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Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Engine - the Influence of Nozzle Parameters on Combustion and Spray Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0841
DME was tested in a heavy duty diesel engine and in an optically accessible high-temperature and pressure spray chamber in order to investigate and understand the effect of nozzle parameters on emissions, combustion and fuel spray concentration. The engine study clearly showed that smaller nozzle orifices were advantageous from combustion, efficiency and emissions considerations. Heat release analysis and fuel concentration images indicate that smaller orifices result in higher mixing rate between fuel and air due to reductions in the turbulence length scale, which reduce both the magnitude of fuel-rich regions and the steepness of fuel gradients in the spray, which enable more fuel to burn and thereby shorten the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Location of the First Auto-Ignition Sites for Two HCCI Systems in a Direct Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0564
To elucidate the processes controlling the auto-ignition timing and overall combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the distribution of the auto-ignition sites, in both space and time, was studied. The auto-ignition locations were investigated using optical diagnosis of HCCI combustion, based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of formaldehyde in an optical engine with fully variable valve actuation. This engine was operated in two different modes of HCCI. In the first, auto-ignition temperatures were reached by heating the inlet air, while in the second, residual mass from the previous combustion cycle was trapped using a negative valve overlap. The fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber in both approaches. To complement these experiments, 3-D numerical modeling of the gas exchange and compression stroke events was done for both HCCI-generating approaches.
Technical Paper

Large-Scale CFD Approach for Spray Combustion Modelling in Compression-Ignited Engines

2005-09-11
2005-24-052
Computational simulations of the spray combustion and emissions formation processes in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine and in a small-bore DI diesel engine with a complicated injection schedule were performed by using the modified KIVA3V, rel. 2 code. Some initial parameter sets varying engine operating conditions, such as injection pressure, injector nozzle diameter, EGR load, were examined in order to evaluate their effects on the engine performance. Full-scale combustion chamber representations on 360-deg, Cartesian and polar, multiblock meshes with a different number of sprays have been used in the modelling unlike the conventional approach based on polar sector meshes covering the region around one fuel spray. The spray combustion phenomena were simulated using the detailed chemical mechanism for diesel fuel surrogate (69 species and 306 reactions).
Technical Paper

Ion Current Sensing in an Optical HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

2007-01-23
2007-01-0009
Ion current sensors have high potential utility for obtaining feedback signals directly from the combustion chamber in internal combustion engines. This paper describes experiments performed in a single-cylinder optical engine operated in HCCI mode with negative valve overlap to explore this potential. A high-speed CCD camera was used to visualize the combustion progress in the cylinder, and the photographs obtained were compared with the ion current signals. The optical data indicate that the ions responsible for the chemiluminescence from the HCCI combustion have to be in contact with the sensing electrode for an ion current to start flowing through the measurement circuit. This also means that there will be an offset between the time at which 50% of the fuel mass has burned and 50% of the ion current peak value is reached, which is readily explained by the results presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

Fuel Flow Impingement Measurements on Multi-Orifice Diesel Nozzles

2006-04-03
2006-01-1552
The injection process plays an important role in Diesel engines in terms of future emission legislations. Higher injection pressures and multiple injection events every cycle are a reality. To be able to understand how the fuel injection process can be further improved studies are needed on how higher pressure, multiple injections and multi orifice nozzles affect the overall process. The objective of this study was to further develop a measurement technique to determine injection rates and discharge coefficient for multi orifice nozzles. The technique used is based on measuring the instantaneous force of a fuel jet for a non-stationary injection process. The technique is applicable for multi orifice nozzles at high injection pressures. Both single and multiple injections can be resolved.
Technical Paper

Reducing Pressure Fluctuations at High Loads by Means of Charge Stratification in HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap

2009-06-15
2009-01-1785
Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition).
Technical Paper

The Structure of Cavitation and its Effect on the Spray Pattern in a Single-Hole Diesel Nozzle

2001-05-07
2001-01-2008
The structure and evolution of cavitation in a transparent scaled-up diesel nozzle having a hole perpendicular to the nozzle axis has been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. Observations revealed that, at the inception stage, cavitation bubbles are dominantly seen in the vortices at the boundary layer shear flow and outside the separation zone. Cavitation bubbles grow intensively in the shear layer and develop into cloud-like coherent structures when viewed from the side of the nozzle. Shedding of the coherent cloud cavitation was observed. When the flow was increased further the cloud like cavitation bubbles developed into a large-scale coherent structure extending downstream of the hole. Under this condition the cavitation starts as a mainly glassy sheet at the entrance of the hole. Until this stage the spray appeared to be symmetric.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Elliptical Nozzle Holes on Combustion and Emission Formation in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1251
A serie of experiments were carried out to compare the combustion and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine using non-circular (elliptical) and circular shaped fuel injector nozzle holes. Elliptic nozzle holes have the potential to increase air entrainment into the spray, which could lead to decreased emissions from diesel combustion. Previous work [6,7] has shown some interesting results in a passenger car diesel engine and also in a single cylinder engine with optical access. The idea is based on results from investigations of gas jets, where the air entrainment for elliptical jets was increased substantially compared to circular jets. The present series of experiments were carried out to further investigate these effects. The non-circular holes, which were made with an aspect ratio of close to 2:1, have a similar flow rate as the conventional circular holes. Two different angles of the elliptical major axis to the injector centerline were used.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Distributed by-Wire Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0271
A design method for ultra-dependable control-by-wire systems is presented here. With a top-down approach, exploiting the system's intrinsic redundancy combined with a scalable software redundancy, it is possible to meet dependability requirements cost-effectively. The method starts with the system's functions, which are broken down to the basic elements; task, sensor or actuator. A task graph shows the basic elements interrelationships. Sensor and actuator nodes form a non-redundant hardware architecture. The functional task-graph gives input when allocating software on the node architecture. Tasks are allocated to achieve low inter-node communication and transient fault tolerance using scalable software redundancy. Hardware is added to meet the dependability requirements. Finally, the method describes fault handling and bus scheduling. The proposed method has been used in two cases; a fly-by-wire aircraft and a drive-by-wire car.
Journal Article

