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Technical Paper

Investigation of Ultrafine Particle Number Measurements from a Clean Diesel Truck Using the European PMP Protocol

The sampling protocol proposed by the international PMP program for determination of particle emissions from clean light-duty vehicles was applied to the emissions from a California heavy-duty trap-equipped diesel truck. CARB is interested in developing opinions about the potential of this new European approach for emission determination and in exploring its utility for use in California. In this exercise, the use of various commercially available instruments for counting and sizing particles in the context of the PMP recommendations are explored. A single vehicle on a chassis dynamometer was exercised over steady-state and transient cycles. Multiple measurements of gaseous, mass, and particle emissions were collected in order to determine statistical significance. The PMP approach yielded particle emission measurements with higher precision and accuracy than the reference mass-based emission measurement.
Technical Paper

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of MY 2010 Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Measured Over a Cross-Continental Trip of USA

The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.
Journal Article

Achieving an 80% GHG Reduction by 2050 in California's Passenger Vehicle Fleet: Implications for the ZEV Regulation

In recognizing the potential for large, damaging impacts from climate change, California enacted Executive Order S-03-05, requiring a reduction in statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Given that the transportation light-duty vehicle (LDV) segment accounts for 28% of the state's GHG emissions today, it will be difficult to meet the 2050 goal unless a portfolio of near-zero carbon transportation solutions is pursued. Because it takes decades for a new propulsion system to capture a large fraction of the passenger vehicle market due to vehicle fleet turn-over rates, it is important to accelerate the introduction of these alternatives to ensure markets enter into early commercial volumes (10,000s) between 2015 and 2020. This report summarizes the results and conclusions of a modeling exercise that simulated GHG emissions from the LDV sector to 2050 in California.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Emissions Results-CleanFleet Alternative Fuels Project

Vehicle exhaust emissions measurements are reported for full-size panel vans operating on four alternative motor fuels and control gasoline. The emissions tests produced data on in-use vans. The vans were taken directly from commercial delivery service for testing as they accumulated mileage over a 24-month period. The alternative fuels tested were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG). The control gasoline for the emissions tests was an industry average unleaded blend (RF-A). The vehicle technologies tested represent those options available in 1992 that were commercially available from Ford, Chrysler, and Chevrolet or which these manufacturers agreed to provide as test vans for daily use in commercial service by FedEx.
Technical Paper

Field Test of an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System for the Control of Automotive Oxides of Nitrogen

The California Air Resources Board conducted an extensive field test program to evaluate a vehicle exhaust recirculation system for control of oxides of nitrogen. The system utilized hot exhaust gases from the crossover and included certain modifications to the carburetion, choke, and crank case ventilation system. It was tested on two fleets of automobiles equipped wtih California approved HC and CO emission control devices. The test program involved periodic measurements of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. The effect of the system on vehicle drivability, engine deposits, wear, and oil deterioration was also studied. The Atlantic Richfield Company, under contract to the Air Resources Board, equipped the vehicles with the recirculation system and performed the final engine inspection.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Testing of a Continuous Emissions Monitor for Trace Level Sulfur Dioxide

The measurement of SO2 levels in vehicle exhaust can provide important information in understanding the relative contribution of sulfur and sulfate from fuel vs. oil source to PM. For this study, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) that can measure SO2 down to 20 ppbV in real-time was built and evaluated. The DOAS consisted of an extractive sampling train, a cylindrical sampling cell with a single-path design to minimize cell volume, a spectrometer, and a deuterium lamp light source with a UVC range of ∼200-230 nanometer (nm). Laboratory tests showed detection limits were approximately in the range of 12 to 15 ppbV and showed good linearity over SO2 concentration ranges of 20 to 953 ppbV. Interference tests showed some interference by NO and by NH3, at levels of 300 ppmV and 16.6 ppmV, respectively.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Misfueling in California

There have been a half dozen surveys performed by the California Air Resources Board in California from December, 1977 to July, 1982 to determine the rate of vehicle misfueling in California. There has been great concern raised over misfueling which leads to the poisoning of catalysts and the subsequent increases in emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen. The results of observing refueling at service stations indicate a misfueling rate of about 2% which is much lower than what the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency figures indicate. Misfueling at self-serve stations is more than twice that noted at full-serve stations. The primary reasons given by motorists for misfueling are cheaper price of unleaded gasoline, performance (including pinging) and unavailability of unleaded fuel. Misfueling was accomplished primarily as a result of a modified restrictor or filler neck.
Technical Paper

Formaldehyde Emission Control Technology for Methanol-Fueled Vehicles: Catalyst Selection

