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Technical Paper

Active Path Tracking - A Rapid Method for the Identification of Structure Borne Noise Paths in Vehicle Chassis

The effective identification and control of powertrain structure borne harmonic noise is one key for achieving the desired noise pattern in a vehicle. Much work is being done in this field to refine and develop transfer path analysis techniques suitable for application at each stage of a vehicle development program. For vehicle application, transfer path analysis and source identification techniques are in use today with varying degrees of success and application complexity. Investigation tools which are fast, do not require extensive vehicle dismantling and yet provide reliable answers, are of great value to NVH and sound quality engineers. A novel Active Path Tracking (APT) method has been developed which is fast to apply and offers immediate practical confirmation of the contributions of all identified chassis transmission paths to the vehicle interior.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Characteristics of Automotive Catalytic Converter Assemblies

An experimental study of the acoustic characteristics of automotive catalytic converters is presented. The investigation addresses the effects and relative importance of the elements comprising a production catalytic converter assembly including the housing, substrate, mat and seals. Attenuation characteristics are measured for one circular and one oval catalytic converter geometry, each having 400 cell per square inch substrates. For each geometry, experimental results are presented to address the effect of individual components in isolation, and in combination with other assembly components. Additional experiments investigate the significance of acoustic paths around the substrate and through the peripheral wall of the substrate. The experimental results are compared to address the significance of each component on the overall attenuation.
Technical Paper

Biologically Inspired, Intelligent Muscle Material for Sensing and Responsive Delivery of Countermeasures

The design and development of new biologically inspired technologies based on intelligent materials that are capable of sensing the levels of target biomolecules and, if needed, trigger appropriate countermeasures to regulate biological processes and rhythms of the astronauts is being undertaken in our laboratories. This is accomplished by coupling biologically inspired sensors that monitor the levels of the target biomolecules with intelligent polymeric materials that can regulate the release of a countermeasure. The technology developed here integrates sensors and artificial muscle material into a self-regulating device that can perform with minimal crew intervention. Further, it takes advantage of microfabrication technology to construct lightweight and robust responsive delivery systems. These “intelligent” devices address the need for the control and regulation of biological processes and rhythms under spaceflight conditions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Low-Frequency Powertrain-Vibrations on Driveability-Assessments

Cost- and time-efficient vehicle development is increasingly depending on the usage of adequate software tools to enhance effectiveness. The aim is a continuous integration of simulation tools and test environments within the vehicle development process in order to save time and costs. This paper introduces a procedure to reveal the cause of low-frequency powertrain vibrations and the influences on the dynamic behavior of a vehicle on a roller test bench. The affected longitudinal acceleration signal is an arbitrative criterion for the driveability assessment with AVL-DRIVE™, a well-known driveability analysis and development tool for the objective assessment concerning NVH and driveability aspects of full vehicles. These experimental studies are embedded into an approach, which describes the functional assembly of three applied test environments "road," "roller test bench" and "simulation" with according tools in order to facilitate an integrated driveability development process.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Noise Investigation of a Bus Rear Axle - Todays Possibilities and Outlook

This paper presents a simulation environment and methodology for noise and vibration analyses of a driven rear axle in a bus application, with particular focus on medium to high frequency range (400 Hz to 3 kHz). The workflow demonstrates structure borne noise and sound radiation analyses. The fully flexible Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) model - serving to cover the actual mechanical excitation mechanisms and the structural domain - includes geometrical contacts of hypoid gear in the central gear and planetary gear integrated at hubs, considering non-linear meshing stiffness. Contribution of aforementioned gear stages, as well as the propeller shaft universal joint at the pinion axle, on overall axle noise levels is investigated by means of sensitivity analysis. Based on the surface velocities computed at the vibrating axle-housing structure the Wave Based Technique (WBT) is employed to solve the airborne noise problem and predict the radiated sound.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of General Path Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorbers

The aim of this paper is the study of the Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorber (CPVA) dynamic behavior, with the background of improved vibration isolation and damping quality through a wide range of operating speeds. The CPVAs are passive devices, which are used in rotating machinery to reduce the torsional vibration without decreasing performance. After a first use of these damping systems in the field of aeronautics, nowadays CPVAs are employed also in railway and automotive applications. In principle, the CPVA is a mass, mounted on a rotor, which moves along a defined path relative to the rotor itself, driven by centrifugal effects and by the rotor's torsional vibrations. The advantage that such absorbers provide is the capability to counteract torsional vibrations arising with frequencies proportional to the mean operating speed. This is in particular the case with Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) where the induced vibrations are caused by the combustions process.
Technical Paper

Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0: Challenges and Opportunities for Designing New Vehicle Components for Automated and/or Electric Vehicles