Multi-hole Injectors for DISI Engines: Nozzle Hole Configuration Influence on Spray Formation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0136
High-pressure multi-hole injectors are one candidate injector type for closed-spaced direct injection (DI) gasoline engines. In such a system, the spark plug must be located close to the spray and, during stratified operation, the spray is ignited very soon after the fuel droplets have been vaporized. Thus there are very high demands on the sprays used in such a system. An additional challenge is the positioning of the spark plug relative to the spray; both consistent ignitability and the absence of liquid fuel droplets must be achieved. Many injector parameters influence spray formation; for example, hole diameter, length to hole diameter ratio, nozzle hole configuration etc. This paper investigates the spray formation and spray induced air movement associated with rotational symmetrical and asymmetrical nozzle hole configurations.
Journal Article

Time and Spatially Resolved Temperature Measurements of a Combusting Diesel Spray Impinging on a Wall

2008-06-23
2008-01-1608
The interaction between a combusting diesel spray and a wall was studied by measuring the spray flame temperature time and spatially resolved. The influence of injection sequences, injection pressure and gas conditions on the heat transfer between the combusting spray and the wall was investigated by measuring the flame temperature during the complete injection event. The flame temperature was measured by an emission based optical method and determined by comparing the relative emission intensities from the soot in the flame at two wavelength intervals. The measurements were done by employing a monochromatic and non intensified high speed camera, an array of mirrors, interference filters and a beam splitter. The studies were carried out in the Chalmers High Pressure High Temperature (HP/HT) spray rig at conditions similar to those prevailing in a direct injected diesel engine prior to the injection of fuel.
Technical Paper

Injection Orifice Shape: Effects on Combustion and Emission Formation in Diesel Engines

1997-10-01
972964
A series of experimental studies of diesel spray combustion was carried out using non-circular and back-step orifices. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder engine and in a constant volume combustion chamber. In the engine tests, elliptic orifices with an aspect ratio of approximately 2:1 were compared with circular orifices. The elliptic orifices had sharp inlets and the circular orifices had rounded inlets. Elliptic orifices aligned with either the minor axis or the major axis in the direction of the nozzle tip were tested. The orifice shapes had minor effects on the heat release, ignition delay, and emissions of smoke, CO and HC. However, substantial differences were observed for emissions of NOx: for the vertical elliptic orifices, emissions up to 37.6 percent lower than with circular orifices were observed. In the combustion bomb tests, rectangular and back-step orifices were compared with circular orifices, all with sharp inlets.
Technical Paper

Soot Source Term Tabulation Strategy for Diesel Engine Simulations with SRM

2015-09-06
2015-24-2400
In this work a soot source term tabulation strategy for soot predictions under Diesel engine conditions within the zero-dimensional Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) framework is presented. The DI-SRM accounts for detailed chemistry, in-homogeneities in the combustion chamber and turbulence-chemistry interactions. The existing implementation [1] was extended with a framework facilitating the use of tabulated soot source terms. The implementation allows now for using soot source terms provided by an online chemistry calculation, and for the use of a pre-calculated flamelet soot source term library. Diesel engine calculations were performed using the same detailed kinetic soot model in both configurations. The chemical mechanism for n-heptane used in this work is taken from Zeuch et al. [2] and consists of 121 species and 973 reactions including PAH and thermal NO chemistry. The engine case presented in [1] is used also for this work.
Technical Paper

The Influence of PRF and Commercial Fuels with High Octane Number on the Auto-ignition Timing of an Engine Operated in HCCI Combustion Mode with Negative Valve Overlap

