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Technical Paper

Integrated Vehicle and Driveline Modeling

2007-04-16
2007-01-1583
In the last years automotive industry has shown a growing interest in exploring the field of vehicle dynamic control, improving handling performances and safety of the vehicle, and actuating devices able to optimize the driving torque distribution to the wheels. These techniques are defined as torque vectoring. The potentiality of these systems relies on the strong coupling between longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics established by tires and powertrain. Due to this fact the detailed (and correct) simulation of the dynamic behaviour of the driveline has a strong importance in the development of these control systems, which aim is to optimize the contact forces distribution. The aim of this work is to build an integrated vehicle and powertrain model in order to provide a proper instrument to be used in the development of such systems, able to reproduce the dynamic interaction between vehicle and driveline and its effects on the handling performances.
Technical Paper

The Use of Single Moving Vehicle Testing to Duplicate the Dynamic Vehicle Response From Impacts Between Two Moving Vehicles

2002-03-04
2002-01-0558
The Federal Side Impact Test Procedure prescribed by FMVSS 214, simulates a central, orthogonal intersection collision between two moving vehicles by impacting the side of the stationary test vehicle with a moving test buck in a crabbed configuration. While the pre- and post-impact speeds of the vehicles involved in an accident can not be duplicated using this method, closing speeds, vehicle damage, vehicle speed changes and vehicle accelerations can be duplicated. These are the important parameters for the examination of vehicle restraint system performance and the prediction of occupant injury. The acceptability of this method of testing is not as obvious for the reconstruction of accidents where the impact is non-central, or the angle of impact is not orthogonal. This paper will examine the use of crash testing with a single moving vehicle to simulate oblique or non-central collisions between two moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Influence of Low-Frequency Powertrain-Vibrations on Driveability-Assessments

2010-06-09
2010-01-1419
Cost- and time-efficient vehicle development is increasingly depending on the usage of adequate software tools to enhance effectiveness. The aim is a continuous integration of simulation tools and test environments within the vehicle development process in order to save time and costs. This paper introduces a procedure to reveal the cause of low-frequency powertrain vibrations and the influences on the dynamic behavior of a vehicle on a roller test bench. The affected longitudinal acceleration signal is an arbitrative criterion for the driveability assessment with AVL-DRIVE™, a well-known driveability analysis and development tool for the objective assessment concerning NVH and driveability aspects of full vehicles. These experimental studies are embedded into an approach, which describes the functional assembly of three applied test environments "road," "roller test bench" and "simulation" with according tools in order to facilitate an integrated driveability development process.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Design of a Racing Motorcycle Wheel

2016-04-05
2016-01-1576
Mass minimization is a key objective for the design of racing motorcycle wheels. The structural optimization of a front motorcycle wheel is presented in the paper. Topology Optimization has been employed for deriving optimized structural layouts. The minimum compliance problem has been solved, symmetry and periodicity constraints have been introduced. The wheel has been optimized by considering several loading conditions. Actual loads have been measured during track tests by means of a special measuring wheel. The forces applied by the tire to the rim have been introduced in an original way. Different solutions characterized by different numbers of spokes have been analyzed and compared. The actual racing wheel has been further optimized accounting for technological constraints and the mass has been reduced down to 2.9 kilograms.
Technical Paper

Subjective-Objective Ride Comfort Assessment of Farm Tractors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1437
The paper is focused on both the subjective and the objective ride comfort evaluation of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride comfort level was performed by considering five different drivers. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of a farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective driver feeling with the measured accelerations.
Journal Article

Tire Ply-Steer, Conicity and Rolling Resistance - Analytical Formulae for Accurate Assessment of Vehicle Performance during Straight Running

