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Technical Paper

Thermal and Chemical Aging of Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1266
The effects of thermal and chemical aging on the performance of cordierite-based and high-porosity mullite-based diesel particulate filters (DPFs), were quantified, particularly their filtration efficiency, pressure drop, and regeneration capability. Both catalyzed and uncatalyzed core-size samples were tested in the lab using a diesel fuel burner and a chemical reactor. The diesel fuel burner generated carbonaceous particulate matter with a pre-specified particle-size distribution, which was loaded in the DPF cores. As the particulate loading evolved, measurements were made for the filtration efficiency and pressure drop across the filter using, respectively, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a pressure transducer. In a subsequent process and on a different bench system, the regeneration capability was tested by measuring the concentration of CO plus CO2 evolved during the controlled oxidation of the carbonaceous species previously deposited on the DPF samples.
Technical Paper

A Framework to Study Human Response to Whole Body Vibration

2007-06-12
2007-01-2474
A framework to study the response of seated operators to whole-body vibration (WBV) is presented in this work. The framework consists of (i) a six-degree-of-freedom man-rated motion platform to play back ride files of typical heavy off-road machines; (ii) an optical motion capture system to collect 3D motion data of the operators and the surrounding environment (seat and platform); (iii) a computer skeletal model to embody the tested subjects in terms of their body dimensions, joint centers, and inertia properties; (iv) a marker placement protocol for seated positions that facilitates the process of collecting data of the lower thoracic and the lumbar regions of the spine regardless of the existence of the seatback; and (v) a computer human model to solve the inverse kinematics/dynamic problem for the joint profiles and joint torques. The proposed framework uses experimental data to answer critical questions regarding human response to WBV.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulated Results Detailing the Sensitivity of Natural Gas HCCI Engines to Fuel Composition

2001-09-24
2001-01-3609
Natural gas quality, in terms of the volume fraction of higher hydrocarbons, strongly affects the auto-ignition characteristics of the air-fuel mixture, the engine performance and its controllability. The influence of natural gas composition on engine operation has been investigated both experimentally and through chemical kinetic based cycle simulation. A range of two component gas mixtures has been tested with methane as the base fuel. The equivalence ratio (0.3), the compression ratio (19.8), and the engine speed (1000 rpm) were held constant in order to isolate the impact of fuel autoignition chemistry. For each fuel mixture, the start of combustion was phased near top dead center (TDC) and then the inlet mixture temperature was reduced. These experimental results have been utilized as a source of data for the validation of a chemical kinetic based full-cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Applying Ball Bearings to the Series Turbochargers for the Caterpillar® Heavy-Duty On-Highway Truck Engines

2007-10-30
2007-01-4235
Fuel is a significant portion of the operating cost for an on-highway diesel engine and fuel economy is important to the economics of shipping most goods in North America. Cat® ACERT™ engine technology is no exception. Ball bearings have been applied to the series turbochargers for the Caterpillar heavy-duty, on-highway diesel truck engines in order to reduce mechanical loss for improved efficiency and lower fuel consumption. Over many years of turbocharger development, much effort has been put into improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the compressor and turbine stages. Over the same span of time, the mechanical bearing losses of a turbocharger have not experienced a significant reduction in power consumption. Most turbochargers continue to use conventional hydrodynamic radial and thrust bearings to support the rotor. While these conventional bearings provide a low cost solution, they do create significant mechanical loss.
Technical Paper

Induction Hardening Simulation of Steel and Cast Iron Components

2002-03-19
2002-01-1557
The induction hardening process involves a complex interaction of electromagnetic heating, rapid cooling, metallurgical phase transformations, and mechanical behavior. Many factors including induction coil design, power, frequency, scanning velocity, workpiece geometry, material chemistry, and quench severity determine a process outcome. This paper demonstrates an effective application of a numerical analysis tool for understanding of induction hardening. First, an overview of the Caterpillar induction simulation tool is briefly discussed. Then, several important features of the model development are examined. Finally, two examples illustrating the use of the computer simulation tool for solving induction-hardening problems related to cracking and distortion are presented. These examples demonstrate the tool's ability to simulate changes in process parameters and latitude of modeling steel or cast iron.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Facilitated SCR of NOx in Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust

2001-09-24
2001-01-3570
This paper describes two independent studies on γ-alumina as a plasma-activated catalyst. γ-alumina (2.5 - 4.3 wt%) was coated onto the surface of mesoporous silica to determine the importance of aluminum surface coordination on NOx conversion in conjunction with nonthermal plasma. Results indicate that the presence of 5- and 6- fold aluminum coordination sites in γ-alumina could be a significant factor in the NOx reduction process. A second study examined the effect of changing the reducing agent on NOx conversion. Several hydrocarbons were examined including propene, propane, isooctane, methanol, and acetaldehyde. It is demonstrated that methanol was the most effective reducing agent of those tested for a plasma-facilitated reaction over γ-alumina.
Technical Paper

