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Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Engine - the Influence of Nozzle Parameters on Combustion and Spray Development

DME was tested in a heavy duty diesel engine and in an optically accessible high-temperature and pressure spray chamber in order to investigate and understand the effect of nozzle parameters on emissions, combustion and fuel spray concentration. The engine study clearly showed that smaller nozzle orifices were advantageous from combustion, efficiency and emissions considerations. Heat release analysis and fuel concentration images indicate that smaller orifices result in higher mixing rate between fuel and air due to reductions in the turbulence length scale, which reduce both the magnitude of fuel-rich regions and the steepness of fuel gradients in the spray, which enable more fuel to burn and thereby shorten the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Spray-Wall Interaction of Diesel Sprays

Wall wetting can occur irrespective of combustion concept in diesel engines, e.g. during the compression stroke. This action has been related to engine-out emissions in different ways, and an experimental investigation of impinging diesel sprays is thus made for a standard diesel fuel and a two-component model fuel (IDEA). The experiment was performed at conditions corresponding to those found during the compression stroke in a heavy duty diesel engine. The spray characteristics of two fuels were measured using two different optical methods: a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and high-speed imaging. A temperature controlled wall equipped with rapid, coaxial thermocouples was used to record the change in surface temperature from the heat transfer of the impinging sprays.
Technical Paper

LES Investigation of ECN Spray G2 with an Eulerian Stochastic Field Cavitation Model

Due to an ongoing trend of high injection pressures in the realm of internal combustion engines, the role of cavitation that typically happens inside the injector nozzle has become increasingly important. In this work, a large Eddy Simulation (LES) with cavitation modeled on the basis of an Eulerian Stochastic Field (ESF) method and a homogeneous mixture model is performed to investigate the role of cavitation on the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) spray G2. The Eulerian stochastic field cavitation model is coupled to a pressure based solver for the flow, which lowers the computational cost, thereby making the methodology highly applicable to realistic injector geometries. Moreover, the nature of the Eulerian stochastic field method makes it more convenient to achieve a high scalability when applied to parallel cases, which gives the method the edge over cavitation models that are based on Lagrangian tracking.
Technical Paper

Advanced Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using Turbulence Model and Stochastic Reactor Model

Today numerical models are a major part of the diesel engine development. They are applied during several stages of the development process to perform extensive parameter studies and to investigate flow and combustion phenomena in detail. The models are divided by complexity and computational costs since one has to decide what the best choice for the task is. 0D models are suitable for problems with large parameter spaces and multiple operating points, e.g. engine map simulation and parameter sweeps. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate physical models to improve the predictive capability of these models. This work focuses on turbulence and mixing modeling within a 0D direct injection stochastic reactor model. The model is based on a probability density function approach and incorporates submodels for direct fuel injection, vaporization, heat transfer, turbulent mixing and detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions with Reliability Analysis Using a Stochastic Reactor Model

The introduction of a physics-based zero-dimensional stochastic reactor model combined with tabulated chemistry enables the simulation-supported development of future compression-ignited engines. The stochastic reactor model mimics mixture and temperature inhomogeneities induced by turbulence, direct injection and heat transfer. Thus, it is possible to improve the prediction of NOx emissions compared to common mean-value models. To reduce the number of designs to be evaluated during the simulation-based multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms are proven to be an effective tool. Based on an initial set of designs, the algorithm aims to evolve the designs to find the best parameters for the given constraints and objectives. The extension by response surface models improves the prediction of the best possible Pareto Front, while the time of optimization is kept low.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Sensing in an Optical HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

Ion current sensors have high potential utility for obtaining feedback signals directly from the combustion chamber in internal combustion engines. This paper describes experiments performed in a single-cylinder optical engine operated in HCCI mode with negative valve overlap to explore this potential. A high-speed CCD camera was used to visualize the combustion progress in the cylinder, and the photographs obtained were compared with the ion current signals. The optical data indicate that the ions responsible for the chemiluminescence from the HCCI combustion have to be in contact with the sensing electrode for an ion current to start flowing through the measurement circuit. This also means that there will be an offset between the time at which 50% of the fuel mass has burned and 50% of the ion current peak value is reached, which is readily explained by the results presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

Fuel Flow Impingement Measurements on Multi-Orifice Diesel Nozzles

The injection process plays an important role in Diesel engines in terms of future emission legislations. Higher injection pressures and multiple injection events every cycle are a reality. To be able to understand how the fuel injection process can be further improved studies are needed on how higher pressure, multiple injections and multi orifice nozzles affect the overall process. The objective of this study was to further develop a measurement technique to determine injection rates and discharge coefficient for multi orifice nozzles. The technique used is based on measuring the instantaneous force of a fuel jet for a non-stationary injection process. The technique is applicable for multi orifice nozzles at high injection pressures. Both single and multiple injections can be resolved.
Technical Paper

