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Technical Paper

A Wind Tunnel Study Correlating the Aerodynamic Effect of Cooling Flows for Full and Reduced Scale Models of a Passenger Car

2010-04-12
2010-01-0759
In the early stages of an aerodynamic development programme of a road vehicle it is common to use wind tunnel scale models. The obvious reasons for using scale models are that they are less costly to build and model scale wind tunnels are relatively inexpensive to operate. It is therefore desirable for model scale testing to be utilized even more than it is today. This however, requires that the scale models are highly detailed and that the results correlate with those of the full size vehicle. This paper presents a correlation study that was carried out in the Chalmers and Volvo Car Aerodynamic Wind Tunnels. The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully a correlation of the cooling air flow between a detailed scale model and a real full size vehicle could be achieved. Results show limited correlation on absolute global aerodynamic loads, but relative good correlation in drag and lift increments.
Technical Paper

Interference between Engine Bay Flow and External Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0288
This study focus on the aerodynamic influence of the engine bay packaging, with special emphasis on the density of packaging and its effect on cooling and exterior flow. For the study, numerical and experimental methods where combined to exploit the advantages of each method. The geometry used for the study was a model of Volvo S60 sedan type passenger car, carrying a detailed representation of the cooling package, engine bay and underbody area. In the study it was found that there is an influence on the exterior aerodynamics of the vehicle with respect to the packaging of the engine bay. Furthermore, it is shown that by evacuating a large amount of the cooling air through the wheel houses a reduction in drag can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Race Car Aerodynamics - The Design Process of an Aerodynamic Package for the 2012 Chalmers Formula SAE Car

2013-04-08
2013-01-0797
This paper describes the design process of a full aerodynamic package of a Formula SAE (FSAE) style race car. The meaning of a full aerodynamic package in this context is a front wing, a rear wing and a diffuser; the focus will however be on the wings. The vehicle for which the aerodynamic package is designed is the Chalmers Formula Student (CFS) 2012 FSAE car, but vehicle data logged from the CFS 2011 FSAE car was used during the design phase. This data was used to evaluate how the aerodynamic package will influence the behaviour of the vehicle, both in terms of lateral and longitudinal acceleration as well as fuel consumption, in order to determine whether or not an aerodynamic package can enhance the vehicle performance. The main tool used during the design process was numerical simulations (computational fluid dynamics, CFD) and special attention was paid to post-processing of these simulations.
Technical Paper

Cooling Performance Investigation of a Rear Mounted Cooling Package for Heavy Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0174
The aim of the study was to investigate the cooling performance of two cooling package positions for distribution vehicles by using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The first cooling package was positioned in the front of the vehicle, behind the grill and the second position was at the rear of the vehicle. Each case was evaluated by its cooling performance for a critical driving situation and its aerodynamic drag at 90 km/h, where the largest challenge of an alternative position is the cooling air availability. The geometry used was a semi-generic commercial vehicle, based on a medium size distribution truck with a heat rejection value set to a fixed typical level at maximum power for a 13 litre Euro 6 diesel engine. The heat exchangers included in the study were the air conditioning condenser, the charge air cooler and the radiator. It was found that the main problem with the rear mounted cooling installation was the combination of the fan and the geometry after the fan.
Technical Paper

Exploration and Improvement of Road Vehicle Aerodynamics using LES

2011-04-12
2011-01-0176
The paper discusses an appropriate usage of large eddy simulation (LES) in external vehicle aerodynamics. Three different applications, wheelhouse flow, gusty flow and active flow control, are used to demonstrate how LES can be used to obtain new knowledge about vehicle flows. The three examples illustrate the information that can be extracted using LES in vehicle aerodynamics and show the potential of LES in explorations of this complex flow.
Technical Paper

Influence of Different Truck and Trailer Combinations on the Aerodynamic Drag

2011-04-12
2011-01-0179
The aim with this investigation was to study the aerodynamic properties of truck-trailer combinations of varying lengths. The aerodynamic properties of the combinations were evaluated in order to study similarities and differences in the flow field between different configurations. By the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) six different types of truck-trailer combinations used for long hauling have been evaluated. The combinations have a total length varying between 10.10 m and 25.25 m and consist of either a tractor or rigid truck in combination with one or two cargo units. All of the combinations are commonly found on roads in Sweden and several other countries in Europe. The results from the simulations show that the aerodynamic properties differ significantly for the truck-trailer combinations. It was found that the longer vehicle combinations are much more sensitive to yaw conditions than the shorter combinations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ground Simulation on the Aerodynamic Coefficients of a Production Car in Yaw Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0755
Automotive wind tunnel testing is a key element in the development of the aerodynamics of road vehicles. Continuous advancements are made in order to decrease the differences between actual on-road conditions and wind tunnel test properties and the importance of ground simulation with relative motion of the ground and rotating wheels has been the topic of several studies. This work presents a study on the effect of active ground simulation, using moving ground and rotating wheels, on the aerodynamic coefficients on a passenger car in yawed conditions. Most of the published studies on the effects of ground simulation cover only zero yaw conditions and only a few earlier investigations covering ground simulation during yaw were found in the existing literature and all considered simplified models. To further investigate this, a study on a full size sedan type vehicle of production status was performed in the Volvo Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel.
Technical Paper