The paper deals with the “wise sensorization” of vehicle components. In the upcoming full digitalization of mobility, vehicle components are getting more and more sensorized. The problem is why, what, when and where vehicle components can be sensorized. The paper attempts a preliminary problem statement for the sensorization of vehicle components. A theoretical basic investigation is introduced, setting the main concepts on which extended sensorization is advisable or not. The paradigms of Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0 are addressed, namely sensors are proposed to be used both for monitoring the manufacturing process and for monitoring the service life of the component. In general, sensors are proposed to be used for multiple purposes. Two examples of sensorized components are briefly presented. One refers to a sensorized electric motor, the other one refers to a sensorized wheel.
Technical Paper

Accuracy Assessment of Three-Dimensional Site Features Generated with Aid of Photogrammetric Epipolar Lines in PhotoModeler and Using Minimal sUAS Imagery

Photogrammetry is widely used in the accident reconstruction community to extract three-dimensional information from photographs. This article extends a prior study conducted by the authors, whereby model accuracy was assessed for a technique that exploited vehicle edges and epipolar line projections to construct 3D vehicle models, by examining 3D roadway and site features. To do so, artificial images were generated using an ideal computer-generated camera within a computer-assisted drawing environment to allow for a known reference model to compare with results produced using photogrammetry. A systematic study was undertaken by modeling the curvature, elevation, and super-elevation of a roadway and associated markings, sidewalks, and buildings, either by relying on discrete points or utilizing epipolar lines. The models were assessed for accuracy, and the sensitivity of the accuracy to camera elevation was considered.
Technical Paper

Power Electronic Noise-Simulation Measurement Comparison

A growing development of hybrid or fully electrical drives increases the demand for an accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristics of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emissions from power electronics, as one of the new important noise sources in electric vehicles. The noise emitted from the printed circuit board (PCB) equipped with multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) is measured and used for the calibration and validation of numerical model. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis, with special attention to the orthotropic characteristic of the PCB glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheet (FR-4). Electroacoustic excitation is pre-calculated using an extension of schematic-based EMC simulation and applied to the structural model. Structural vibrations are calculated with a commercial FEM solver with the modal frequency response analysis.
Technical Paper

High Speed Ridged Fasteners for Multi-Material Joining

Automobile manufacturers are reducing the weight of their vehicles in order to meet strict fuel economy legislation. To achieve this goal, a combination of different materials such as steel, aluminum and carbon fiber composites are being considered for use in vehicle bodies. The ability to join these different materials is an ongoing challenge and an area of research for automobile manufacturers. Multiridged fasteners are a viable option for this type of multi-material joining. Commercial systems exist and are being used in the industry, however, new ridged nail designs offer the potential for improvement in several areas. The goal of this paper is to prototype and test a safer flat-end fastener whilst not compromising on strength characteristics, to prevent injury to factory workers. The nails were prototyped using existing RIVTAC® nails.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Cutting Parameters in Two-Stage Piercing to Reduce Edge Strain Hardening

Edge fracture is a common problem when forming advanced high strength steels (AHSS). A particular case of edge fracture occurs during a collar forming/hole extrusion process, which is widely used in the sheet metal forming industry. This study attempts to relate the edge stretchability in collar forming to the strain hardening along the pierced edge; thus, Finite Element (FE) simulations can be used to reduce the number of experiments required to improve cutting settings for a given material and thickness. Using a complex-phase steel, CP-W 800 with thickness of 4.0 mm, a single-stage piercing operation is compared with a two-stage piercing operation, so called shaving, in terms of strains along the pierced edge, calculated by FE simulation. Results indicated that strains were reduced along the pierced edge by shaving.
Technical Paper

Integrated Approach to the Selection of Cost-Effective and Lean Process and Equipment in Forming

A significant number of formed parts constitute the components of an automobile or aircraft. The formed blanks for the components are produced at different temperatures ranging from room temperature to 2250 degrees Fahrenheit for steel. Forming progressions convert a basic shape or geometry (a cylindrical billet, for example) of metal into a more complex shape close to the required final component geometry. The progression steps, choice of temperatures and equipment significantly impact the cost of the blank. A ‘Discriminating Cost Model’ was developed to capture the cost effectiveness of a given choice of process or equipment, and an AI (Artificial Intelligence) search algorithm implemented to quickly search through the large number of process and equipment selection options to arrive at the most cost effective choice. Two applications of this methodology to existing plant processes to significantly reduce cost and implement ‘lean’ principles of manufacturing are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Creation of a Car Interior Noise Quality Index for the Evaluation of Rattle Phenomena