Reducing Pressure Fluctuations at High Loads by Means of Charge Stratification in HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap

Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition).
Technical Paper

The Structure of Cavitation and its Effect on the Spray Pattern in a Single-Hole Diesel Nozzle

The structure and evolution of cavitation in a transparent scaled-up diesel nozzle having a hole perpendicular to the nozzle axis has been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. Observations revealed that, at the inception stage, cavitation bubbles are dominantly seen in the vortices at the boundary layer shear flow and outside the separation zone. Cavitation bubbles grow intensively in the shear layer and develop into cloud-like coherent structures when viewed from the side of the nozzle. Shedding of the coherent cloud cavitation was observed. When the flow was increased further the cloud like cavitation bubbles developed into a large-scale coherent structure extending downstream of the hole. Under this condition the cavitation starts as a mainly glassy sheet at the entrance of the hole. Until this stage the spray appeared to be symmetric.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Elliptical Nozzle Holes on Combustion and Emission Formation in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

A serie of experiments were carried out to compare the combustion and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine using non-circular (elliptical) and circular shaped fuel injector nozzle holes. Elliptic nozzle holes have the potential to increase air entrainment into the spray, which could lead to decreased emissions from diesel combustion. Previous work [6,7] has shown some interesting results in a passenger car diesel engine and also in a single cylinder engine with optical access. The idea is based on results from investigations of gas jets, where the air entrainment for elliptical jets was increased substantially compared to circular jets. The present series of experiments were carried out to further investigate these effects. The non-circular holes, which were made with an aspect ratio of close to 2:1, have a similar flow rate as the conventional circular holes. Two different angles of the elliptical major axis to the injector centerline were used.
Technical Paper

Transient Measurements of Discharge Coefficients of Diesel Nozzles

The discharge coefficient is an important functional parameter of an injector characterising the nozzle flow, in terms of cavitation and hydraulic flip, which subsequently play a crucial role in the spray formation and development. Thus it is important to have the possibility of measuring instantaneously the value of the discharge coefficient. The method proposed is based on the measurement of force developed during the impingement of the fuel jet on a normal target. In this study the method was verified experimentally and also the variation of a diesel nozzle discharge coefficient over the entire injection time was studied. The impingement results were in good agreement, when compared with the results from mass flow measurements both at high and low injection pressures. Strong variations of the discharge coefficient during the injector needle opening and closing periods were seen.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on the Heat Transfer in an SI Engine: Thermal Boundary Layer Investigation using CARS Temperature Measurements and Heat Flux Measurements

It is generally accepted that knocking combustion influences the heat transfer in SI engines. However, the effects of heat transfer on the onset of knock is still not clear due to lack of experimental data of the thermal boundary layer close to the combustion chamber wall. This paper presents measurements of the temperature in the thermal boundary layer under knocking and non-knocking conditions. The temperature was measured using dual-broadband rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of the cylinder pressure, at three different locations, and the heat flux to the wall were carried out. Optical access to the region near the combustion chamber wall was achieved by using a horseshoe-shaped combustion chamber with windows installed in the rectangular part of the chamber. This arrangement made CARS temperature measurements close to the wall possible and results are presented in the range 0.1-5 mm from the wall.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on Heat Transfer in SI Engines

Heat transfer to the walls of the combustion chamber is increased by engine knock. In this study the influence of knock onset and knock intensity on the heat flux is investigated by examining over 10 000 individual engine cycles with a varying degree of knock. The heat transfer to the walls was estimated by measuring the combustion chamber wall temperature in an SI engine under knocking conditions. The influence of the air-fuel ratio and the orientation of the oscillating cylinder pressure-relative to the combustion chamber wall-were also investigated. It was found that knock intensities above 0.2 Mpa influenced the heat flux. At knock intensities above 0.6 Mpa, the peak heat flux was 2.5 times higher than for a non-knocking cycle. The direction of the oscillations did not affect the heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Distributed by-Wire Systems

A design method for ultra-dependable control-by-wire systems is presented here. With a top-down approach, exploiting the system's intrinsic redundancy combined with a scalable software redundancy, it is possible to meet dependability requirements cost-effectively. The method starts with the system's functions, which are broken down to the basic elements; task, sensor or actuator. A task graph shows the basic elements interrelationships. Sensor and actuator nodes form a non-redundant hardware architecture. The functional task-graph gives input when allocating software on the node architecture. Tasks are allocated to achieve low inter-node communication and transient fault tolerance using scalable software redundancy. Hardware is added to meet the dependability requirements. Finally, the method describes fault handling and bus scheduling. The proposed method has been used in two cases; a fly-by-wire aircraft and a drive-by-wire car.
Technical Paper

