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Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Engine - the Influence of Nozzle Parameters on Combustion and Spray Development

DME was tested in a heavy duty diesel engine and in an optically accessible high-temperature and pressure spray chamber in order to investigate and understand the effect of nozzle parameters on emissions, combustion and fuel spray concentration. The engine study clearly showed that smaller nozzle orifices were advantageous from combustion, efficiency and emissions considerations. Heat release analysis and fuel concentration images indicate that smaller orifices result in higher mixing rate between fuel and air due to reductions in the turbulence length scale, which reduce both the magnitude of fuel-rich regions and the steepness of fuel gradients in the spray, which enable more fuel to burn and thereby shorten the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Fischer-Tropsch Fuels in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Experiments were performed using a Light-Duty, single-cylinder, research engine in which the emissions, fuel consumption and combustion characteristics of two Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Diesel fuels derived from natural gas and two conventional Diesel fuels (Swedish low sulfur Diesel and European EN 590 Diesel) were compared. Due to their low aromatic contents combustion with the F-T Diesel fuels resulted in lower soot emissions than combustion with the conventional Diesel fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were also significantly lower with F-T fuel combustion. Moreover the F-T fuels tended to yield lower CO emissions than the conventional Diesel fuels. The low emissions from the F-T Diesel fuels, and the potential for producing such fuels from biomass, are powerful reason for future interest and research in this field.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Identification, and Separation of Crankshaft Dynamics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Mathematical models of a torque sensor equipped crankshaft in a light-duty diesel engine are identified, validated, and compared. The models are based on in-cylinder pressure and crankshaft torque data collected from a 5-cylinder common-rail diesel engine running at multiple operating points. The work is motivated by the need of a crankshaft model in a closed-loop combustion control system based on crankshaft torque measurements. In such a system a crankshaft model is used in order to separate the measured crankshaft torque into cylinder individual torque contributions. A method for this is described and used for IMEP estimation. Not surprisingly, the results indicate that higher order models are able to estimate crankshaft torque more accurately than lower order models, even if the differences are small. For IMEP estimation using the cylinder separation method however, these differences have large effects on accuracy.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Engine - The Influence of Methanol and Water in the Fuel

In the study reported here the combustion and emission characteristics of a heavy duty six-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with dimethyl ether (DME) of chemical grade and DME with small and varying amounts of methanol and/or water were experimentally investigated. In addition, the size distribution of emitted particles and selected unregulated emissions were sampled. Methanol and water additions had a very limited effect on emissions, but affected the combustion processes in a way that accentuated the premixed combustion and thus caused more energy to be released early in the cycle. At high load, however, the effect was reversed, due to the lack of distinct premixed combustion. The results confirm that DME combustion does not generate any accumulation mode particles. The particles that are detected are smaller than the soot size range and do not occur in greater numbers than those from a diesel engine in the corresponding size range.
Technical Paper

Optical Studies of Spray Development and Combustion Characterization of Oxygenated and Fischer-Tropsch Fuels

Optical studies of combusting diesel sprays were done on three different alternative liquid fuels and compared to Swedish environmental class 1 diesel fuel (MK1). The alternative fuels were Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester (RME), Palm Oil Methyl Ester (PME) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel. The studies were carried out in the Chalmers High Pressure High Temperature spray rig under conditions similar to those prevailing in a direct-injected diesel engine prior to injection. High speed shadowgraphs were acquired to measure the penetration of the continuous liquid phase, droplets and ligaments, and vapor penetration. Flame temperatures and relative soot concentrations were measured by emission based, line-of-sight, optical methods. A comparison between previous engine tests and spray rig experiments was conducted in order to provide a deeper explanation of the combustion phenomena in the engine tests.
Technical Paper

A Test-Rig for Parametric Studies of the Car Seat

Previous studies have shown that car seat properties play an important role for the occupant protection during various types of accidents. An improved understanding of the interaction between the occupant and the seat is therefore desirable, since this could lead to enhanced protective capacities of future car seats. In this work a test-rig has been developed and constructed, by means of which it is possible to study the response from various seats during frontal collisions. With small modifications the test-rig can be utilized to study other collision directions as well. The rig has been used in a test series, which comprises four car seats in altogether 14 tests. In order to evaluate the interaction between the seat and the dummy, measurements have been made on: the seat frame; the floor connections; the seat belt; the submarine-beam; and on several locations in the dummy.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Brake Judder by use of Amplitude Functions

