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Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

2003-06-23
2003-01-2294
A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

1996-02-01
960879
Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
Technical Paper

Effect of Diesel Fuel Chemistry on Regulated Emissions at High Altitude

1996-10-01
961947
The effect of diesel cetane number, total aromatic content T90, and fuel nitrogen content on regulated emissions (HC, CO, NOx, and PM) from a 1991 DDC Series 60 engine were measured Emissions tests were conducted using the EPA heavy-duty transient test (CFR 40 Part 86 Subpart N) at a laboratory located 5,280 feet (1609 m) above sea level. The objective of this work was to determine if the effect of fuel chemistry at high altitude is similar to what is observed at sea level and to examine the effect of specific fuel chemistry variables on emissions. An initial tea series was conducted to examine the effect of cetane number and aromatics. Transient emissions for this test series indicated much higher (50 to 75%) particulate emissions at high altitude than observed on the same model engine and similar fuels at sea level.
Technical Paper

Rapid Deactivation of Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine Exhaust Oxidation Catalysts

1996-10-01
961976
Methane emissions from lean-burn natural gas engines can be relatively high. As natural gas fueled vehicles become more prevalent, future regulations may restrict these emissions. Preliminary reports indicated that conventional, precious metal oxidation catalysts rapidly deactivate (in less than 50 hours) in lean-burn natural gas engine exhaust. This investigation is directed at quantifying this catalyst deactivation and understanding its cause. The results may also be relevant to oxidation of lean-burn propane and gasoline engine exhaust. A platinum/palladium on alumina catalyst and a palladium on alumina catalyst were aged in the exhaust of a lean-burn natural gas engine (Cummins B5.9G). The engine was fueled with compressed natural gas. Catalyst aging was accomplished through a series of steady state cycles and heavy-duty transient tests (CFR 40 Part 86 Subpart N) lasting 10 hours. Hydrocarbons in the exhaust were speciated by gas chromatography.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Diesel Sulfur Content and Oxidation Catalysts on Transient Emissions at High Altitude from a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 Urban Bus Engine

1996-10-01
961974
Regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, and PM) and particulate SOF and sulfate fractions were determined for a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 urban bus engine at varying fuel sulfur levels, with and without catalytic converters. When tested on EPA certification fuel without an oxidation catalyst this engine does not appear to meet the 1994 emissions standards for heavy duty trucks, when operating at high altitude. An ultra-low (5 ppm) sulfur diesel base stock with 23% aromatics and 42.4 cetane number was used to examine the effect of fuel sulfur. Sulfur was adjusted above the 5 ppm level to 50, 100, 200, 315 and 500 ppm using tert-butyl disulfide. Current EPA regulations limit the sulfur content to 500 ppm for on highway fuel. A low Pt diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was tested with all fuels and a high Pt diesel oxidation catalyst was tested with the 5 and 50 ppm sulfur fuels.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970639
A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Approach to Modeling the Dynamics Response of Rubber-Belted Tractor

1997-04-01
971563
This research project investigates the feasibility of using a commercial finite element code to capture the dynamic response of a typical rubber-belted tractor for agricultural applications. The investigation focused on one of Caterpillar Inc.'s Ag Challenger Series tractors. A feasibility study concluded that Abaqus/Explicit [1], a finite element code utilizing the explicit scheme, had the desirable features needed to develop such a large-scale tractor model. These features include an efficient time integration scheme, three-dimensional generalized multiple contacts, and nonlinear material characterization. The fully-assembled tractor model was successful in simulating the forward motion. A preliminary validation indicated that the tractor model was able to predict a trend which was observed in field tests accurately.
Technical Paper