Rattle noise produced in the vehicle interior due to broadband excitation by road irregularities is a major concern with respect to driving comfort, and therefore has become one of the most important topics of acoustic development in recent years. A quantification i.e. measurement of this rattle noise is of fundamental importance for systematic development work and production control. Common noise level measurements (dB, dBA, etc. ) do not represent the rattle character in the vehicle interior as revealed during initial investigations. To overcome this problem and to substitute the subjective assessment with a combination of measurable parameters, the psychoacoustic software AVL-EAR was applied to create an Interior Rattle Quality Index. Based on more than 40 different vehicles that have been subjectively assessed by approximately 70 test persons, the index was generated by means of multiple pair comparisons and statistics on measurement data.
Technical Paper

Impact of Servo Press Motion on Hole Flanging of High Strength Steels

The capabilities of the servo press for varying the ram speed during stroke and for adjusting the stroke length are well known. Various companies installed servo presses for blanking. Some of the considerations may include increase in productivity and flexibility in adjusting the ram stroke, noise reduction and improvement of edge quality of blanked edge. The objectives of this study are to determine the effect of ram (blanking) speed upon the edge quality, and the effect of multiple step blanking using several punch motions, during one blanking stroke.
Journal Article

Theoretical/Experimental Study on the Vibrations of a Car Engine

The influence of the inertia properties (mass, centre of gravity location, and inertia tensor) on the dynamic behaviour of the engine-gearbox system of a car is studied in this paper, devoting particular attention to drivability and comfort. The vibration amplitudes and the natural frequencies of the engine-gearbox system have been considered. Additionally, the loads transmitted to the car body have been taken into account. Both the experimental and the theoretical simulations confirmed that the engine-gearbox vibrations in the range 10 - 15 Hz are particularly sensitive to slight variation of the inertia properties. The effects on engine-gearbox vibrations due to half-axles, exhaust system, pipes and inner engine-gearbox fluids have been highlighted.
Journal Article

NVH of Electric Vehicles with Range Extender

Intensive R&D is currently performed worldwide on hybrid and electric vehicles. For full electric vehicles the driving range is limited by the capacity of currently available batteries. If such a vehicle shall increase its driving range some range extending backup system should be available. Such a Range Extender is a small system of combustion engine and electric generator which produces the required electricity for charging the batteries in time. Since the acoustic response of an electric motor driving the vehicle and of a combustion engine as part of a Range Extender is very different by nature an extensive acoustic tuning of the Range Extender is necessary to meet the requirements of exterior vehicle noise and passenger comfort. This paper describes the NVH (noise, vibration & harshness) development work of a range extender within the AVL approach of an electrically driven passenger car with range extender.
Technical Paper

Impact Welding of Aluminum Alloy 6061 to Dual Phase 780 Steel Using Vaporizing Foil Actuator

Vaporizing Foil Actuators (VFA) are based on the phenomenon of rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils and wires, caused by passage of a capacitor bank driven current on the order of 100 kA. The burst of the conductor is accompanied with a high-pressure pulse, which can be used for working metal at high strain rates. This paper focuses on the use of VFA for collision welding of dissimilar metals, in particular, aluminum and steel. Aluminum alloy 6061 sheets of 1 mm thickness were launched to velocities in excess of 650 m/s with input electrical energy of 8 kJ into 0.0762 mm thick, dog-bone shaped aluminum foil actuators. Target sheets made from dual phase steel (DP780) were impacted with the aluminum flyer sheet, and solid state impact welds were created. During mechanical testing, many samples failed outside the weld area, thereby indicating that the weld was stronger than the parent aluminum.
Journal Article

Ductile Fracture Prediction of Automotive Suspension Components

Characterization of the plastic and ductile fracture behavior of a ferrous casting commonly used for the steering knuckle of an automotive suspension system is presented in this work. Ductile fracture testing for various coupon geometries was conducted to simulate a wide range of stress states. Failure data for the higher stress triaxiality were obtained from tension tests conducted on thin flat specimens, wide flat specimens and axisymmetric specimens with varying notch radii. The data for the lower triaxiality were generated from thin-walled tube specimens subjected to torsional loading and compression tests on cylindrical specimens. The failure envelopes for the material were developed utilizing the test data and finite element (FE) simulations of the corresponding test specimens. Experiments provided the load-displacement response and the location of fracture initiation.
Journal Article

Improved Modeling of Near-Wall Heat Transport for Cooling of Electric and Hybrid Powertrain Components by High Prandtl Number Flow

Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+< 5). As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region.
Technical Paper

The 2-Step VCR Conrod System - Modular System for High Efficiency and Reduced CO2

In order to achieve future CO2 targets - in particular under real driving conditions - different powertrain technologies will have to be introduced. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the internal combustion engine. In addition to further optimization of the combustion processes and the reduction of mechanical losses in the thermal- and energetic systems, the introduction of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is probably the measure with the highest potential for fuel economy improvement. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The basic principle of the AVL VCR system described in this paper is a 2-stage variation of the conrod length and thus the Compression Ratio (CR).