Brake judder is a forced vibration occurring in different types of vehicles. The frequency of the vibration can be as high as 500 Hz, but usually remains below 100 Hz and often as low as 10-20 Hz. The driver experiences judder as vibrations in the steering wheel, brake pedal and floor. For high frequency brake judder, the structural vibrations are accompanied by a sound. In the present paper the vibration amplitude (in terms of angular deflection, velocity or acceleration) of the caliper has been used as a quantitative measure of the vibration level. Brake Torque Variation (BTV) is the primary excitation for the vibrations. The mechanical effects generating BTV are linked not only to manufacturing tolerances but also to tribological issues. Uneven disc wear as well as Thermo-Elastic Instabilities (TEI) can lead to judder. Especially the effect of the wheel suspension on the transfer of the vibrations to the driver has to be considered.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Engine Model, including Compression Brake for, Powertrain Control

A diesel engine model, designed for studying events during automated gear shifting in a heavy duty truck is presented. It will be used for developing and evaluating powertrain control strategies. The deceleration in engine speed to the new synchronous speed, during an upshift, is of special intereset. The straightforward approach is to cut fuel and wait for the engine to slow down due to friction and pumping losses. In many cases, this approach is too slow, and the engine compression brake needs to be activated. The engine model, assuming quasi-steady, bidirectional thermodynamic flow with constant specific heat capacities, is implemented using Modelica. A simple model of the hydraulic circuit that governs the activation of the compression brake mode is incorporated in the model. Problems related to the simulation of the engine brake systems are discussed. They are handled by empirical correction factors. Measurements from rapid engine speed decelerations are used for verification.
Technical Paper

Inertia Collection Applied to Vehicle Emissions

The INCOLL or INertia COLLection system described in this paper, should meet the requirements for a short transient test, without using any chassis dynamometer. To prove this point not only the background of its principles are described, but also results from its application both to S I engines with and without catalytic converters and to truck diesel engines. Special interest has been devoted to the oxygen sensor and converter efficiency and their response both during warm up and under transient conditions. The simplification of the analyzing equipment and the direct interpretation of the results, have been dealt with, as well as the repeativity of the results achieved. The INCOLL test may also have a potential use as quality test at the end of the production line and as a tool for reliability development as well as research and development within the field. The cost for an INCOLL test is estimated to be around one (1) percent of a normal FTP certification procedure.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Hydrogen Peroxide Fumigation into the Inlet Duct of a Diesel Engine

Believed to have a potential in reducing the NOx emission level, hydrogen peroxide was fumigated into the inlet duct of the AVL single cylinder research engine via a standard gasoline injector, normally used in the Volvo 850-car engine. A small metallic sphere installed 3 cm downstream the injector tip, improved the spray formation and the uniform distribution of the fumigated peroxide fluid upstream the intake valve. The hydrogen peroxide flow was varied according to the desired value via an electronic pulse frequency generator. The engine, equipped with an electronic unit injector, was initially run without any fumigation fluid until the specifications of the engine test point were reached and remained very stable. Further, the hydrogen peroxide injection was activated with three different injection flows, and the engine performance, including emission levels, was compared to reference performance.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Shearing and Bending Response of the Knee Joint to a Lateral Impact

The shearing and bending injury mechanisms of the knee joint are recognised as two important injury mechanisms associated with car-pedestrian crash accidents. A study on shearing and bending response of the knee joint to a lateral impact loading was conducted with a 3D multibody system model of the lower extremity. The model consists of foot, leg and thigh with concentrated upper body mass. The body elements are connected by joints, including an anatomical knee joint unit that consists of the femur condyles, tibia condyles and tibia1 intercondylar eminence as well as ligaments. The biomechanical properties of the model were derived from literature data. The model was used to simulate two series of previously performed experiments with lower extremity specimens at lateral impact speeds of 15 and 20 km/h.
Technical Paper

Testing and Evaluation of Ignition Improvers for Ethanol in a DI Diesel Engine

The ignition delay of ethanol with different nitrate and polyethylene glycol based ignition improvers was investigated in a single-cylinder DI Diesel engine. The nitrate-based improvers provided a shorter ignition delay than the polyethylene glycol improvers, but the results indicate that the efficiency of the polyethylene glycol improvers increases with the length of the molecular chains. Comparison with reference fuels gives a cetane number of approximately 44 for ethanol with 4% of the best nitrate-based improver versus 40 for ethanol with 7% polyethylene glycol improver. It is shown, that the random ignition delay for all the fuels has a normal distribution, and that the reference fuel of every measurement series has a constant expected ignition delay. Ignition delay measurements in a constant-volume combustion vessel failed to produce the same trends as in the engine for the ethanol fuels.
Technical Paper

Speed Limit in City Area and Improvement of Vehicle Front Design for Pedestrian Impact Protection-A Computer Simulation Study

