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Technical Paper

Portable Emissions Measurement for Retrofit Applications – The Beijing Bus Retrofit Experience

2008-06-23
2008-01-1825
In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) embarked on a mission to help the city of Beijing, China, clean its air. Working with the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau (BEPB), the effort was a pilot diesel retrofit demonstration program involving three basic retrofit technologies to reduce particulate matter (PM). The three basic technologies were the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), the flowthrough diesel particulate filter (FT-DPF), and the wallflow diesel particulate filter (WF-DPF). The specific retrofit systems selected for the project were verified through the California Air Resources Board (CARB) or the EPA verification protocol [1]. These technologies are generally verified for PM reductions of 20-40 percent for DOCs, 40-50 percent for the FT-DPF, and 85 percent or more for the high efficiency WF-DPF.
Technical Paper

Nonroad Engine Activity Analysis and Transient Cycle Generation

1999-09-14
1999-01-2800
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has initiated Phase I of a regulatory program to control exhaust emissions of nonroad diesel engines over 37 kW. Central to any emissions regulation is the test procedure, which must include an appropriate test cycle. Based on actual in-use speed and estimated torque data collected from an agricultural tractor, a backhoe-loader, and a crawler tractor, three duty cycles were developed. Using an iterative process, comparison of chi-square statistical data was used to identify representative microtrips, segments of engine operation gathered during performance of selected activities. Representative microtrips for specific activities for a particular nonroad application were “strung” together to make up a test cycle. Before accepting the test cycle, data for the cycle was compared to statistical data used to characterize the raw data in an effort to validate that the cycle was representative of the raw data.
Technical Paper

Performance of Partial Flow Sampling Systems Relative to Full Flow CVS for Determination of Particulate Emissions under Steady-State and Transient Diesel Engine Operation

2002-05-06
2002-01-1718
The use of a partial flow sampling system (PFSS) to measure nonroad steady-state diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions is a technique for certification approved by a number of regulatory agencies around the world including the US EPA. Recently, there have been proposals to change future nonroad tests to include testing over a nonroad transient cycle. PFSS units that can quantify PM over the transient cycle have also been discussed. The full flow constant volume sampling (CVS) technique has been the standard method for collecting PM under transient engine operation. It is expensive and requires large facilities as compared to a typical PFSS. Despite the need for a cheaper alternative to the CVS, there has been a concern regarding how well the PM measured using a PFSS compared to that measured by the CVS. In this study, three PFSS units, including AVL SPC, Horiba MDLT, and Sierra BG-2 were investigated in parallel with a full flow CVS.
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