Continuing Cooling Performance Investigation of a Rear Mounted Cooling Package for Heavy Vehicles

2011-09-13
2011-01-2285
This investigation is a continuing analysis of the cooling performance and aerodynamic properties of a rear-mounted cooling module on a semi-generic commercial vehicle, which was carried out by Larsson, Löfdahl and Wiklund. In the previous study two designs of the cooling package installation were positioned behind the rear wheelhouse and the results were compared to a front-mounted cooling module. The investigation was mainly focused on a critical cooling situation occurring at lower vehicle speeds for a local distribution vehicle. The conclusion from the study was that the cooling performance for one of the rear-mounted installation was favorable compared to the front-mounted cooling package. This was mainly due to the low vehicle speed, the high fan speed and to fewer obstacles around the cooling module resulting in a lower system restriction within the installation.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Stratified Turbulent Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Engine Using an Open-Source Code

2014-04-01
2014-01-1126
In recent years, a free, open source CFD software package called OpenFOAM has been attracting increasing amounts of attention as a promising, inexpensive, and efficient CFD tool for the numerical simulation of processes such as fuel injection and evaporation, turbulent mixing and burning. Here, we describe the further development of OpenFOAM to enable its use in simulating stratified turbulent combustion in DI SI engines. Advanced models of various phenomena relevant to partially premixed turbulent flames were implemented into the code, and the effects of these implementations were investigated by performing unsteady 3D RANS simulations of stratified turbulent burning in a DI SI engine. First, the Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model of premixed turbulent combustion was implemented. Second, a method for evaluating the mean density in premixed turbulent flames that is available in the standard OpenFOAM library was improved.
Journal Article

Comparative Studies between CFD and Wind Tunnel Measurements of Cooling Performance and External Aerodynamics for a Heavy Truck

2014-09-30
2014-01-2443
Nowadays, much focus for vehicle manufacturers is directed towards improving the energy efficiency of their products. The aerodynamic drag constitutes one major part of the total driving resistance for a vehicle travelling at higher speeds. In fact, above approximately 80km/h the aerodynamic drag is the dominating resistance acting on a truck. Hence the importance of reducing this resistance is apparent. Cooling drag is one part of the total aerodynamic drag, which arises from air flowing through the heat exchangers, and the irregular under-hood area. When using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the development process it is of great importance to ensure that the methods used are accurately capturing the physics of the flow. This paper deals with comparative studies between CFD and wind-tunnel tests. In this paper, two comparative studies are presented.
Journal Article

Parameter Estimation of a DOC from Engine Rig Experiments with a Discretized Catalyst Washcoat Model

2014-07-01
2014-01-9049
Parameter tuning was performed against data from a full scale engine rig with a Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC). Several different catalyst configurations were used with varying Pt loading, washcoat thickness and volume. To illustrate the interplay between kinetics and mass transport, engine operating points were chosen with a wide variation in variables (inlet conditions) and both transient and stationary operation was used. A catalyst model was developed where the catalyst washcoat was discretized as tanks in series both radially and axially. Three different model configurations were used for parameter tuning, evaluating three different approaches to modeling of internal transport resistance. It was concluded that for a catalyst model with internal transport resistance the best fit could be achieved if some parameters affecting the internal mass transport were tuned in addition to the kinetic parameters.
Journal Article

Investigation of Wheel Aerodynamic Resistance of Passenger Cars

2014-04-01
2014-01-0606
There are a number of numerical and experimental studies of the aerodynamic performance of wheels that have been published. They show that wheels and wheel-housing flows are responsible for a substantial part of the total aerodynamic drag on passenger vehicles. Previous investigations have also shown that aerodynamic resistance moment acting on rotating wheels, sometimes referred to as ventilation resistance or ventilation torque is a significant contributor to the total aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle; therefore it should not be neglected when designing the wheel-housing area. This work presents a numerical study of the wheel ventilation resistance moment and factors that affect it, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is demonstrated how pressure and shear forces acting on different rotating parts of the wheel affect the ventilation torque. It is also shown how a simple change of rim design can lead to a significant decrease in power consumption of the vehicle.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Wheel Housing Aerodynamics on Heavy Trucks

2012-04-16
2012-01-0106
Wheel and underbody aerodynamics have become important topics in the search to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the heavy trucks. This study aims to investigate, experimentally as well as numerically, the local flow field around the wheels and in the wheel housing on a heavy truck; and how different approaches to modelling the wheel rotation in CFD influences the results. Emphasis is on effects due to ground simulation, and both moving ground and wheel rotation were requirements for this study. A 1:4-scale model of part of a heavy truck geometry has been developed. During the model design numerical simulations were used to optimise the shape, in order to replicate the flow field near the wheel of a complete truck. This was done by changing the flow angles of the incoming and exiting flows, and by keeping the mass flow rates in to, and out of, the wheel housing at the same ratios as in a reference full size vehicle.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Investigation of Gap Treatment- and Chassis Skirts Strategies for a Novel Long-Haul Vehicle Combination

