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Technical Paper

Diesel Flex Plate Development Process

1993-11-01
932981
Basic procedures are described for the design and development of flexible drive plates that couple automatic transmissions to engines. An innovative combination of analysis and test techniques were employed during the development of a drive plate for a turbocharged diesel truck engine when premature failures occurred. FEA (finite element analysis) was expanded from use as a preliminary design tool to the prediction of high stress conditions and the loading that caused them. A laboratory test was developed to rapidly assess drive plate design changes based on these FEA predictions.
Technical Paper

Engine Misfire Detection by Ionization Current Monitoring

1995-02-01
950003
Engine misfires cause a negative impact on exhaust emissions. Severe cases could damage the catalyst system permanently. These are the basic reasons why CARB (California Air Resources Board) mandated the detection of engine misfires in their OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics II) regulations. For the last several years, automobile manufacturers and their suppliers have been working diligently on various solutions for the “Misfire Detection” challenge. Many have implemented a solution called “Crankshaft Velocity Fluctuation” (CVF), which utilizes the crank sensor input to calculate the variation of the crankshaft rotational speed. The theory is that any misfires will contribute to a deceleration of the crankshaft velocity due to the absence of pressure torque. This approach is marginal at best due to the fact that there could be many contributors to a crankshaft velocity deceleration under various operating conditions. To sort out which is a true misfire is a very difficult task.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Phase-Shift Measurement of the Time-Resolved UBHC Emissions

1995-02-01
950161
The UBHC emissions during cold starting need to be controlled in order to meet the future stringent standards. This requires a better understanding of the characteristics of the time resolved UBHC signal measured by a high frequency FID and its phasing with respect to the valve events. The computer program supplied with the instrument and currently used to compute the phase shift has many uncertainties due to the unsteady nature of engine operation during starting. A new technique is developed to measure the in-situ phase shift of the UBHC signal under the transient thermodynamic and dynamic conditions of the engine. The UBHC concentration is measured at two locations in the exhaust manifold of one cylinder in a multicylinder port injected gasoline engine. The two locations are 77 mm apart. The downstream probe is positioned opposite to a solenoid-operated injector which delivers a gaseous jet of hydrocarbon-free nitrogen upon command.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 8.0-Liter V-10 Engine

1993-11-01
933033
Chrysler Corporation has developed an 8.0-liter engine for light truck applications. Numerous features combine to produce the highest power and torque ratings of any gasoline-fueled light truck engine currently available while also providing commensurate durability. These features include: a deep-skirt ten-cylinder 90° “V” block, a Helmholtz resonator intake manifold that enhances both low and mid-range torque, light die cast all-aluminum pistons for low vibration, a unique firing order for smooth operation, a “Y” block configuration for strength and durability, a heavy duty truck-type thermostat to control warm up, and a direct ignition system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Valve-Cam Ramps on Valve Train Dynamics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0801
Testing of an OHC valve train with hydraulic lash adjuster in which the valve displacements, velocities and accelerations were measured and analyzed in both time and frequency domains, coupled with analysis of the frequency content of the valve acceleration function and its ramps, show that traditional designs of the opening and closing ramps used on some IC engine valve cams can exacerbate vibration in the follower system causing higher levels of spring surge and noise. Suggestions are made for improvement to the design of the beginning and ending transitions of valve motion which can potentially reduce dynamic oscillation and vibration in the follower train.
Technical Paper

Unraveling the Chemical Phenomena Occurring in Spark Ignition Engines

1970-02-01
700489
The principles of combustion in a spark ignition engine are discussed. Engine processes and reactions are explained as to the manner in which they influence exhaust composition. The subject is approached by considering how chemical phenomena interact in a complex system such as a spark ignition engine. Special attention is given to the effect on exhaust composition of such factors as engine design and modifications, fuel composition, and engine maintenance.
Technical Paper

Chrysler Evaporation Control System The Vapor Saver for 1970

1970-02-01
700150
A system for controlling gasoline evaporation losses from 1970 model Chrysler Corp. cars and light trucks was developed, certified for sale in California, and put into production. Evaporation losses from both the carburetor and the fuel tank are conducted to the engine crankcase for storage while the engine is shut down. The vapors are removed from the crankcase and utilized in the combustion process during subsequent vehicle operation. Particularly interesting in this unique, no-moving parts system, are the reliability and durability, and the vapor-liquid separator “standpipe.”
Technical Paper