Coordinated Control of Multi-Degree-of Freedom Fuel Systems

1997-04-01
971559
This paper identifies potential performance benefits and computational costs of applying advanced multivariable control theory concepts to coordinate the control of a general multi-degree-of-freedom fuel system. The control variables are injection duration and pressure. The focus is on the design of a robust multi-input multi-output controller using H-infinity and mu synthesis methodology to coordinate the control of injection duration and pressure; reduce overshoots and system sensitivity to parameter variations caused by component aging. Model reduction techniques are used to reduce the order of the H-infinity controller to make it practically implementable. Computer simulation is used to test the robust performance of a generic engine and fuel system model controlled by the reduced order H-infinity controller and a traditional proportional plus integral controller.
Technical Paper

Process Control Standards for Technology Development

1998-04-08
981502
Engineering new technology and products challenges managers to balance design innovation and program risk. To do this, managers need methods to judge future results to avoid program and product disasters. Besides the traditional prediction tools of schedule, simulations and “iron tests”, process control standards (with measurements) can also be applied to the development programs to mitigate risks. This paper briefly discusses the theory and case history behind some new process control methods and standards currently in place at Caterpillar's Electrical & Electronics department. Process standards reviewed in this paper include process mapping, ISO9001, process controls, and process improvement models (e.g. SEI's CMMs.)
Technical Paper

High Performance Biodegradable Fluid Requirements for Mobile Hydraulic Systems

1998-04-08
981518
Technical groups worldwide have been actively developing specifications and requirements for biodegradable hydraulic fluids for mobile applications. These groups have recognized that an industry-wide specification is necessary due to the increase in environmental awareness in the agriculture, construction, forestry, and mining industries, and to the increasing number of local regulations primarily throughout Europe. Caterpillar has responded to this need by publishing a requirement, Caterpillar BF-1, that may be used by Caterpillar dealers, customers, and industry to help select high-performance biodegradable hydraulic fluids. This requirement was written with the input of several organizations that are known to be involved with the development of similar types of specifications and requirements.
Technical Paper

Influence of Coating Microstructure on the Fatigue Properties of Zinc Coated Sheet Steels

1998-02-23
980955
The influence of coatings on fatigue behavior has been examined for the following commercially produced sheet steels: uncoated titanium stabilized interstitial-free (IF); electrogalvanized titanium stabilized IF; hot-dip galvanized aluminum killed, drawing quality (AKDQ); and galvannealed AKDQ. Fully reversed bending fatigue tests were conducted at ambient temperature on Krouse-type flexural fatigue machines. A dependence of crack development was observed and correlated to the microstructure and properties of the different coatings. Furthermore, a functional design relationship for each material was determined through stress-life analysis. The experimentally determined fatigue properties were compared to conventional estimates based on tensile properties which ignore coating effects. The results of this work suggest that ductile coatings may enhance fatigue resistance, while brittle coatings may reduce fatigue life.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on Spray SMD and D.I. Emissions

1995-10-01
952360
A study was performed to correlate the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), NOx and particulate emissions of a direct injection diesel engine with various injection pressures and different nozzle geometry. The spray experiments and engine emission tests were conducted in parallel using the same fuel injection system and same operating conditions. With high speed photography and digital image analysis, a light extinction technique was used to obtain the spray characteristics which included spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average SMD for the entire spray. The NOx and particulate emissions were acquired by running the tests on a fully instrumented Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine. Experimental results showed that for higher injection pressures, a smaller SMD was observed, i.e. a finer spray was obtained. For this case, a higher NOx and lower particulate resulted.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Single Gear Tooth and Cantilever Beam Bending Fatigue Testing of Carburized Steel

1995-02-01
950212
The bending fatigue performance of gears, cantilever beam specimens, and notched-axial specimens were evaluated and compared. Specimens were machined from a modified SAE-4118 steel, gas-carburized, direct-quenched and tempered. Bending fatigue specimens were characterized by light metallography to determine microstructure and prior austenite grain size, x-ray analysis for residual stress and retained austenite measurements, and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate fatigue crack initiation, propagation and overload. The case and core microstructures, prior austenite grain sizes and case hardness profiles from the various types of specimens were similar. Endurance limits were determined to be about 950 MPa for both the cantilever beam and notched-axial fatigue specimens, and 1310 MPa for the single gear tooth specimens.
Technical Paper

