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Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

2011-11-29
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Technical Paper

Reduction of Soot Emissions from a Direct Injection Diesel Engine using Water-in-Diesel Emulsion and Microemulsion Fuels

2007-04-16
2007-01-1076
The emissions from a direct injection diesel engine measured according to the ECE R49 13-mode cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation are compared for diesel fuel without water addition, and for water-in-diesel as emulsion and microemulsion. The effect of water addition on the soot emissions was remarkably strong for both the emulsion and microemulsion fuels. The average weighted soot emission values for the 13-mode cycle were 0.0024 and 0.0023 g/kWh for the two most interesting emulsion and microemulsion fuels tested, respectively; 5-fold lower than the US 2007 emission limit.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Engine - the Influence of Nozzle Parameters on Combustion and Spray Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0841
DME was tested in a heavy duty diesel engine and in an optically accessible high-temperature and pressure spray chamber in order to investigate and understand the effect of nozzle parameters on emissions, combustion and fuel spray concentration. The engine study clearly showed that smaller nozzle orifices were advantageous from combustion, efficiency and emissions considerations. Heat release analysis and fuel concentration images indicate that smaller orifices result in higher mixing rate between fuel and air due to reductions in the turbulence length scale, which reduce both the magnitude of fuel-rich regions and the steepness of fuel gradients in the spray, which enable more fuel to burn and thereby shorten the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Spray-Wall Interaction of Diesel Sprays

2009-04-20
2009-01-0842
Wall wetting can occur irrespective of combustion concept in diesel engines, e.g. during the compression stroke. This action has been related to engine-out emissions in different ways, and an experimental investigation of impinging diesel sprays is thus made for a standard diesel fuel and a two-component model fuel (IDEA). The experiment was performed at conditions corresponding to those found during the compression stroke in a heavy duty diesel engine. The spray characteristics of two fuels were measured using two different optical methods: a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and high-speed imaging. A temperature controlled wall equipped with rapid, coaxial thermocouples was used to record the change in surface temperature from the heat transfer of the impinging sprays.
Technical Paper

The EGR Effects on Combustion Regimes in Compression Ignited Engines

2007-09-16
2007-24-0040
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of exhaust gases on different combustion modes in DI, Direct Injection, compression ignited engines in terms of combustion efficiency and emission formations. The conventional parametric Φ -T (Equivalence Ratio-Temperature) emission map analysis has been extended by constructing the transient maps for different species characterizing the combustion and emission formation processes. The results of the analysis prove the efficiency of different combustion modes when EGR loads and injection scenarios.
Technical Paper

A Model of Turbocharged Engines as Dynamic Drivetrain Members

1993-11-01
933050
An engine model for use in computer simulation of transient behavior in drivetrain and vehicle systems is presented. Two elements, important for deviation (e.g. turbo-lag) from steady state characteristics, are the inertia of the supercharging unit (turbo shaft) and the fuel injection control system. No extensive combustion calculations are carried out within the model. Instead it uses condensed results from existing combustion models and measurements. The model is semi-empirical. Some of the engine specific properties needed for simulation are (e.g. for a turbocharged diesel): engine data in steady state operation, mappings of compressor and turbine performance, inertia of the engine components condensed to the crankshaft, turbo shaft inertia, displacement, compression ratio and the essentials of the fuel injection control strategy. Input parameters to the computer program based on the model are accelerator pedal position and external torque acting on the flywheel.
Technical Paper

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

2011-09-13
2011-01-2182
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. To model the cooling airflow process accurately in CFD, it is of utmost importance to model all components in the cooling airflow path accurately. These components are the heat exchangers, fan and engine bay blockage effect. This paper presents CFD simulations together with correlating measurements of a cooling airflow system placed in a test rig. The system contains a heavy duty truck louvered fin radiator core, fan shroud, fan ring and fan. Behind the cooling module and fan, a 1D engine silhouette is placed to mimic the blockage done by a truck engine. Furthermore, a simple hood is mounted over the module to mimic the guiding of air done by the hood shape in an engine bay.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Stratified Combustion in Spray-guided Direct Injection Spark-ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1420
Stratified combustion in gasoline engines constitutes a promising means of achieving higher thermal efficiency for low to medium engine loads than that achieved with combustion under standard homogeneous conditions. However, creating a charge that leads to a stable efficient low-emission stratified combustion process remains challenging. Combustion through a stratified charge depends strongly on the dynamics of the turbulent fuel-air mixing process and the flame propagation. Predictive simulation tools are required to elucidate this complex mixing and combustion process under stratified conditions. For the simulation of mixing processes, combustion models based on large-eddy turbulence modeling have typically outperformed the standard Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes methods.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Methane Direct Injection with Stratified Charge Combustion in Optical SI Single Cylinder Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0797
This paper assesses methane low pressure direct injection with stratified charge in a SI engine to highlight its potential and downsides. Experiments were carried out in a spark ignited single cylinder optical engine with stratified, homogeneous lean and stoichiometric operational mode, with focus on stratified mode. A dual coil ignition system was used in stratified mode in order to achieve sufficient combustion stability. The fuel injection pressure for the methane was 18 bar. Results show that stratified combustion with methane spark ignited direct injection is possible at 18 bar fuel pressure and that the indicated specific fuel consumption in stratified mode was 28% lower compared to the stoichiometric mode. Combustion and emission spectrums during the combustion process were captured with two high-speed video cameras. Combustion images, cylinder pressure data and heat release analysis showed that there are fairly high cycle-to-cycle variations in the combustion.
Technical Paper

