The California Air Resources Board conducted an extensive field test program to evaluate a vehicle exhaust recirculation system for control of oxides of nitrogen. The system utilized hot exhaust gases from the crossover and included certain modifications to the carburetion, choke, and crank case ventilation system. It was tested on two fleets of automobiles equipped wtih California approved HC and CO emission control devices. The test program involved periodic measurements of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. The effect of the system on vehicle drivability, engine deposits, wear, and oil deterioration was also studied. The Atlantic Richfield Company, under contract to the Air Resources Board, equipped the vehicles with the recirculation system and performed the final engine inspection.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance-The California Program

Current California law requires the implementation of a mandatory annual vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance program in the South Coast Air Basin by 1978. The pilot phase of this inspection program is now in operation in the City of Riverside. This paper evaluates the Riverside program and an alternate program for their abilities to detect gross emitters and provide cost/effective emissions reductions. A surveillance program was conducted to evaluate the Riverside loaded-mode inspection regime and an alternate idle inspection regime. Emissions and fuel economy tests indicated that there was no significant difference between the two regimes. Each regime resulted in immediate reductions on repaired vehicles of 35-40% in hydrocarbon emissions and 30-35% in carbon monoxide emissions, with no significant change in oxides of nitrogen emissions. There was a small (1-4%) improvement in fuel economy, and the average repair cost was $20-25.
Technical Paper

The California Vehicle Emission Control Program — Past, Present and Future

Programs to control motor vehicle emissions originated in California as a result of Professor A.J. Haagen-Smit of the California Institute of Technology discovering that two invisible automobile emissions, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen, react together in the presence of sunlight to form oxidants such as ozone, a principal ingredient of the infamous Los Angeles area “smog”. The State of California became the first government to regulate the emissions of new automobiles when it adopted requirements for the use of positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) valves beginning with the 1963 model year.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Misfueling in California During 1979

A survey of vehicle refueling practices in California during the gasoline shortage of 1979 indicates that the use of leaded gasoline in catalyst equipped vehicles was occurring at a rate of about 1.6%. This 1.6% “misfueling” rate is lower than has been predicted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and is almost exclusively the result of the refueling that occurs at self-service gasoline pumps. About three-quarters of the misfueled vehicles were apparently operated on leaded gasoline routinely. Based on the effect that leaded fuel has on the exhaust emission characteristics of catalyst equipped vehicles it is estimated that misfueling in California is increasing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions by about 4% and 1.6%, respectively from late model passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Gasohol: Technical, Economic, or Political Panacea?

Gasohol, a blend of 90 percent unleaded gasoline and 10 percent ethanol, has been represented as an alternative to pure gasoline which can reduce the nation’s crude oil dependence. However, a systems analysis of the gasohol production processes indicates that gasohol is increasing rather than decreasing the nation’s dependence on crude oil. Alternative uses of the petroleum and natural gas currently used to manufacture ethanol would reduce the nation’s demand for oil. At the present time, every gallon of crude oil “saved” by substituting ethanol for gasoline results in a need to import approximately two gallons of crude oil. The federal government’s claim that gasohol can reduce the nation’s dependence on imported energy appears, to be based principally on political considerations, but also on the assumption that coal will eventually replace the petroleum and natural gas currently used in the gasohol production wherever possible.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Misfueling in California

There have been a half dozen surveys performed by the California Air Resources Board in California from December, 1977 to July, 1982 to determine the rate of vehicle misfueling in California. There has been great concern raised over misfueling which leads to the poisoning of catalysts and the subsequent increases in emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen. The results of observing refueling at service stations indicate a misfueling rate of about 2% which is much lower than what the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency figures indicate. Misfueling at self-serve stations is more than twice that noted at full-serve stations. The primary reasons given by motorists for misfueling are cheaper price of unleaded gasoline, performance (including pinging) and unavailability of unleaded fuel. Misfueling was accomplished primarily as a result of a modified restrictor or filler neck.
Technical Paper

Particulate Mass and Number Emissions from Light-duty Low Emission Gasoline Vehicles