Lean-NOx and Plasma Catalysis Over γ-Alumina for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

2001-09-24
2001-01-3569
The NOx reduction performance under lean conditions over γ-alumina was evaluated using a micro-reactor system and a non-thermal plasma-equipped bench test system. Various alumina samples were obtained from alumina manufacturers to assess commercial alumina materials. In addition, γ-alumina samples were synthesized at Caterpillar with a sol-gel technique in order to control alumina properties. The deNOx performances of the alumina samples were compared. The alumina samples were characterized with analytical techniques such as inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and surface area measurements (BET) to understand physical and chemical properties. The information derived from these techniques was correlated with the NOx reduction performance to identify key parameters of γ-alumina for optimizing materials for lean-NOx and plasma assisted catalysis.
Technical Paper

Results of Applying a Families-of-Systems Approach to Systems Engineering of Product Line Families

2002-11-18
2002-01-3086
Most of the history of systems engineering has been focused on processes for engineering a single complex system. However, most large enterprises design, manufacture, operate, sell, or support not one product but multiple product lines of related but varying systems. They seek to optimize time to market, costs of development and production, leverage of intellectual assets, best use of talented human resources, overall competitiveness, overall profitability and productivity. Optimizing globally across multiple product lines does not follow from treating each system family member as an independently engineered system or product. Traditional systems engineering principles can be generalized to apply to families. This article includes a multi-year case study of the actual use of a generic model-based systems engineering methodology for families, Systematica™, across the embedded electronic systems products of one of the world's largest manufacturers of heavy equipment.
Technical Paper

The Role of Carboxylate-Based Coolants in Cast Iron Corrosion Protection

2001-03-05
2001-01-1184
Nitrites have long been added to heavy-duty coolant to inhibit iron cylinder liner corrosion initiated by cavitation. However, in heavy-duty use, nitrites deplete from the coolant, which then must be refortified using supplemental coolant additives (SCA's). Recently, carboxylates have also been found to provide excellent cylinder liner protection in heavy-duty application. Unlike nitrites, carboxylate inhibitors deplete slowly and thus do not require continual refortification with SCA's. In the present paper laboratory aging experiments shed light on the mechanism of cylinder liner protection by these inhibitors. The performance of carboxylates, nitrites and mixtures of the two inhibitors are compared. Results correlate well with previously published fleet data. Specifically, rapid nitrite and slow carboxylate depletion are observed. More importantly, when nitrite and carboxylates are used in combination, nitrite depletion is repressed while carboxylates deplete at a very slow rate.
Technical Paper

A 322,000 kilometer (200,000 mile) Over the Road Test with HySEE Biodiesel in a Heavy Duty Truck

2000-09-11
2000-01-2647
In July 1997, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, in cooperation with several industrial and institutional partners initiated a long-haul 322,000 km (200,000 mile) operational demonstration using a biodiesel and diesel fuel blend in a 324 kW (435 HP), Caterpillar 3406E Engine, and a Kenworth Class 8 heavy duty truck. This project was designed to: develop definitive biodiesel performance information, collect emissions data for both regulated and non-regulated compounds including mutagenic activity, and collect heavy-duty operational engine performance and durability information. To assess long-term engine durability and wear; including injector, valve and port deposit formations; the engine was dismantled for inspection and evaluation at the conclusion of the demonstration. The fuel used was a 50% blend of biodiesel produced from used cooking oil (hydrogenated soy ethyl ester) and 50% 2-D petroleum diesel.
Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Property Changes on Heavy-Duty HCCI Combustion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0191
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) offers the potential for significant improvements in efficiency with a substantial reduction in emissions. However, achieving heavy-duty (HD) HCCI engine operation at practical loads and speeds presents numerous technical challenges. Successful expansion of the HCCI operating range to include the full range of load and speed must be accomplished while maintaining proper combustion phasing, control of maximum cylinder pressure and pressure rise rates, and low emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM). Significant progress in this endeavour has been made through a collaborative research effort between Caterpillar and ExxonMobil. This paper evaluates fuel effects on HCCI engine operating range and emissions. Test fuels were developed in the gasoline and diesel boiling range covering a broad range of ignition quality, fuel chemistry, and volatility.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Database and Kinetic Models for Surrogate Diesel Fuels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0201
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations that include realistic combustion/emissions chemistry hold the promise of significantly shortening the development time for advanced high-efficiency, low-emission engines. However, significant challenges must be overcome to realize this potential. This paper discusses these challenges in the context of diesel combustion and outlines a technical program based on the use of surrogate fuels that sufficiently emulate the chemical complexity inherent in conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Application of a Self-Adjusting Audible Warning Device as a Backup Alarm for Mobile Earthmoving Equipment