2019-04-02
2019-01-1237
The aim of the paper is to provide simple and accurate analytical formulae describing the straight motion of a road vehicle. Such formulae can be used to compute either the steering torque or the additional rolling resistance induced by vehicle side-slip angle. The paper introduces a revised formulation of the Handling Diagram Theory to take into account tire ply-steer, conicity and road banking. Pacejka’s Handling Diagram Theory is based on a relatively simple fully non-linear single track model. We will refer to the linear part of the Handling Diagram, since straight motion will be considered only. Both the elastokinematics of suspension system and tire characteristics are taken into account. The validation of the analytical expressions has been performed both theoretically and after a subjective-objective test campaign. By means of the new and unreferenced analytical formulae, practical hints are given to set to zero the steering torque during straight running.
Journal Article

Driver’s Response Prediction Using Naturalistic Data Set

2019-04-02
2019-01-0128
Evaluating the safety of Autonomous Vehicles (AV) is a challenging problem, especially in traffic conditions involving dynamic interactions. A thorough evaluation of the vehicle’s decisions at all possible critical scenarios is necessary for estimating and validating its safety. However, predicting the response of the vehicle to dynamic traffic conditions can be the first step in the complex problem of understanding vehicle’s behavior. This predicted response of the vehicle can be used in validating vehicle’s safety. In this paper, models based on Machine Learning were explored for predicting and classifying driver’s response. The Naturalistic Driving Study dataset (NDS), which is part of the Strategic Highway Research Program-2 (SHRP2) was used for training and validating these Machine Learning models.
Technical Paper

Design and Construction of a Test Rig for Assessing Tyre Characteristics at Rollover

2002-07-09
2002-01-2077
The paper presents a new test rig (named RuotaVia) composed basically by a drum (2,6 m diameter), providing a running contact surface for vehicle wheels. A number of measurements on either full vehicles or vehicle sub-systems (single suspension system or single tyre) can be performed. Tire characteristics influencing rollover can be assessed. The steady-state maximum loads are as follows: Radial: 100kN, tangential: 100kN, lateral (axial with respect to the drum): 100kN. The superstructure carrying a measuring hub can excite the wheel under test up to 20 Hz in lateral and vertical directions. The steer angle range is ± 25 deg, the camber range is ± 80 deg. The minimum eigenfrequency of the drum is higher than 90 Hz and its maximum tangential speed is 440 km/h.
Journal Article

A Method for Vibration and Harshness Analysis Based on Indoor Testing of Automotive Suspension Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0639
The paper presents a method for the indoor testing of road vehicle suspension systems. A suspension is positioned on a rotating drum which is located in the Laboratory for the Safety of Transport at Politecnico di Milano. Special six-axis load cells have been designed and used for measuring the forces/moments acting at each suspension-chassis joints. The forces/moments, wheel accelerations, displacements are measured up to 100 Hz. Two different types of test can be performed. The tire/wheel unbalance effect on the suspension system behavior (Vibration and Harshness, VH) has been analyzed by testing the suspension system from zero to the vehicle maximum speed on a flat surface and by monitoring the forces transmitted to the chassis. In the second kind of test, the suspension system has been excited as the wheel passes over different cleats fixed on the drum.
Technical Paper

Adaptation of TruckSim Models to Simulate Experimental Heavy Truck Hard Braking Test Data Under Various Levels of Brake Disablement

2010-10-05
2010-01-1920
This research focuses on the development and performance of analytical models to simulate a tractor-semitrailer in straight-ahead braking. The simulations were modified and tuned to simulate full-treadle braking with all brakes functioning correctly, as well as the behavior of the tractor-semitrailer rig under full braking with selected brakes disabled. The models were constructed in TruckSim and based on a tractor-semitrailer used in dry braking performance testing. The full-scale vehicle braking research was designed to define limits for engineering estimates on stopping distance when Class 8 air-braked vehicles experience partial degradation of the foundation brake system. In the full scale testing, stops were conducted from 30 mph and 60 mph, with the combination loaded to 80,000 lbs (gross combined weight or GCW), half payload, and with the tractor-semitrailer unladen (lightly loaded vehicle weight, or LLVW).
Technical Paper