Particulate matter (PM) emitted from light-duty gasoline powered vehicles is under increasing scrutiny due to potential adverse health effects and on ever increasing number of vehicles in the fleet. In this program, a group of California ULEV II and SULEV II certified light-duty gasoline vehicles were tested for PM mass and number emissions and compared with older model LEV I certified gasoline vehicles under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) test cycle. PM mass and number emissions were collected from a Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) full dilution system. PM mass samples were collected with the gravimetric method. Filter conditioning and weighing procedures are in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1065. Total particles (solid and volatile) were measured using multiple fast response particle counting instruments including a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and two Condensation Particle Counters (CPC).
Technical Paper

On-road and In-Laboratory Testing to Demonstrate Effects of ULSD, B20 and B99 on a Retrofit Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

In order to demonstrate the performance of a retrofitted selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system while also addressing the issues associated with greater use of biodiesel, a 2005 International 9200i tractor owned by the City of Santa Monica was retrofitted with a titania-vanadia-tungsten catalyst and a urea dosing system supplied by Extengine Systems, Inc. This tractor was operated under normal service conditions within the City of Santa Monica refuse collection and transportation fleet. An on-board emissions measurement system supplied by Engine, Fuel, and Emissions Engineering, Inc. was installed on the vehicle; it measured the emissions and fuel use of the vehicle while it operated on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), 20% biodiesel (B20), and 99% biodiesel (B99) on consecutive days.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel and Emissions Control Devices

A novel in situ method was performed for measuring emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. The test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. The exhaust configurations were a stock original equipment manufacturer (OEM) muffler and a Thermo King pDPF™ diesel particulate filter. The two TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, as controlled by the TRU user interface. Test results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine operating speeds. Separately, the application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, in some cases almost entirely. Finally, the application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine operating speed, but with an increase in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at low engine speed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Gravimetric Method to Measure Light-Duty Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions at Levels below One Milligram per Mile (1 mg/mile)

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) III regulations in January 2012, which lowered the particulate matter (PM) emissions standards for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) from 10 milligrams per mile (10 mg/mile) to 3 mg/mile beginning with model year (MY) 2017 and 1 mg/mile beginning with MY 2025. To confirm the ability to measure PM emissions below 1 mg/mile, a total of 23 LDVs (MY pre-2004 to 2009) were tested at CARB's Haagen-Smit Laboratory (HSL) (10 LDVs) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVEFL) (13 LDVs) using the federal test procedure (FTP) drive schedule. One LDV with PM emissions ranging from 0.6 - 0.8 mg/mile was tested at three CARB HSL test cells to investigate intra-lab and inter-lab variability. Reference, trip, and tunnel filter blanks were collected as part of routine quality control (QC) procedures.
Technical Paper

Determination of Suspended Exhaust PM Mass for Light-Duty Vehicles

This study provides one of the first evaluations of the integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method in comparison with the current gravimetric method for measuring particulate matter (PM) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The IPSD method combines particle size distributions with size dependent particle effective density to determine mass concentrations of suspended particles. The method allows for simultaneous determination of particle mass, particle surface area, and particle number concentrations. It will provide a greater understanding of PM mass emissions at low levels, and therefore has the potential to complement the current gravimetric method at low PM emission levels. Six vehicles, including three gasoline direct injected (GDI) vehicles, two port fuel injected (PFI) vehicles, and one diesel vehicle, were tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a light-duty chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Testing of a Continuous Emissions Monitor for Trace Level Sulfur Dioxide

The measurement of SO2 levels in vehicle exhaust can provide important information in understanding the relative contribution of sulfur and sulfate from fuel vs. oil source to PM. For this study, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) that can measure SO2 down to 20 ppbV in real-time was built and evaluated. The DOAS consisted of an extractive sampling train, a cylindrical sampling cell with a single-path design to minimize cell volume, a spectrometer, and a deuterium lamp light source with a UVC range of ∼200-230 nanometer (nm). Laboratory tests showed detection limits were approximately in the range of 12 to 15 ppbV and showed good linearity over SO2 concentration ranges of 20 to 953 ppbV. Interference tests showed some interference by NO and by NH3, at levels of 300 ppmV and 16.6 ppmV, respectively.