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Technical Paper

Data Mining Based Feasible Domain Recognition for Automotive Structural Optimization

2016-04-05
2016-01-0268
Computer modeling and simulation have significantly facilitated the efficiency of product design and development in modern engineering, especially in the automotive industry. For the design and optimization of car models, optimization algorithms usually work better if the initial searching points are within or close to a feasible domain. Therefore, finding a feasible design domain in advance is beneficial. A data mining technique, Iterative Dichotomizer 3 (ID3), is exploited in this paper to identify sets of reduced feasible design domains from the original design space. Within the reduced feasible domains, optimal designs can be efficiently obtained while releasing computational burden in iterations. A mathematical example is used to illustrate the proposed method. Then an industrial application about automotive structural optimization is employed to demonstrate the proposed methodology. The results show the proposed method’s potential in practical engineering.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Deformed Surfaces Comparison Based Validation Framework for Simplified Vehicular CAE Models

2018-04-03
2018-01-1380
Significant progress in modeling techniques has greatly enhanced the application of computer simulations in vehicle safety. However, the fine-meshed impact models are usually complex and take lots of computational resources and time to conduct design optimization. Hence, to develop effective methods to simplify the impact models without losing necessary accuracy is of significant meaning in vehicle crashworthiness analysis. Surface deformation is frequently regarded as a critical factor to be measured for validating the accuracy of CAE models. This paper proposes an integrated validation framework to evaluate the inconsistencies between the deformed surfaces of the original model and simplified model. The geometric features and curvature information of the deformed surfaces are firstly obtained from crash simulation. Then, the magnitude and shape discrepancy information are integrated into the validation framework as the surface comparison objects.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Two RVE Modelling Methods for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0224
To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Occupancy Detection and Occupant Counting System Using Motion Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-1442
This paper proposes a low-cost but indirect method for occupancy detection and occupant counting purpose in current and future automotive systems. It can serve as either a way to determine the number of occupants riding inside a car or a way to complement the other devices in determining the occupancy. The proposed method is useful for various mobility applications including car rental, fleet management, taxi, car sharing, occupancy in autonomous vehicles, etc. It utilizes existing on-board motion sensor measurements, such as those used in the vehicle stability control function, together with door open and closed status. The vehicle’s motion signature in response to an occupant’s boarding and alighting is first extracted from the motion sensors that measure the responses of the vehicle body. Then the weights of the occupants are estimated by fitting the vehicle responses with a transient vehicle dynamics model.
Technical Paper

Multi Objective Optimization of Vehicle Crashworthiness Based on Combined Surrogate Models

2017-03-28
2017-01-1473
Several surrogate models such as response surface model and radial basis function and Kriging models are developed to speed the optimization design of vehicle body and improve the vehicle crashworthiness. The error analysis is used to investigate the accuracy of different surrogate models. Furthermore, the Kriging model is used to fit the model of B-pillar acceleration and foot well intrusion. The response surface model is used to fit the model of the entire vehicle mass. These models are further used to calculate the acceleration response in B-pillar, foot well intrusion and vehicle mass instead of the finite element model in the optimization design of vehicle crashworthiness. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated in order to improve vehicle safety performance and keep its light weight. The particle swarm method is used to solve the proposed multi-objective optimization problem.
Technical Paper

Research on the FE Modeling and Impact Injury of Obese 10-YO Children Based on Mesh Morphing Methodology

2018-04-03
2018-01-0540
In order to improve the comprehensive protection for children with variable shapes and sizes, this paper conducted studies on the impact injury for obese children based on a 10-YO finite element model. Some specific geometrics on the body surface were firstly acquired by the combination of pediatric anthropometric database and generator of body (GEBOD). A Radial Basis Function (RBF) based mesh morphing technique was then used to modify the original standard size FE model using the obtained geometrics. The morphed FE model was validated based on the experimental data of frontal sled test and chest-abdomen impact test. The effects of obesity on injury performances were analyzed through simplified high-speed and low-speed crash simulations.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Vehicle Body NVH Performance Based on Dynamic Response Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0440
Noise-vibration-harshness (NVH) design optimization problems have become major concerns in the vehicle product development process. The Body-in-White (BIW) plays an important role in determining the dynamic characteristics of vehicle system during the concept design phase. Finite Element (FE) models are commonly used for vehicle design. However, even though the speed of computers has been increased a lot, the simulation of FE models is still too time-consuming due to the increase in model complexity. For complex systems, like vehicle body structures, the numerous design variables and constraints make the FE simulations based optimization design inefficient. This calls for the development of a systematic and efficient approach that can effectively perform optimization to further improve the NVH performance, while satisfying the stringent design constraints.
Technical Paper