Identification of Agricultural Tyres' Handling Characteristics from Full Vehicle Experimental Tests

2014-04-01
2014-01-0874
For passenger cars, individual tyre model parameters, used in vehicle models able to simulate vehicle handling behavior, are traditionally derived from expensive component indoor laboratory tests as a result of an identification procedure minimizing the error with respect to force and slip measurements. Indoor experiments on agricultural tyres are instead more challenging and thus generally not performed due to tyre size and applied forces. However, the knowledge of their handling characteristics is becoming more and more important since in the next few years, all agricultural vehicles are expected to run on ordinary asphalt roads at a speed of 80km/h. The present paper presents a methodology to identify agricultural tyres' handling characteristics based only on the measurements carried out on board vehicle (vehicle sideslip angle, yaw rate, lateral acceleration, speed and steer angle) during standard handling maneuvers (step-steers, J-turns, etc.), instead than during indoor tests.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics, Stability and Control

2014-04-01
2014-01-0134
In the last years the number of electronic controllers of vehicle dynamics applied to chassis components has increased dramatically. They use lookup table of the primary order vehicle global parameters as yaw rate, lateral acceleration, steering angle, car velocity, that define the ideal behavior of the vehicle. They are usually based on PID controllers which compare the actual behavior of every measured real vehicle data to the desired behavior, from look up table. The controller attempts to keep the measured quantities the same as the tabled quantities by using ESP, TC (brakes and throttle), CDC (control shocks absorbers), EDIFF(active differential) and 4WS (rear wheels active toe). The performances of these controls are good but not perfect. The improvement can be achieved by replacement of the lookup tables with a fast vehicle model running in parallel to the real vehicle.
Journal Article

Development of an ESP Control Logic Based on Force Measurements Provided by Smart Tires

2013-04-08
2013-01-0416
The present paper investigates possible enhancement of ESP performance associated with the use of smart tires. In particular a novel control logic based on a direct feedback on the longitudinal forces developed by the four tires is considered. The control logic was developed using a simulation tool including a 14 dofs vehicle model and a smart tires emulator. Performance of the control strategy was evaluated in a series of handling maneuvers. The same maneuvers were performed on a HiL test bench interfacing the same vehicle model with a production ESP ECU. Results of the two logics were analyzed and compared.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterization of the Lateral Response of a Tire under Hydroplaning Condition

2012-04-16
2012-01-0769
Hydroplaning represents a threat for riding safety since a wedge of water generated at the tire-road interface can lift tires from the ground thus preventing the development of tangential contact forces. Under this condition directionality and stability of the vehicle can be seriously compromised. The paper aims at characterizing the tire lateral response while approaching the hydroplaning speed: several experimental tests were carried out on a special test track covered with a 8-mm high water layer using a vehicle equipped with a dynamometric hub on the front left wheel. A series of swept sine steer maneuvers were performed increasing the vehicle speed in order to reach a full hydroplaning condition. Variations of tire cornering stiffness and relaxation length were investigated while the vehicle approaches the hydroplaning speed. Experimental tests stated that a residual capability of generating lateral forces is still present also close to the full hydroplaning condition.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Vertical Dynamics of an Agricultural Vehicle Operating on Deformable Soil

2012-04-16
2012-01-0764
This work focuses on the analysis of the vertical dynamics of an agricultural tractor, investigating the influence of suspensions' parameters on riding comfort and contact forces. The use of lugged tires coupled with the operation over banked, irregular and deformable tracks, determines significant levels of vertical acceleration over several components of the tractor. These operating conditions have a direct effect on the driver, whose alertness and efficiency are undermined by the exposure to high levels of acceleration for a long time. Secondly, variations of the normal and traction forces provided by the tires affect the quality of tillage and other operations. The paper presents a multi-body vehicle model of a tractor interfaced with a tire-soil contact model allowing to take into account soil's deformation and tread pattern design.
Technical Paper