2005-11-01
2005-01-3507
Most pieces of mobile equipment (machines) produce an audible signal to indicate movement in the rearward direction. This signal is intended to alert nearby personnel of the potential danger associated with the machine moving in a direction where the operator may not be able to see people or objects in the machine path. Anyone who has been on or near a construction site recognizes the familiar “beep…beep…beep…” of this signal as the backup alarm. To be effective, the backup alarm must be discernible, timely, and relevant to those people where a reaction is intended. As machine designers respond to various sound directives for reducing sound emissions (including the backup alarm), the performance of the backup alarm is receiving special attention. An emerging solution is an alarm capable of sensing ambient sounds and producing an audible signal proportional to the sensed sound levels-a self-adjusting backup alarm.
Technical Paper

Extreme Field Test for Organic Additive Coolant Technology

2005-11-01
2005-01-3579
Field testing of an extended life coolant technology in Class 8 trucks, equipped with Caterpillar C-12 engines revealed excellent coolant life with negligible inhibitor depletion to 400,000 miles with no refortification and no coolant top-off. In separate evaluations in Caterpillar 3406E equipped trucks, extended corrosion protection and component durability were established out to 700,000 miles, without the need for refortification other than top-off.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Developing Performance Standards for Alternative Hydraulic Fluids

2000-09-11
2000-01-2540
There has been an ongoing interest in replacing mineral oil with more biodegradable and/or fire-resistant hydraulic fluids in many mobile equipment applications. Although many alternative fluids may be more biodegradable, or fire-resistant, or both than mineral oil, they often suffer from other limitations such as poorer wear, oxidative stability, and yellow metal corrosion which inhibit their performance in high-pressure hydraulic systems, particularly high pressure piston pump applications. From the fluid supplier's viewpoint, the development of a definitive test, or series of tests, that provides sufficient information to determine how a given fluid would perform with various hydraulic components would be of interest because it would minimize extensive testing. This is often too slow or prohibitively expensive. Furthermore, from OEM's (original equipment manufacturer's) point of view, it would be advantageous to develop a more effective, industry accepted fluid analysis screening.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Enhanced Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Simulated Lean Exhaust

2000-10-16
2000-01-2961
NOx reduction efficiency in simulated lean exhaust conditions has been examined for three proprietary catalyst materials using a non-thermal plasma discharge as a pretreatment stage to the catalyst. Using propene as the reducing agent for selective catalytic reduction, 74% reduction of NOx has been observed in the presence of 20 ppm SO2. For sulfur-free simulated exhaust, 84% NOx reduction has been obtained. Results show that the impact of sulfur on the samples examined can vary widely from virtually no effect (< 5%) to more than 20% loss in activity depending on the catalyst. Any loss due to sulfur poisoning appears to be irreversible according to limited measurements on poisoned catalysts exposed to sulfur-free exhaust streams. Catalysts were tested over a temperature range of 473-773K, with the highest activity observed at 773K. Examination of this large temperature window has shown that the optimum C1:NOx ratio changes with temperature.
Technical Paper

Preparation and Characterization of Nanophase Gold Catalysts for Emissions Control

2008-10-07
2008-01-2639
Various gold catalysts were prepared using commercial and in-house fabricated advanced catalyst supports that included mesoporous silica, mesoporous alumina, sol-gel alumina, and transition metal oxides. Gold nanoparticles were loaded on the supports by co-precipitation, deposition-precipitation, ion exchange and surface functionalization techniques. The average gold particle size was ∼20nm or less. The oxidation activity of the prepared catalysts was studied using carbon monoxide and light hydrocarbons (ethylene, propylene and propane) in presence of water and CO2 and the results are presented.
Technical Paper

Modeling Techniques to Support Fuel Path Control in Medium Duty Diesel Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0332
In modern production diesel engine control systems, fuel path control is still largely conducted through a system of tables that set mode, timing and injection quantity and with common rail systems, rail pressure. In the hands of an experienced team, such systems have proved so far able to meet emissions standards, but they lack the analytical underpinning that lead to systematic solutions. In high degree of freedom systems typified by modern fuel injection, there is substantial scope to deploy optimising closed loop strategies during calibration and potentially in the delivered product. In an optimising controller, a digital algorithm will explicitly trade-off conflicting objectives and follow trajectories during transients that continue to meet a defined set of criteria. Such an optimising controller must be based on a model of the system behaviour which is used in real time to investigate the consequences of proposed control actions.
Technical Paper

Moving Toward Establishing More Robust and Systematic Model Development for IC Engines Using Process Informatics

2010-04-12
2010-01-0152
Analyzing the combustion characteristics, engine performance, and emissions pathways of the internal combustion (IC) engine requires management of complex and an increasing quantity of data. With this in mind, effective management to deliver increased knowledge from these data over shorter timescales is a priority for development engineers. This paper describes how this can be achieved by combining conventional engine research methods with the latest developments in process informatics and statistical analysis. Process informatics enables engineers to combine data, instrumental and application models to carry out automated model development including optimization and validation against large data repositories of experimental data.
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