A 1D Method for Transient Simulations of Cooling Systems with Non-Uniform Temperature and Flow Boundaries Extracted from a 3D CFD Solution

The current work investigates a method in 1D modeling of cooling systems including discretized cooling package with non-uniform boundary conditions. In a stacked cooling package the heat transfer through each heat exchanger depends on the mass flows and temperature fields. These are a result of complex three-dimensional phenomena, which take place in the under-hood and are highly non-uniform. A typical approach in 1D simulations is to assume these to be uniform, which reduces the authenticity of the simulation and calls for additional calibrations, normally done with input from test measurements. The presented work employs 3D CFD simulations of complete vehicle in STAR-CCM+ to perform a comprehensive study of mass-flow and thermal distribution over the inlet of the cooling package of a Volvo FM commercial vehicle in several steady-state operating points.
Technical Paper

The Influence of PRF and Commercial Fuels with High Octane Number on the Auto-ignition Timing of an Engine Operated in HCCI Combustion Mode with Negative Valve Overlap

A single-cylinder engine was operated in HCCI combustion mode with different kinds of commercial fuels. The HCCI combustion was generated by creating a negative valve overlap (early exhaust valve closing combined with late intake valve opening) thus trapping a large amount of residuals (∼ 55%). Fifteen different fuels with high octane numbers were tested six of which were primary reference fuels (PRF's) and nine were commercial fuels or reference fuels. The engine was operated at constant operational parameters (speed/load, valve timing and equivalence ratio, intake air temperature, compression ratio, etc.) changing only the fuel type while the engine was running. Changing the fuel affected the auto-ignition timing, represented by the 50% mass fraction burned location (CA50). However these changes were not consistent with the classical RON and MON numbers, which are measures of the knock resistance of the fuel. Indeed, no correlation was found between CA50 and the RON or MON numbers.
Technical Paper

Injection Orifice Shape: Effects on Spray Characteristics and Heat-Release Rate in a Large-Size Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

A series of experimental studies of diesel spray and combustion characteristics was carried out using circular, elliptic and step orifices. The experiment was performed on a 3-litre single-cylinder engine with optical access. In the engine tests, an elliptic-orifice nozzle with an aspect ratio of approximately 2:1, and a step-orifice nozzle were compared with circular-orifice nozzles. All orifices had sharp-edged inlets. The nozzles were tested at injection pressures extending from 300 to 1300 bar. The nozzles were evaluated in respect of initial spray tip velocity, penetration, spray cone angle, spray width, intermittency and heat-release. Substantial differences were observed in the spray characteristics: At an injection pressure of 300 bar, the spray width increased twice as fast in the minor axis plane of the elliptic orifice and step orifice than the circular orifices.
Technical Paper

Large-Eddy Simulation of the Flow Around a Ground Vehicle Body

Large Eddy Simulation of the the flow around bus-like ground vehicle body is presented. Both the time-averaged and instantaneous aspects of this flow are studied. Time-averaged velocity profiles are computed and compared with the experiments [1] and show good agreement. The separation length and the base pressure coefficient are presented. The predicted pumping process in the near wake occurs with a Strouhal number St = 0.073, compared with St = 0.069 in the experiment. Unsteady results at two points are presented and compared with the experiments. The coherent structures are studied and show good agreement with the experiments.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI Modeling: An Engine Cycle Simulation Code with a Multi-Zone Combustion Model

For the application to Gasoline Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) modeling, a multi-zone model was developed. For this purpose, the detailed-chemistry code SENKIN from the CHEMKIN library was modified. In a previous paper, the authors explained how piston motion and a heat transfer model were implemented in the SENKIN code to make it applicable to engine modeling. The single-zone model developed was successfully implemented in the engine cycle simulation code AVL BOOST™. A multi-zone model, including a crevice volume, a quench layer and multiple core zones, is introduced here. A temperature distribution specified over these zones gives this model a wider range of application than the single-zone model, since fuel efficiency, emissions and heat release can now be predicted more accurately. The SENKIN-BOOST multi-zone model predictions are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Wall Film Thickness for Diesel Fuel Sprays Impinging on a Temperature-Controlled Wall

Analysis of spray-wall interaction is a major issue in the study of the combustion process in DI diesel engines. Along with spray characteristics, the investigation of impinging sprays and of liquid wall film development is fundamental for predicting the mixture formation. Simulations of these phenomena for diesel sprays need to be validated and improved; nevertheless they can extend and complement experimental measurements. In this paper the wall film thickness for impinging sprays was investigated by evaluating the heat transfer across a temperature controlled wall. In fact, heat transfer is significantly affected by the wall film thickness, and both experiments and simulations were carried out to correlate the wall temperature variations and film height. The numerical simulations were carried out using the STAR-CD and the KIVA-3V, rel. 2, codes.