On the Impact of the Maximum Available Tire-Road Friction Coefficient Awareness in a Brake-Based Torque Vectoring System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0116
Tire-road interaction is one of the main concerns in the design of control strategies for active/semi-active differentials oriented to improve handling performances of a vehicle. In particular, the knowledge of the friction coefficient at the tire-road interface is crucial for achieving the best performance in any working condition. State observers and estimators have been developed at the purpose, based on the measurements traditionally carried out on board vehicle (steer angle, lateral acceleration, yaw rate, wheels speed). However, until today, the problem of tire-road friction coefficient estimation (and especially of its maximum value) has not completely been solved. Thus, active control systems developed so far rely on a driver manual selection of the road adherence condition (anyway characterized by a rough and imprecise quality) or on a conservative tuning of the control logic in order to ensure vehicle safety among different tire-road friction coefficients.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of ABS Performance through On-Board Estimation of the Tires' Response by Means of Smart Tires

2011-04-12
2011-01-0991
Active controls for braking dynamics are widely investigated in literature [1]-[8] as one of the way to improve vehicle safety and avoid collisions. Active systems commonly mounted on passenger cars like ABS/EBD, have achieved a high level of robustness towards possible changes in the tires' characteristics due to multiple causes such as: under-inflation, wear and also replacement of tires with new ones different from the first equipment series. Although these electronic control systems have been designed to be robust and no case-sensitive to such variations in tire conditions, a further improvement of their performance could be achieved by means of a continuous adaptive control.
Technical Paper

Development of a Control Strategy for a Suspension System with an Active Variable Kinematics

2011-04-12
2011-01-0739
Active and semi-active suspension systems are widely diffused into the automotive industry. Most of the proposed devices try to achieve a better compromise between handling and comfort requirements by replacing traditional springs, shock absorbers and antiroll bars with active or semi-active actuators allowing to change suspension stiffness and damping according to a suitable control strategy. An alternative way for controlling passenger car suspensions is proposed in this paper. Traditional passive springs and dampers are maintained, while the geometry of the suspension and thus its kinematics is actively varied. By changing the suspension geometry, spring and damper rates are in fact varied, this modifying the vertical load on the tire and/or the vehicle height from the ground.
Technical Paper

A 2D Model for Tractor Tire-Soil Interaction: Evaluation of the Maximum Traction Force and Comparison with Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0191
The paper investigates the interaction between soil and tractor tires through a 2D numerical model. The tire is schematized as a rigid ring presenting a series of rigid tread bars on the external circumference. The outer profile of the tire is divided into a series of elements, each one able to exchange a normal and a tangential contact force with the ground. A 2D soil model was developed to compute the forces at the ground-tire interface: the normal force is determined on the basis of the compression of the soil generated by the sinking of the tire. The soil is modeled through a layer of springs characterized by two different stiffness for the loading (lower stiffness) and unloading (higher stiffness) condition. This scheme allows to introduce a memory effect on the soil which results stiffer and keeps a residual sinking after the passage of the tire. The normal contact force determines the maximum value of tangential force provided before the soil fails.
Technical Paper

A New Electric Powertrain for Light Trucks: Indoor Testing and Advanced Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1977
A new electric powertrain and axle for light/medium trucks is presented. The indoor testing and the simulation of the dynamic behavior are performed. The powertrain and axle has been produced by Streparava and tested at the Laboratory for the Safety of Transport of the Politecnico di Milano. The tests were aimed at defining the multi-physics perfomance of the powertrain and axle (efficiency, acceleration and braking, temperature and NVH). The whole system for indoor tests was composed by the powertrain and axle (electric motor, driveline, suspensions, wheels) and by the test rig (drums, driveline and electric motor). The (driving) axle was positioned on a couple of drums, and the drums provided the proper torques to the wheels to reproduce acceleration and braking. Additionally a cleat fixed on one drum excited the vibration of the suspensions and allowed assessing NVH performance. The simulations were based on a special co-simulation between 1D-AMESIM and VIRTUAL.LAB.
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