The use of methanol as a “clean fuel” appears to be a viable approach to reduce air pollution. However, concern has been expressed about potentially high formaldehyde emissions from stoichiometrically operated light-duty vehicles. This paper presents results from an emission test program conducted for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) to identify and evaluate advanced catalyst technology to reduce formaldehyde emissions without compromising regulated emission control. An earlier paper presented the results of evaluating eighteen different catalyst systems on a hybrid methanol-fueled test vehicle. (1)* This paper discusses the optimization of three of these catalyst systems on four current technology methanol-fueled vehicles. Emission measurements were conducted for formaldehyde, nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), methanol, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen emissions.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from a Vehicle Fueled with Methanol-Containing Additives for Flame Luminosity

Two additive blends proposed for improving the flame luminosity in neat methanol fuel were investigated to determine the effect of these additives on the exhaust emissions in a dual-fueled Volkswagen Jetta. The two blends contained 4 percent toluene plus 2 percent indan in methanol and 5 percent cyclopentene plus 5 percent indan in methanol. Each blend was tested for regulated and unregulated emissions as well as a speciation of the exhaust hydrocarbons resulting from use of each fuel. The vehicle exhaust emissions from these two fuel blends were compared to the Coordinating Research Council Auto-Oil national average gasoline (RF-A), M100, and M85 blended from RF-A. Carter Maximum Incremental Reactivity Factors were applied to the speciated hydrocarbon emission results to determine the potential ozone formation for each fuel. Toxic emissions as defined in the 1990 Clean Air Act were also compared for each fuel.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Evaluation of Additives for Flame Luminosity Improvement in Neat Methanol Fuel

Neat methanol fuel (M100) has many advantages for achieving low emission levels as an automotive fuel, but there are several items that require attention before this fuel can replace conventional fuels. One item involves the low flame luminosity of methanol. An extensive literature search and laboratory evaluation were conducted to identify potential additive candidates to improve the luminosity of a methanol flame. Potential compounds were screened based on their concentration, luminosity improvement, and duration of luminosity improvement during the burn. Three compounds were found to increase the flame luminosity for segments of the burn at relatively low concentrations: toluene, cyclopentene, and indan. In combination, these three compounds markedly improved the luminosity of methanol throughout the majority of the burn. The two combinations were 1) 4 percent toluene plus 2 percent indan and 2) 5 percent cyclopentene plus 5 percent indan in methanol.
Technical Paper

Trends in Emissions Control Technologies for 1983-1987 Model-Year California-Certified Light-Duty Vehicles

An analysis of data provided by-vehicle manufacturers during the California emissions certification process has been performed for 1983-1987 model-year light-duty vehicles. The major change in emission control system design was a decrease in the use of secondary air injection which was used on 75% of 1983 vehicles, but only 50% of 1986 and 1987 vehicles. Exhaust gas recirculation was used on 90% of vehicles from 1983-1987. The sales-weighted certification emission levels of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles were 0.23 g/mile HC, 3.1 g/mile CO, and 0.5 g/mile NOx in 1983. Levels of HC and CO were approximately constant at 0.20 g/mile and 2.7 g/mile, respectively, from 1984-1987 with NOx levels decreasing to 0.4 g/mile for 1987.
Technical Paper

Speciation of Organic Compounds from the Exhaust of Trucks and Buses: Effect of Fuel and After-Treatment on Vehicle Emission Profiles

A study was performed in the spring of 2001 to chemically characterize exhaust emissions from trucks and buses fueled by various test fuels and operated with and without diesel particle filters. This study was part of a multi-year technology validation program designed to evaluate the emissions impact of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different heavy-duty vehicle fleets operating in Southern California. The overall study of exhaust chemical composition included organic compounds, inorganic ions, individual elements, and particulate matter in various size-cuts. Detailed descriptions of the overall technology validation program and chemical speciation methodology have been provided in previous SAE publications (2002-01-0432 and 2002-01-0433).
Technical Paper

Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance-The California Program

Current California law requires the implementation of a mandatory annual vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance program in the South Coast Air Basin by 1978. The pilot phase of this inspection program is now in operation in the City of Riverside. This paper evaluates the Riverside program and an alternate program for their abilities to detect gross emitters and provide cost/effective emissions reductions. A surveillance program was conducted to evaluate the Riverside loaded-mode inspection regime and an alternate idle inspection regime. Emissions and fuel economy tests indicated that there was no significant difference between the two regimes. Each regime resulted in immediate reductions on repaired vehicles of 35-40% in hydrocarbon emissions and 30-35% in carbon monoxide emissions, with no significant change in oxides of nitrogen emissions. There was a small (1-4%) improvement in fuel economy, and the average repair cost was $20-25.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of an Enhanced Constant Volume Sampling System and a Bag Mini Diluter for Near Zero Exhaust Emission Testing