Performance of Organic Acid Based Coolants in Heavy Duty Applications

1996-02-01
960644
Coolant formulations based on organic acid corrosion inhibitor technology have been tested in over 180 heavy duty engines for a total of more than 50 million kilometers. This testing has been used to document long life coolant performance in various engine types from four major engine manufacturers. Inspections of engines using organic acid based coolant (with no supplemental coolant additive) for up to 610,000 kilometers showed excellent protection of metal engine components. Improved protection was observed against cylinder liner, water pump, and aluminum spacer deck corrosion. In addition, data accumulated from this testing were used to develop depletion rate curves for long life coolant corrosion inhibitors, including tolyltriazole and nitrite. Nitrite was observed to deplete less rapidly in long life coolants than in conventional formulations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Subzero Treatments on the Bending Fatigue Performance of Carburized SAE-4320 and SAE-9310 Steels

1996-02-01
960313
The effects of subzero treatments on the bending fatigue performance of carburized gear steels were investigated by cantilever bending fatigue testing. Specimens were machined from SAE-4320 and SAE-9310 bar stock steel, gas-carburized, quenched, tempered at 175°C, subzero cooled to -73°C and -196°C, and tempered at 175°C. Bending fatigue specimens were characterized by light metallography to determine microstructure and prior austenite grain size, x-ray diffraction for residual stress and retained austenite contents, microhardness testing, and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate fatigue crack initiation, propagation and overload. Refrigeration treatments caused additional transformation of retained austenite and increased surface hardness and compressive residual stresses. Bending fatigue endurance limits for the SAE-4320 specimens were determined to be 1310 MPa for the as-carburized condition, 1170 MPa for the -73°C condition, and 1280 MPa for the -196°C condition.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Designs

1996-08-01
961658
In hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design and operation, no parameter plays a more important role than efficiency. Unlike conventional vehicles, HEVs are generally energy and power limited by the battery bank and auxiliary power unit. As a result, the overall system efficiency in the conversion of chemical or stored energy into kinetic energy of the vehicle is the key parameter that drives the overall system design. We have undertaken a sensitivity analysis of HEVs to understand in detail the various factors and their respective weights that affect the overall system efficiency. Our goal is to identify the parameters that most significantly influence vehicle efficiency. The results of this study may be used as a guide to focus work on the areas of most benefit for HEVs as well as aiding in sizing vehicle components for maximum efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Modular Simulink Model for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

1996-08-01
961659
In comparison to the state of knowledge of standard internal combustion vehicles, there is relatively little known on how to best implement component sub-systems and best integrate these systems together to create a hybrid electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Plasma Spray Coated Cylinder Liners

1996-02-01
960048
Improved fuel economy and reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, such insulation will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150°C to over 300°C. Since existing ring/liner materials cannot withstand these higher operating temperatures alternatives are needed for this critical tribological interface. This paper describes the development of a cost effective ID grinding technique for machining the bores of plasma sprayed diesel engine cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Meeting the Customer's Needs - Defining the Next Generation Electronically Controlled Unit Injector Concept for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

1996-04-01
961285
Diesel engine manufacturers have been asking for new, innovative, flexible fuel injection systems in order to meet future diesel engine emission requirements throughout the world and improve engine performance. Engineers at Caterpillar have listened to these requests and developed a fuel system concept to meet their needs. This new fuel system is called the Next Generation Electronic Unit Injector (NGEUI). The new concept is adaptable to mechanically actuated electronic unit injector, hydraulic electronic unit injector, electronic unit pump, and pump/line/nozzle systems. Features of the new fuel system are listed below: 1. Fully controllable injection pressure independent of engine speed and load 2. Injection pressure capability to 207 MPa (30,000 psi) 3. Reduced drive train torsional excitation and improved hydraulic efficiency 4.
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