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Technical Paper

Active Path Tracking - A Rapid Method for the Identification of Structure Borne Noise Paths in Vehicle Chassis

The effective identification and control of powertrain structure borne harmonic noise is one key for achieving the desired noise pattern in a vehicle. Much work is being done in this field to refine and develop transfer path analysis techniques suitable for application at each stage of a vehicle development program. For vehicle application, transfer path analysis and source identification techniques are in use today with varying degrees of success and application complexity. Investigation tools which are fast, do not require extensive vehicle dismantling and yet provide reliable answers, are of great value to NVH and sound quality engineers. A novel Active Path Tracking (APT) method has been developed which is fast to apply and offers immediate practical confirmation of the contributions of all identified chassis transmission paths to the vehicle interior.
Technical Paper

Influence of Low-Frequency Powertrain-Vibrations on Driveability-Assessments

Cost- and time-efficient vehicle development is increasingly depending on the usage of adequate software tools to enhance effectiveness. The aim is a continuous integration of simulation tools and test environments within the vehicle development process in order to save time and costs. This paper introduces a procedure to reveal the cause of low-frequency powertrain vibrations and the influences on the dynamic behavior of a vehicle on a roller test bench. The affected longitudinal acceleration signal is an arbitrative criterion for the driveability assessment with AVL-DRIVE™, a well-known driveability analysis and development tool for the objective assessment concerning NVH and driveability aspects of full vehicles. These experimental studies are embedded into an approach, which describes the functional assembly of three applied test environments "road," "roller test bench" and "simulation" with according tools in order to facilitate an integrated driveability development process.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Noise Investigation of a Bus Rear Axle - Todays Possibilities and Outlook

This paper presents a simulation environment and methodology for noise and vibration analyses of a driven rear axle in a bus application, with particular focus on medium to high frequency range (400 Hz to 3 kHz). The workflow demonstrates structure borne noise and sound radiation analyses. The fully flexible Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) model - serving to cover the actual mechanical excitation mechanisms and the structural domain - includes geometrical contacts of hypoid gear in the central gear and planetary gear integrated at hubs, considering non-linear meshing stiffness. Contribution of aforementioned gear stages, as well as the propeller shaft universal joint at the pinion axle, on overall axle noise levels is investigated by means of sensitivity analysis. Based on the surface velocities computed at the vibrating axle-housing structure the Wave Based Technique (WBT) is employed to solve the airborne noise problem and predict the radiated sound.
Technical Paper

Increased 2-Wheeler Development Efficiency by Using a New Dedicated Test System Solution

Fuel consumption is the most important contributor to the total cost of ownership for mass produced motorcycles. Therefore, best fuel economy is one main influencing criteria for a decision to purchase motorcycles. Furthermore, increasingly stringent emission legislations limit and additional OBD requirements must be fulfilled. A new combined test approach has been developed that minimizes accuracy losses in the development process which compensates for the variability of driving behavior in the chassis dyno environment. An engine testbed combined with a belt drive transmission enables operation in single engine or in Powerpack (i.e. internal combustion engine including transmission) configuration as well as under steady state or dynamic operating mode. Since the belt drive transmission is integrated in the test rig, realistic inertia situation for the single engine operating test configuration is ensured.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of General Path Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorbers

The aim of this paper is the study of the Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorber (CPVA) dynamic behavior, with the background of improved vibration isolation and damping quality through a wide range of operating speeds. The CPVAs are passive devices, which are used in rotating machinery to reduce the torsional vibration without decreasing performance. After a first use of these damping systems in the field of aeronautics, nowadays CPVAs are employed also in railway and automotive applications. In principle, the CPVA is a mass, mounted on a rotor, which moves along a defined path relative to the rotor itself, driven by centrifugal effects and by the rotor's torsional vibrations. The advantage that such absorbers provide is the capability to counteract torsional vibrations arising with frequencies proportional to the mean operating speed. This is in particular the case with Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) where the induced vibrations are caused by the combustions process.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Harness Tightening Procedures for Child Restraint System (CRS) Sled Testing

Sled testing procedures should reflect a rigorous level of repeatability across trials and reproducibility across testing facilities. Currently, different testing facilities use various methods to set the harness tension for child restraint system (CRS) sled tests. The objective of this study is to identify which harness tightening procedure(s) produce tensions within a reasonable target range while showing adequate reproducibility, repeatability, and ease-of-use. Five harness tightening procedures were selected: A) FMVSS 213 procedure, B) a 3-prong tension gauge, C) ECE R44/R129 procedure, D) two finger method, and E) pinch test. Two CRS models were instrumented with a tension load cell in the harness system. Seven sled room operators were recruited to perform each of the five harness tightening procedures for ten repetitions apiece on both instrumented CRS using a Hybrid III 3-year-old.
Technical Paper