Impact of Conventional and Electrified Powertrains on Fuel Economy in Various Driving Cycles

2017-03-28
2017-01-0903
Many technological developments in automobile powertrains have been implemented in order to increase efficiency and comply with emission regulations. Although most of these technologies show promising results in official fuel economy tests, their benefits in real driving conditions and real driving emissions can vary significantly, since driving profiles of many drivers are different than the official driving cycles. Therefore, it is important to assess these technologies under different driving conditions and this paper aims to offer an overall perspective, with a numerical study in simulations. The simulations are carried out on a compact passenger car model with eight powertrain configurations including: a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine, a start-stop system, a downsized engine with a turbocharger, a Miller cycle engine, cylinder deactivation, turbocharged downsized Miller engine, a parallel hybrid electric vehicle powertrain and an electric vehicle powertrain.
Technical Paper

HCCI Operation of a Passenger Car Common Rail DI Diesel Engine With Early Injection of Conventional Diesel Fuel

2004-03-08
2004-01-0935
The possibilities of operating a direct injection Diesel engine in HCCI combustion mode with early injection of conventional Diesel fuel were investigated. In order to properly phase the combustion process in the cycle and to prevent knock, the geometric compression ratio was reduced from 17.0:1 to 13.4:1 or 11.5:1. Further control of the phasing and combustion rate was achieved with high rates of cooled EGR. The engine used for the experiments was a single cylinder version of a modern passenger car type common rail engine with a displacement of 480 cc. An injector with a small included angle was used to prevent interaction of the spray and the cylinder liner. In order to create a homogeneous mixture, the fuel was injected by multiple short injections during the compression stroke. The low knock resistance of the Diesel fuel limited the operating conditions to low loads. Compared to conventional Diesel combustion, the NOx emissions were dramatically reduced.
Technical Paper

Location of the First Auto-Ignition Sites for Two HCCI Systems in a Direct Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0564
To elucidate the processes controlling the auto-ignition timing and overall combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the distribution of the auto-ignition sites, in both space and time, was studied. The auto-ignition locations were investigated using optical diagnosis of HCCI combustion, based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of formaldehyde in an optical engine with fully variable valve actuation. This engine was operated in two different modes of HCCI. In the first, auto-ignition temperatures were reached by heating the inlet air, while in the second, residual mass from the previous combustion cycle was trapped using a negative valve overlap. The fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber in both approaches. To complement these experiments, 3-D numerical modeling of the gas exchange and compression stroke events was done for both HCCI-generating approaches.
Technical Paper

Spark Assisted HCCI Combustion Using a Stratified Hydrogen Charge

2005-09-11
2005-24-039
Future requirements for emission reduction from combustion engines in ground vehicles might be met by using the HCCI combustion concept. In this concept a more or less homogenous air fuel mixture is compressed to auto ignition. This gives good fuel consumption compared to a normal SI engine and its ability to burn lean mixtures at low temperatures has a positive impact on exhaust emissions. However, there are challenges associated with this concept, for instance its limited operating range and combustion control. The objective of this work is to investigate a hybrid concept, based on a combination of HCCI combustion of n-heptane and SI combustion of hydrogen. The basic idea is to initiate HCCI combustion with a spark ignited stratified lean hydrogen mixture. To verify that the combustion sequence consists of flame front combustion followed by HCCI combustion, photographs of OH chemiluminescence from the combustion were taken.
Technical Paper

Large-Scale CFD Approach for Spray Combustion Modelling in Compression-Ignited Engines

2005-09-11
2005-24-052
Computational simulations of the spray combustion and emissions formation processes in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine and in a small-bore DI diesel engine with a complicated injection schedule were performed by using the modified KIVA3V, rel. 2 code. Some initial parameter sets varying engine operating conditions, such as injection pressure, injector nozzle diameter, EGR load, were examined in order to evaluate their effects on the engine performance. Full-scale combustion chamber representations on 360-deg, Cartesian and polar, multiblock meshes with a different number of sprays have been used in the modelling unlike the conventional approach based on polar sector meshes covering the region around one fuel spray. The spray combustion phenomena were simulated using the detailed chemical mechanism for diesel fuel surrogate (69 species and 306 reactions).
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation Accounting for the Finite-Rate Elementary Chemical Reactions for Computing Diesel Combustion Process