A Feature-Based Responses Prediction Method for Simplified CAE Models

2019-04-02
2019-01-0516
In real-world engineering problems, the method of model simplification is usually adopted to increase the simulation efficiency. Nevertheless, the obtained simulation results are commonly with low accuracy. To research the impact from model simplification on simulation results, a feature-based predictive method for simplified CAE model analysis is proposed in this paper. First, the point clouds are used to represent the features of simplified model. Then the features are quantified according to the factors of position for further analysis. A formulated predictive model is then established to evaluate the responses of interest for different models, which are specified by the employed simplification methods. The proposed method is demonstrated through an engineering case. The results suggest that the predictive model can facilitate the analysis procedure to reduce the cost in CAE analysis.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Intake Manifold Water Injection on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0562
The performances of heavy-duty natural gas engines have been limited by combustion temperature and NOx emissions for a long time. Recently, water injection technology has been widely considered as a technical solution in reducing fuel consumption and emissions simultaneously in both gasoline and diesel engines. This paper focuses on the impacts of intake manifold water injection on characteristics of combustion and emissions in a natural gas heavy-duty engine through numerical methods. A computational model was setup and validated with experimental data of pressure traces in a CFD software coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The simulation was mainly carried out in low-speed and full-load conditions, and knock level was also measured and calculated by maximum amplitude of pressure oscillations (MAPO).
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Local Trajectory Planning and Tracking Method for UGV Based on Optimal Algorithm

2019-04-02
2019-01-0871
UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle) is gaining increasing amounts of attention from both industry and academic communities in recent years. Local trajectory planning is one of the most important parts of designing a UGV. However, there has been little research into local trajectory planning and tracking, and current research has not considered the dynamic of the surrounding environment. Therefore, we propose a dynamic local trajectory planning and tracking method for UGV driving on the highway in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can make the UGV travel from the navigation starting point to the navigation end point without collision on both straight and curve road. The key technology for this method is trajectory planning, trajectory tracking and trajectory update signal generation. Trajectory planning algorithm calculates a reference trajectory satisfying the demands of safety, comfort and traffic efficiency.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesels in a High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1638
A modified KIVA code is used to simulate the operation of a small bore HSDI engine with biodiesel from various sources. Genetic modified soybean biodiesel has very similarly combustion characteristics with soybean biodiesel, albeit less NOx. Yellow grease biodiesel burns in a similar manner as regular diesel with less NOx. All types of biodiesel show longer ignition delay but faster combustion, except after TDC injection, where biodiesel exhibits some diffusion combustion. Delaying injection is an effective way to reduce NOx emission. Over 90% of reduction in NOx is observed when fuel injection is delayed from 335° to 363°.
Technical Paper

Study on the Controlled Field Test Scenarios of Automated Vehicles

2018-08-07
2018-01-1633
Function and performance test of automated vehicles in the closed field is a necessary way to verify their safety, intelligence and comfort. The design and number of test scenarios will influence if the automated vehicles can be tested and evaluated effectively and fast. Based on the interrelationship among the vehicle, driver’s (or control system) driving strategy and road, we use the permutation and combination method to compare the relative position and movement relations between an automated vehicle (vehicle under test) and the surrounding vehicles to generate a total possible test scenarios group.
Journal Article

Comparison of Performance and Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Fuel and Vegetable Oils in DI Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1639
GT-Power, an engine modeling software, is used to study the combustion characteristics of cottonseed, linseed and peanut oils in a heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine. The fuel properties library in GT-Power is expanded to include cottonseed oil, linseed oil and peanut oil, using either theoretical methods or experimental measurements. The numerical model is calibrated with experimental data and good agreement is observed. The simulation results show that combustion characteristics and engine performances differ when vegetable oil is used instead of no. 2 diesel fuel. Raising the injection pressure significantly alters the combustion characteristics without improving the brake performances. However, higher injection pressure does reduce both NOx emission and combustion noise.
Journal Article

Interaction of Gear-Shaft Dynamics Considering Gyroscopic Effect of Compliant Driveline System

2015-06-15
2015-01-2182
Due to the design of lightweight, high speed driveline system, the coupled bending and torsional vibration and rotordynamics must be considered to predict vibratory responses more realistically. In the current analysis, a lumped parameter model of the propeller shaft is developed with Timoshenko beam elements, which includes the effect of rotary inertia and shear deformation. The propeller shaft model is then coupled with a hypoid gear pair representation using the component mode synthesis approach. In the proposed formulation, the gyroscopic effect of both the gear and propeller shaft is considered. The simulation results show that the interaction between gear gyroscopic effect and propeller shaft bending flexibility has considerable influence on the gear dynamic mesh responses around bending resonances, whereas the torsional modes still dominate in the overall frequency spectrum.
Journal Article