Power Electronic Noise-Simulation Measurement Comparison

A growing development of hybrid or fully electrical drives increases the demand for an accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristics of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emissions from power electronics, as one of the new important noise sources in electric vehicles. The noise emitted from the printed circuit board (PCB) equipped with multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) is measured and used for the calibration and validation of numerical model. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis, with special attention to the orthotropic characteristic of the PCB glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheet (FR-4). Electroacoustic excitation is pre-calculated using an extension of schematic-based EMC simulation and applied to the structural model. Structural vibrations are calculated with a commercial FEM solver with the modal frequency response analysis.
Technical Paper

Experimental Design for Characterization of Force Transmissibility through Bearings in Electric Machines and Transmissions

With the increasing stringent emissions legislation on ICEs, alongside requirements for enhanced fuel efficiency as key driving factors for many OEMs, there are many research activities supported by the automotive industry that focus on the development of hybrid and pure EVs. This change in direction from engine downsizing to the use of electric motors presents many new challenges concerning NVH performance, durability and component life. This paper presents the development of experimental methodology into the measurement of NVH characteristics in these new powertrains, thus characterizing the structure borne noise transmissibility through the shaft and the bearing to the housing. A feasibility study and design of a new system level test rig have been conducted to allow for sinusoidal radial loading of the shaft, which is synchronized with the shaft’s rotary frequency under high-speed transient conditions in order to evaluate the phenomena in the system.
Technical Paper

PMSM Noise - Simulation Measurement Comparison

Growing development of hybrid and fully electrical drives increases demand for accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristic of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emission from PMSM electric machine as a one of the most important noise sources in electric vehicles. Structural and air borne noise is measured on e-machine test rig and used for calibration and validation of the numerical model. The electro-magnetic field in PMSM is simulated using finite volume method. Electro-magnetic forces are applied as excitation to the 3D FE model of e-machine, mounded on test frame. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis including identification of orthotropic characteristic of stator laminated core, assembled together with coil and end winding. Structural vibrations are calculated by modal frequency response analysis and applied as excitation in air borne noise simulation.
Technical Paper

High Performance Linearization Procedure for Emission Analyzers

Increasing requirements for the result quality of exhaust emission analyzers and state of the art analyzer technology require a new point of view regarding measuring range definitions and linearization procedures. To make best use of the power of this analyzer technology, linearization procedures need reconsideration. In certification laboratories, legislation defines the procedures to linearize an exhaust emission analyzer more or less stringently. On the other hand, on testbeds for development purposes there are many possibilities for making use of today's improved analyzers. However, procedures are often used in development labs that are very similar to those mentioned in the legislation. For some measurement purposes it is necessary to leave these procedures regarding measuring ranges and their specifications behind. The exhaust gas analyzing system has to provide consistent result quality during the whole test procedure.
Technical Paper

Meeting Future Demands for Quieter Commercial Powertrain Systems

Noise legislations and the increasing customer demands determine the NVH-development of modern commercial vehicles. In this paper suitable engineering approaches will be discussed. In order to meet the very stringent legislative requirements of the EEC and some other countries refinement of all vehicle noise sources is required. Cost-effective solutions, however, can only be found with low-noise powertrains, thus being able to avoid excessive noise packages on the vehicle. There is increasing demand, because modular systems should be ready to power a variety of different trucks and busses and allow for easy servicability. With this focus on powertrain noise, the paper discusses and outlines the technological developments required to achieve sufficient noise reduction which aims towards a 1m engine noise level of 93 dBA measured in an acoustic test cell under rated conditions.
Journal Article

Theoretical/Experimental Study on the Vibrations of a Car Engine

The influence of the inertia properties (mass, centre of gravity location, and inertia tensor) on the dynamic behaviour of the engine-gearbox system of a car is studied in this paper, devoting particular attention to drivability and comfort. The vibration amplitudes and the natural frequencies of the engine-gearbox system have been considered. Additionally, the loads transmitted to the car body have been taken into account. Both the experimental and the theoretical simulations confirmed that the engine-gearbox vibrations in the range 10 - 15 Hz are particularly sensitive to slight variation of the inertia properties. The effects on engine-gearbox vibrations due to half-axles, exhaust system, pipes and inner engine-gearbox fluids have been highlighted.
Journal Article

Test Rig for Characterization of Automotive Suspension Systems

A test rig (named RuotaVia) is presented for the in-door testing of road vehicle suspension systems. It is basically a drum (ϕ 2.6 m) providing a running surface for testing the dynamic performance of a single tire or suspension system (corner). The suspension system is instrumented for the measurement of the forces and the moments acting at each joint connecting the suspension to the car body. A new 6 axis load cell was designed and manufactured for this purpose. The accelerations in various locations of the system (wheel carrier, suspension arms, …) and the wheel centre displacements in the longitudinal and vertical directions are monitored. The effect of the dynamic interaction between the test rig and the suspension system is discussed in the paper. The direct measurement of the forces and moments at the suspension-chassis joints is still an effective way for understanding the vibration and harshness (VH) suspension performances.
Journal Article