2005-09-11
2005-24-051
To facilitate research and development of diesel engines, the universal numerical code for predicting diesel combustion has been favored for the past decade. In this paper, the finite-rate elementary chemical reactions, sometimes called the detailed chemical reactions, are introduced into the KIVA-3V code through the use of the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model with the KH-RT break-up, modified collision and velocity interpolation models. Outcomes were such that the predicted pressure histories have favorable agreements with the measurements of single and double injection cases in the diesel engine for use in passenger cars. Thus, it is demonstrated that the present model will be a useful tool for predicting ignition and combustion characteristics encountered in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Fuel equivalence ratio and EGR impact on premixed combustion rate and emission output, on a Heavy-Duty Diesel engine

2005-09-11
2005-24-046
This study aims to show how both NOx and soot are affected by EGR dilution when constant, as well as variations in equivalence ratio is applied together with multiple injection strategies. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder heavy duty research engine. The effects of both EGR and equivalence ratio on partly premixed combustion were investigated. Multiple injections strategies were combined with high EGR levels and lean mixtures. Multiple injections were used to control the combustion phasing and the level of the premixed combustion rate. The diesel combustion conditioning by means of premixed combustion rate, EGR level and oxidant equivalence ratio, leads to low engine emissions. In the load range and configuration tested, emission levels below future emission standards e.g. EURO V have been shown, with no BSFC penalty or exhaust aftertreatment.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion Regimes in Compression Ignited Engines Using Parametric φ-T Dynamic Maps

2007-07-23
2007-01-1838
The main purpose of this study is to apply the parametric φ-T (Equivalence Ratio-Temperature) map analysis coupled with 3D engine simulations to characterize different combustion modes in DI, Direct Injection, compression ignited engines in terms of combustion efficiency and emission formations. The conventional static map analysis has been extended by constructing the parametric maps of a dynamic nature for different species characterizing the combustion and emission formation processes. The results of the analysis prove the efficiency of different combustion modes when injection parameters were varied from early to retarded injections.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Using Charge Stratification for Combustion Control

2007-04-16
2007-01-0210
This work evaluates the effect of charge stratification on combustion phasing, rate of heat release and emissions for HCCI combustion. Engine experiments in both optical and traditional single cylinder engines were carried out with PRF50 as fuel. The amount of stratification as well as injection timing of the stratified charge was varied. It was found that a stratified charge can influence combustion phasing, increasing the stratification amount or late injection timing of the stratified charge leads to an advanced CA50 timing. The NOx emissions follows the CA50 advancement, advanced CA50 timing leads to higher NOx emissions. Correlation between CA50 can also be seen for HC and CO emissions when the injection timing was varied, late injection and thereby advanced CA50 timing leads to both lower HC and CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Injection Schedule Change on Free Piston Engine Operation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0449
In this study, the effects of varying the start of injection in a Free Piston Engine (FPE) have been investigated, using the KIVA-3V CFD code. In order to simulate the FPE the code has been modified by replacing the conventional crank shaft controlled piston motion by a piston motion profile calculated using a MATLAB/SIMULINK model. In this model, the piston motion is controlled by Newton's second law and the combustion process is represented by a simplified model based on ignition delay integrals and Wiebe functions. The results were tuned using predictions from the SENKIN software which are based on the detailed chemical kinetics mechanism of a Diesel oil surrogate represented by a blend of the main aliphatic (70% n-heptane) and aromatic (30% toluene) components. In order to help analyze the emission formation resulting from the HCCI/PPCI combustion modes in the engine, a special approach based on the temperature-equivalence ratio maps has been developed.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Fischer-Tropsch Fuels in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2007-01-23
2007-01-0030
Experiments were performed using a Light-Duty, single-cylinder, research engine in which the emissions, fuel consumption and combustion characteristics of two Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Diesel fuels derived from natural gas and two conventional Diesel fuels (Swedish low sulfur Diesel and European EN 590 Diesel) were compared. Due to their low aromatic contents combustion with the F-T Diesel fuels resulted in lower soot emissions than combustion with the conventional Diesel fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were also significantly lower with F-T fuel combustion. Moreover the F-T fuels tended to yield lower CO emissions than the conventional Diesel fuels. The low emissions from the F-T Diesel fuels, and the potential for producing such fuels from biomass, are powerful reason for future interest and research in this field.
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