2004-06-08
2004-01-1967
A single-cylinder engine was operated in HCCI combustion mode with different kinds of commercial fuels. The HCCI combustion was generated by creating a negative valve overlap (early exhaust valve closing combined with late intake valve opening) thus trapping a large amount of residuals (∼ 55%). Fifteen different fuels with high octane numbers were tested six of which were primary reference fuels (PRF's) and nine were commercial fuels or reference fuels. The engine was operated at constant operational parameters (speed/load, valve timing and equivalence ratio, intake air temperature, compression ratio, etc.) changing only the fuel type while the engine was running. Changing the fuel affected the auto-ignition timing, represented by the 50% mass fraction burned location (CA50). However these changes were not consistent with the classical RON and MON numbers, which are measures of the knock resistance of the fuel. Indeed, no correlation was found between CA50 and the RON or MON numbers.
Technical Paper

Injection Orifice Shape: Effects on Spray Characteristics and Heat-Release Rate in a Large-Size Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3490
A series of experimental studies of diesel spray and combustion characteristics was carried out using circular, elliptic and step orifices. The experiment was performed on a 3-litre single-cylinder engine with optical access. In the engine tests, an elliptic-orifice nozzle with an aspect ratio of approximately 2:1, and a step-orifice nozzle were compared with circular-orifice nozzles. All orifices had sharp-edged inlets. The nozzles were tested at injection pressures extending from 300 to 1300 bar. The nozzles were evaluated in respect of initial spray tip velocity, penetration, spray cone angle, spray width, intermittency and heat-release. Substantial differences were observed in the spray characteristics: At an injection pressure of 300 bar, the spray width increased twice as fast in the minor axis plane of the elliptic orifice and step orifice than the circular orifices.
Technical Paper

Large-Eddy Simulation of the Flow Around a Ground Vehicle Body

2001-03-05
2001-01-0702
Large Eddy Simulation of the the flow around bus-like ground vehicle body is presented. Both the time-averaged and instantaneous aspects of this flow are studied. Time-averaged velocity profiles are computed and compared with the experiments [1] and show good agreement. The separation length and the base pressure coefficient are presented. The predicted pumping process in the near wake occurs with a Strouhal number St = 0.073, compared with St = 0.069 in the experiment. Unsteady results at two points are presented and compared with the experiments. The coherent structures are studied and show good agreement with the experiments.
Technical Paper

Turbulent Flame Speed Closure Model: Further Development and Implementation for 3-D Simulation of Combustion in SI Engine

1998-10-19
982613
A Turbulent Flame Speed Closure Model is modified and implemented into the FIRE code for use in 3D computations of combustion in an SI-engine. The modifications are done to account for mixture inhomogeneity, and mixture compression through the dependency of local equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature on the chemical time scale and a global reaction time scale. The model is also subjected to further evaluation against experimental data, covering different mixture and turbulence conditions. The combustion process in a 4-valve pentroof combustion chamber is simulated and heat release rates and spatial flame distribution are evaluated against experimental data. The computations show good agreement with the experiments. The model has proven to be a robust and time effective simulation tool with good predictive ability.
Technical Paper

Temperature Oscillations in the Wall of a Cooled Multi Pulsejet Propeller for Aeronautic Propulsion

2016-09-20
2016-01-1998
Environmental and economic issues related to the aeronautic transport, with particular reference to the high-speed one are opening new perspectives to pulsejets and derived pulse detonation engines. Their importance relates to high thrust to weight ratio and low cost of manufacturing with very low energy efficiency. This papers presents a preliminary evaluation in the direction of a new family of pulsejets which can be coupled with both an air compression system which is currently in pre-patenting study and a more efficient and enduring valve systems with respect to today ones. This new pulsejet has bee specifically studied to reach three objectives: a better thermodynamic efficiency, a substantial reduction of vibrations by a multi-chamber cooled architecture, a much longer operative life by more affordable valves. Another objective of this research connects directly to the possibility of feeding the pulsejet with hydrogen.
Technical Paper

Advanced Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using Turbulence Model and Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0516
Today numerical models are a major part of the diesel engine development. They are applied during several stages of the development process to perform extensive parameter studies and to investigate flow and combustion phenomena in detail. The models are divided by complexity and computational costs since one has to decide what the best choice for the task is. 0D models are suitable for problems with large parameter spaces and multiple operating points, e.g. engine map simulation and parameter sweeps. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate physical models to improve the predictive capability of these models. This work focuses on turbulence and mixing modeling within a 0D direct injection stochastic reactor model. The model is based on a probability density function approach and incorporates submodels for direct fuel injection, vaporization, heat transfer, turbulent mixing and detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

LES Investigation of ECN Spray G2 with an Eulerian Stochastic Field Cavitation Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0291
Due to an ongoing trend of high injection pressures in the realm of internal combustion engines, the role of cavitation that typically happens inside the injector nozzle has become increasingly important. In this work, a large Eddy Simulation (LES) with cavitation modeled on the basis of an Eulerian Stochastic Field (ESF) method and a homogeneous mixture model is performed to investigate the role of cavitation on the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) spray G2. The Eulerian stochastic field cavitation model is coupled to a pressure based solver for the flow, which lowers the computational cost, thereby making the methodology highly applicable to realistic injector geometries. Moreover, the nature of the Eulerian stochastic field method makes it more convenient to achieve a high scalability when applied to parallel cases, which gives the method the edge over cavitation models that are based on Lagrangian tracking.
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