NVH of Electric Vehicles with Range Extender

Intensive R&D is currently performed worldwide on hybrid and electric vehicles. For full electric vehicles the driving range is limited by the capacity of currently available batteries. If such a vehicle shall increase its driving range some range extending backup system should be available. Such a Range Extender is a small system of combustion engine and electric generator which produces the required electricity for charging the batteries in time. Since the acoustic response of an electric motor driving the vehicle and of a combustion engine as part of a Range Extender is very different by nature an extensive acoustic tuning of the Range Extender is necessary to meet the requirements of exterior vehicle noise and passenger comfort. This paper describes the NVH (noise, vibration & harshness) development work of a range extender within the AVL approach of an electrically driven passenger car with range extender.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterization of the Lateral Response of a Tire under Hydroplaning Condition

Hydroplaning represents a threat for riding safety since a wedge of water generated at the tire-road interface can lift tires from the ground thus preventing the development of tangential contact forces. Under this condition directionality and stability of the vehicle can be seriously compromised. The paper aims at characterizing the tire lateral response while approaching the hydroplaning speed: several experimental tests were carried out on a special test track covered with a 8-mm high water layer using a vehicle equipped with a dynamometric hub on the front left wheel. A series of swept sine steer maneuvers were performed increasing the vehicle speed in order to reach a full hydroplaning condition. Variations of tire cornering stiffness and relaxation length were investigated while the vehicle approaches the hydroplaning speed. Experimental tests stated that a residual capability of generating lateral forces is still present also close to the full hydroplaning condition.
Journal Article

Development of a High Performance Natural Gas Engine with Direct Gas Injection and Variable Valve Actuation

Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics Simulation Model for Noise and Vibration Effects in Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain

Over the past 30 years, simulation of the N&V (Noise and Vibration) behaviour of automotive drivelines became an integral part of the powertrain development process. With current and future HEVs (Hybrid-Electrical Vehicles), additional phenomena and effects have entered the scene and need to be taken into account during layout/design as well as optimization phase. Beside effects directly associated with the e-components (namely electric whistle and whine), torque changes caused by activation/deactivation of the e-machine give rise to vibration issues (e.g. driveline shuffle or clonk) as well. This is in particular true for transient operation conditions like boosting and recuperation. Moreover, aspects of starting the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) using the built-in e-machine in conjunction with the dynamic behaviour of torsional decoupling devices become increasingly important. In order to cope with above-mentioned effects a multi-physics simulation approach is required.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Substructuring for Sources Contributions Analysis in Internal Combustion Engines

For vibration and acoustics vehicle development, one of the main challenges is the identification and the analysis of the noise sources, which is required in order to increase the driving comfort and to meet the stringent legislative requirements for the vehicle noise emission. Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is a fairly well established technique for estimating and ranking individual low-frequency noise or vibration contributions via the different transmission paths. This technique is commonly applied on test measurements, based on prototypes, at the end of the design process. In order to apply such methodology already within the design process, a contribution analysis method based on dynamic substructuring of a multibody system is proposed with the aim of improving the quality of the design process for vehicle NVH assessment and to shorten development time and cost.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Sound Quality of Engines with Low Cylinder Numbers

Due to future directives of the European Union regarding fuel consumption and CO2 emissions the automotive industry is forced to develop new and unconventional technologies. These include for example stop-start-systems, cylinder deactivation or even reduction of the number of cylinders which however lead to unusual acoustical perceptions and customer complaints. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sound character of engines with low numbers of cylinders (2 and 3 cylinders) and also the differences to the character of the more common 4-cylinder engines. Psychoacoustic parameters are used to describe and understand the differences. Based on the gained knowledge possible potentials for improvement can be derived in the future. The used data base consists of artificial head recordings of car interior noise according to defined driving conditions measured on the AVL test track. Naturally, there are more recordings available for 4-cylinder engines than for 2- and 3-cylinder engines.
Journal Article

Multi-Objective Optimization of a Car Body Structure

In the last years engineers have to deal with multiple, often conflicting targets, where improvement of one quantity leads to deterioration of others, therefore it is impossible to obtain simultaneous structure enhancements without automatic optimizations tools. The so-called trade-offs have to be applied, providing less efficient modifications, nevertheless, for all of the design objectives. The Pareto front is a method that helps to determine a set of equipotential designs. In order to explore entire design space, response surface methodology supplemented by genetic algorithms is often used. In the work presented, the Gaussian Processes Methodology and an Adaptive Range Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm - ARMOGA were implemented. Basing on the solutions obtained by the design of experiment, response surface methodology is used to predict the values of the measured outputs throughout the full range of interest.