As automotive exhaust emission standards have become more stringent and emission control technologies have advanced over the years, accurately measuring the resulting near zero emissions has become increasingly difficult. To improve measurement accuracy, enhancements have been made to the conventional Constant Volume Sampling system (CVS) and to the analytical instrumentation This study included the evaluation of a CVS enhancement. Specifically, a prototype air filter was utilized to enhance the performance of a CVS by reducing non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from dilution air at ambient temperature. Also incorporated into this study was the assessment of a Bag Mini-Dilute (BMD), a relatively new sampling system developed for measuring low-level vehicle emissions. The BMD can be used as an alternative to the CVS and has been approved for emission measurement by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (ARB.)
Technical Paper

Regulated Emissions from Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Operating in the South Coast Air Basin

Heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) emissions are known to affect air quality, but few studies have quantified the real-world contribution to the inventory. The objective of this study was to provide data that may enable ambient emissions investigators to m,odel the air quality more accurately. The 25 vehicles reported in this paper are from the first phase of a program to determine representative regulated emissions from Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks (HHDDT) operating in Southern California. Emissions data were gathered using a chassis dynamometer, full flow dilution tunnel, and research grade analyzers. The subject program employed two truck test weights and four new test modes (one was idle operation), in addition to the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and the AC50/80 cycle. The reason for such a broad test cycle scope was to determine thoroughly how HHDDT emissions are influenced by operating cycle to improve accuracy of models.
Technical Paper

Detection of Gasoline Vehicles with Gross PM Emissions

Light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV) are estimated to contribute 40% of the total on-road mobile source tailpipe emissions of particulate matter (PM) in California. While considerable efforts have been made to reduce toxic diesel PM emissions going into the future, less emphasis has been placed on PM from LDGVs. The goals of this work were to characterize a small fleet of visibly smoking and high PM emitting LDGVs, to explore the potential PM-reduction benefits of Smog Check and of repairs, and to examine remote sensing devices (RSD) as a potential method for identifying high PM emitters in the in-use fleet. For this study, we recruited a fleet of eight vehicles covering a spectrum of PM emission levels. PM and criteria pollutant emissions were quantified on a dynamometer and CVS dilution tunnel system over the Unified Cycle using standard methods and real time PM instruments.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Gasoline Aromatics Content on Exhaust Emissions: A Cooperative Test Program

A cooperative vehicle exhaust emissions test program was conducted by the California Air Resources Board and Chevron Research and Technology Company. The focus of the program was to determine the effect of aromatics content on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The program consisted of testing nine vehicles on three different fuels. The fuels ranged in aromatics content from 10% to 30%.* Other fuel properties were held as constant as possible. The tests were conducted in two different laboratories. In addition to the measurement of criteria emissions (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and NOx), some of the hydrocarbon emissions were speciated and a reactivity of the exhaust was calculated. Only slight changes in the exhaust emissions and reactivity were observed for a change in aromatics content from 30% to 10%.
Technical Paper

Transient Ultrafine Particle Emission Measurements with a New Fast Particle Aerosol Sizer for a Trap Equipped Diesel Truck

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has tested the utility of the Model 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS™) by TSI in measuring pre- and post-trap particulate matter (PM) emissions from a medium-duty truck. Pre- and post-trap measurements are used to evaluate the effect of engine operation on PM emissions and trap effectiveness. Because of mounting evidence that ultrafine (UF) particles are harmful, regulatory agencies are investigating new and promising instrumentation for improved characterization of such particles in emissions. This is especially true for fast-response instruments that can be used to size-resolve real-time UF emissions from prominent sources such as diesel engines. The EEPS uses diffusion charging, electrical mobility segregation, and electrometers. It is designed for the number measurement of transient aerosols in the size range of 5.6 to 560 nm. It collects 10 measurements per second at a flow rate of 10 lpm.
Technical Paper

Particulate Mass and Number Emissions from Light-duty Low Emission Gasoline Vehicles

Particulate matter (PM) emitted from light-duty gasoline powered vehicles is under increasing scrutiny due to potential adverse health effects and on ever increasing number of vehicles in the fleet. In this program, a group of California ULEV II and SULEV II certified light-duty gasoline vehicles were tested for PM mass and number emissions and compared with older model LEV I certified gasoline vehicles under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) test cycle. PM mass and number emissions were collected from a Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) full dilution system. PM mass samples were collected with the gravimetric method. Filter conditioning and weighing procedures are in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1065. Total particles (solid and volatile) were measured using multiple fast response particle counting instruments including a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and two Condensation Particle Counters (CPC).