An Integrated Validation Method for Nonlinear Multiple Curve Comparisons

2016-04-05
2016-01-0288
In automobile industry, computational models built to predict the performances of the prototype vehicles are on the rise. To assess the validity or predictive capability of the model for its intended usage, validation activities are conducted to compare computational model outputs with test measurements. Validation becomes difficult when dealing with dynamic systems which often involve multiple functional responses, and the complex characteristics need to be appropriately considered. Many promising data analysis tools and metrics were previously developed to handle data correlation and evaluate the errors in magnitude, phase shift, and shape. However, these methods show their limitations when dealing with nonlinear multivariate dynamic systems. In this paper, kernel function based projection is employed to transform the nonlinear data into linear space, followed by the regular principal component analysis (PCA) based data processing.
Journal Article

Damage Prediction for the Starter Motor of the Idling Start-Stop System Based on the Thermal Field

2017-06-28
2017-01-9181
A coupled magnetic-thermal model is established to study the reason for the damage of the starter motor, which belongs to the idling start-stop system of a city bus. A finite element model of the real starter motor is built, and the internal magnetic flux density nephogram and magnetic line distribution chart of the motor are attained by simulation. Then a model in module Transient Thermal of ANSYS is established to calculate the stator and rotor loss, the winding loss and the mechanical loss. Three kinds of losses are coupled to the thermal field as heat sources in two different conditions. The thermal field and the components’ temperature distribution in the starting process are obtained, which are finally compared with the already-burned motor of the city bus in reality to predict the damage. The analysis method proposed is verified to be accurate and reliable through comparing the actual structure with the simulation results.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Validation Method with Surface-Surface Comparison for Vehicle Safety Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0221
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models have proven themselves to be efficient surrogates of real-world systems in automotive industries and academia. To successfully integrate the CAE models into analysis process, model validation is necessarily required to assess the models’ predictive capabilities regarding their intended usage. In the context of model validation, quantitative comparison which considers specific measurements in real-world systems and corresponding simulations serves as a principal step in the assessment process. For applications such as side impact analysis, surface deformation is frequently regarded as a critical factor to be measured for the validation of CAE models. However, recent approaches for such application are commonly based on graphical comparison, while researches on the quantitative metric for surface-surface comparison are rarely found.
Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of Compression Molding Process for Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) of Chopped Carbon Fiber Composites

2017-03-28
2017-01-0228
Compression molded SMC composed of chopped carbon fiber and resin polymer which balances the mechanical performance and manufacturing cost presents a promising solution for vehicle lightweight strategy. However, the performance of the SMC molded parts highly depends on the compression molding process and local microstructure, which greatly increases the cost for the part level performance testing and elongates the design cycle. ICME (Integrated Computational Material Engineering) approaches are thus necessary tools to reduce the number of experiments required during part design and speed up the deployment of the SMC materials. As the fundamental stage of the ICME workflow, commercial software packages for SMC compression molding exist yet remain not fully validated especially for chopped fiber systems. In the present study, SMC plaques are prepared through compression molding process.
Journal Article

A Corrected Surrogate Model Based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Method under Uncertainty

2017-03-28
2017-01-0256
Vehicle weight reduction has become one of the most crucial problems in the automotive industry because that increasingly stringent regulatory requirements, such as fuel economy and environmental protection, must be met. The lightweight design needs to consider various vehicle attributes, including crashworthiness and stiffness. Therefore, in essence, the vehicle weight reduction is a typical Multidisciplinary Design Optimization problem. To improve the computational efficiency, meta-models have been widely used as the surrogate of FE model in the multidisciplinary optimization of large structures. However, these surrogate models introduce additional sources of uncertainties, such as model uncertainty, which may lead to the poor accuracy in prediction. In this paper, a method of corrected surrogate model based multidisciplinary design optimization under uncertainty is proposed to incorporate the uncertainties introduced by both meta-models and design variables.
Technical Paper

Automatic Generation Method of Test Scenario for ADAS Based on Complexity

2017-09-23
2017-01-1992
ADAS must be tested thoroughly before they can be deployed for series production. Comparing with road and field test, bench test has been widely used owing to its advantages of less labor costs, more controllable scenarios, etc. However, there is no satisfied systematic approach to generate high-efficiency and full-coverage test scenarios automatically because of its integration of human, vehicle and traffic. Most of the test scenarios generated by the existing methods are either too simple or too few to be able to achieve full coverage of requirements. Besides, the cost is high when the ET method is used. To solve the aforementioned problems, an automatic test scenario generation method based on complexity for bench test is presented in this paper. Firstly, considering the fact that the device is easier to malfunction under complex cases, an index measuring the complexity of test case is proposed by using the method of AHP.
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