2012-09-24
2012-01-2044
Constantly lowering emissions legislation and the fact that fuel prices have increased tremendously over recent years, have forced vehicle manufacturers to develop more and more energy-efficient vehicles. The aerodynamic drag is responsible for a substantial part of the total driving resistance for a vehicle, especially at higher velocities; thus it is important to reduce this factor as much as possible for vehicles commonly operating in these conditions. In an attempt to improve transport efficiency, longer vehicle combinations are becoming more common. By replacing some of the shorter vehicle combinations with longer combinations, the same amount of cargo can be transported with fewer vehicles; hence there is large potential for fuel savings. The knowledge of the aerodynamic properties of such vehicles is somewhat limited, and therefore interesting to study.
Journal Article

Performance of an Automotive Under-Body Diffuser Applied to a Sedan and a Wagon Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0952
Reducing resistance forces all over the vehicle is the most sustainable way to reduce fuel consumption. Aerodynamic drag is the dominating resistance force at highway speeds, and the power required to overcome this force increases by the power three of speed. The exterior body and especially the under-body and rear-end geometry of a passenger car are significant contributors to the overall aerodynamic drag. To reduce the aerodynamic drag it is of great importance to have a good pressure recovery at the rear. Since pressure drag is the dominating aerodynamic drag force for a passenger vehicle, the drag force will be a measure of the difference between the pressure in front and at the rear. There is high stagnation pressure at the front which requires a base pressure as high as possible. The pressure will recover from the sides by a taper angle, from the top by the rear wind screen, and from the bottom, by a diffuser.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Roof Deflector and Cab Side Extenders for Truck-Trailer Combinations

2011-09-13
2011-01-2284
Today there are a large variety of drag-reducing devices for heavy trucks that are commonly used, for example, roof deflectors, cab side extenders and chassis fairings. These devices are often proven to be efficient, reducing the total aerodynamic resistance for the vehicle. However, the drag-reducing devices are usually identical for a specific pulling vehicle, independent of the layout of the vehicle combination. In this study, three vehicle combinations were analyzed. The total length of the vehicles varied between 10.10 m and 25.25 m. The combinations consisted of a rigid truck in combination with one or two cargo units. The size of the gap between the cargo units differed between the vehicle combinations. There were also three configurations of each vehicle combination with different combinations of roof deflector and cab side extenders, yielding a total number of nine configurations.
Journal Article

Investigation of Wheel Ventilation-Drag using a Modular Wheel Design Concept

2013-04-08
2013-01-0953
Passenger car fuel consumption is a constant concern for automotive companies and the contribution to fuel consumption from aerodynamics is well known. Several studies have been published on the aerodynamics of wheels. One area of wheel aerodynamics discussed in some of these earlier works is the so-called ventilation resistance. This study investigates ventilation resistance on a number of 17 inch rims, in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel. The ventilation resistance was measured using a custom-built suspension with a tractive force measurement system installed in the Wheel Drive Units (WDUs). The study aims at identifying wheel design factors that have significant effect on the ventilation resistance for the investigated wheel size. The results show that it was possible to measure similar power requirements to rotate the wheels as was found in previous works.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Effects of Different Tire Models on a Sedan Type Passenger Car

2012-04-16
2012-01-0169
Targets for reducing emissions and improving energy efficiency present the automotive industry with many challenges. Passenger cars are by far the most common means of personal transport in the developed part of the world, and energy consumption related to personal transportation is predicted to increase significantly in the coming decades. Improved aerodynamic performance of passenger cars will be one of many important areas which will occupy engineers and researchers for the foreseeable future. The significance of wheels and wheel housings is well known today, but the relative importance of the different components has still not been fully investigated. A number of investigations highlighting the importance of proper ground simulation have been published, and recently a number of studies on improved aerodynamic design of the wheel have been presented as well. This study is an investigation of aerodynamic influences of different tires.
Technical Paper

Wing-Diffuser Interaction on a Sports Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-1433
Amongst the aerodynamic devices often found on race cars, the diffuser is one of the most important items. The diffuser can work both to reduce drag and also to increase downforce. It has been shown in previously published studies, that the efficiency of the diffuser is a function of the diffuser angle, ground clearance and most importantly, the base pressure. The base pressure of a car is defined by the shape of the car and in particular the shape at the rear end, including the rear wheels. Furthermore, on most race cars, a wing is mounted at the rear end. Since the rear wheels and wing will influence the base pressure it is believed that, for a modern race car, there could be a strong interaction between these items and the diffuser. This work aims to systematically study the interaction between the rear wheels and wing; and the diffuser of a contemporary, sports car type, race vehicle.
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