This paper presented a part of results from an ongoing project for pedestrian protection, which is carried out at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. A validated pedestrian mathematical model was used in this study to simulate vehicle-pedestrian impacts. A large number of simulations have been carried out with various parameters. The injury-related parameters concerning head, chest, pelvis and lower extremities were calculated to evaluate the effect of impact speed and vehicle front structure on the risk of pedestrian injuries. The effect of following vehicle parameters was studied: stiffness of bumper, hood edge, hood top, windscreen frame, and shape of vehicle front structures. A parameter study was conducted by modelling vehicle-pedestrian impacts with various sizes of cars, mini vans, and light trucks. This choice represents the trends of new vehicle fleet and their frequency of involvement in real world accidents.
Technical Paper

Combustion of Fischer-Tropsch, RME and Conventional Fuels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

This investigation includes a comparison of two Fischer Tropsch (FT) fuels derived from natural gas and a Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) fuel with Swedish low sulfur Diesel in terms of emissions levels, fuel consumption and combustion parameters. The engine used in the study was an AVL single cylinder heavy-duty engine, equipped with a cylinder head of a Volvo D12 engine. Two loads (25% and 100%) were investigated at a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm. The engine was calibrated to operate in different levels of EGR and with variable injections timings. A design of experiments was constructed to investigate the effects of these variables, and to identify optimal settings. The results showed that the soot emissions yielded by FT and RME fuels are up to 40 and 80 percent lower than those yielded by the Swedish Diesel. In addition the FT fuel gave slightly lower, and the RME significant higher NOx emissions than the Swedish Diesel.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Diesel Engine - an Experimental Study

Combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether, DME, have been investigated experimentally, in a heavy duty single cylinder engine equipped with an adapted common rail fuel injection system, and the effects of varying injection timing, rail pressure and exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion and emission parameters. The results show that DME combustion does not produce soot and with the use of exhaust gas recirculation NOX emissions can also be reduced to very low levels. However, high injection pressure and/or a DME adopted combustion system is required to improve the mixing process and thus reduce the combustion duration and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

The Role of Aerodynamics in the 1955 Le Mans Crash

In the 1955 Le Mans race the worst crash in motor racing history occurred and this accident would change the face of motor racing for decades. After the crash numerous investigations on the disaster were performed, and fifty years after some interesting books were launched on the subject. However, a number of key questions remain unsolved; and one open area is the influence of aerodynamics on the scenario, since the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR involved in the crash was equipped with an air-brake and its influence on the accident is basically unknown. This work may be considered as a first attempt to establish CFD as a tool to aid in resolving aerodynamic aspects in motor sport accidents and in the present paper, CFD has been used to investigate the aerodynamics and estimate the drag and lift coefficients of the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR used in the Le Mans race of 1955.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Two-Stroke Free Piston Engine

The free piston internal combustion engine used in conjunction with a linear alternator offers an interesting choice for use in hybrid vehicles. The linear motion of the pistons is directly converted to electricity by the alternator, and the result is a compact and efficient energy converter that has only one moving part. The movement of the pistons is not prescribed by a crank mechanism, but is the result of the equilibrium of forces acting on the pistons, and the engine will act like a mass-spring system. This feature is one of the most prominent advantages of the FPE (Free Piston Engine), as the lack of mechanical linkage gives means of varying the compression ratio in simple manners, without changing the hardware of the engine. By varying the compression ratio, it is also it possible to run on a multitude of different fuels and to use HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion.
Technical Paper

Sulphur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Trap Catalyst for Direct Injected Gasoline Engines

Sulphur poisoning and regeneration of NOx trap catalysts have been studied in synthetic exhausts and in an engine bench. Sulphur gradually poisoned the NOx storage sites in the axial direction of the NOx trap. During sulphur regenerations, hydrogen was found to be more efficient than carbon monoxide in removing the sulphur from the trap. The sulphur regeneration became more efficient the richer the environment (λ<1) and the higher the temperature (at least 600°C). H2S was found to be the main product during the sulphur regeneration. However, it was possible to reduce the H2S formation and instead produce more SO2 by running with lambda close to one or by pulsing lambda. Even if a relatively large amount of sulphur was removed from the NOx trap, these methods gave a much less efficient regeneration per sulphur atom removed than when running relatively rich constantly. Finally, a model that could explain this observation was proposed.
Technical Paper

A Catalytic NOX After-Treatment System for Heavy-Duty Trucks Using Diesel Fuel as Reducing Agent

An advanced catalytic exhaust after-treatment system addresses the problem of NOX emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks, relying on real-time catalyst modelling. The system consists of de-NOX catalysts, a device for injection of a reducing agent (diesel fuel) upstream the catalysts, and computer programmes to control the injection of the reducing agent and to model the engine and catalysts in real time. Experiments with 5 different air-assisted injectors were performed to determine the effect of injector design on the distribution of the injected diesel in the exhaust gas stream. A two-injector set-up was investigated to determine whether system efficiency could be increased without increasing the amount of catalyst or the amount of reducing agent necessary for the desired outcome. The results were verified by performing European standard transient cycle tests as well as stationary tests.