A Progress Report on Electromagnetic Activity of Motor Vehicle Manufacturer's Association

1973-02-01
730057
Starting in 1965 and continuing through 1972, the Radio Committee of the Motor Vehicles Manufacturers Association (MVMA) has been the coordinator of a number of electromagnetic research projects. These investigations have included extensive applications of the updated SAE Standard, Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation From Motor Vehicles (20-1000 MHz)-SAE J551a. Furthermore, there were joint testing programs with the Electronic Industries Association which encompassed measuring degradation in the performance of Land Mobile Radio Service receivers resulting from varying levels of impulsive-type radiation from motor vehicles. In addition, efforts were expended in using statistical approaches for testing a number of hypotheses covering a conversion of impulsive vehicle noise data to the interference potential to Land Mobile receivers.
Technical Paper

The 1978 Chrysler Torque Converter Lock-Up Clutch

1978-02-01
780100
A torque converter lock-up clutch was introduced by Chrysler Corporation in a majority of its passenger cars in the 1978 model year. The lock-up clutch improves fuel economy by eliminating torque converter slip in direct gear above a predetermined speed. The clutch and its controls were designed to fit within the confines of the existing transmission. The development of the clutch was primarily concerned with achieving adequate endurance life, good shift quality and isolation of torsional vibrations.
Technical Paper

Chrysler's New Front Wheel Drive Automatic Transmission

1979-02-01
790018
A new three-speed automatic transmission has been designed, developed and is being produced in the U.S. by the Chrysler Corporation for its new family of front wheel drive vehicles. The transmission was designed around the Chrysler-proven TorqueFlite concept. The features of the new transmission include a “folded” construction for installation in a transverse power train. The case is a one-piece aluminum die cast housing and contains the final drive and differential unit. This paper describes the design and development of this new automatic transmission.
Technical Paper

Computer-Based Selection of Balanced-Life Automotive Gears

1960-01-01
600036
THIS PAPER describes balanced-life concept of gear design — in which the gear and pinion are designed to fail simultaneously. An example is presented to show how this concept allows a combination of minimum size and maximum capacity in gas turbine application. Various reasons for failure and factors in long gear life are discussed. The author analyzes the calculations needed and their programming for a digital computer. Calculating gear designs for production is a time consuming, demanding task to do manually. The use of the computer has changed this — and brought about better gear design by making it possible to study more detailed analyses to evolve optimum solutions. This paper was the Sixth L. Ray Buckendale Lecture, presented at the 1960 SAE Annual Meeting.
Technical Paper

Design and Selection Factors for Automatic Transaxle Tapered Roller Bearings

1992-02-01
920609
Tapered roller bearings have proven successful in a number of high-volume automatic transaxle designs. Typically, tapered roller bearings are required to carry high loads generated by helical and hypoid gears. To meet the demands of a successful design, a number of factors must be considered in the selection and application of tapered roller bearings. This paper presents a discussion of these factors as well as results from Chrysler's transaxle testing. Selection of tapered roller bearings is based on the transmission duty cycle developed using load and speed histograms, gear data, size constraints, and life requirements. A bearing life analysis considering the total transaxle system is conducted using a sophisticated computer program. Various system effects are analyzed including the load/speed cycle, housing and shaft rigidity, lubrication, bearing setting, thermal effects, and bearing internal design.
Technical Paper

High Performance Forged Steel Crankshafts - Cost Reduction Opportunities

1992-02-01
920784
Higher horsepower per liter engines have put more demand on the crankshaft, often requiring the use of forged steel. This paper examines cost reduction opportunities to offset the penalties associated with forged steel, with raw material and machinability being the primary factors evaluated. A cost model for crankshaft processing is utilized in this paper as a design tool to select the lowest cost material grade. This model is supported by fatigue and machinability data for various steel grades. Materials considered are medium carbon, low alloy, and microalloy steels; the effects of sulfur as a machining enhancer is also studied.
Technical Paper

The Chrysler PowerFlite Transmission

1954-01-01
540261
THE design and construction of the PowerFlite automatic transmission are described by the authors. It is of the torque converter type, some models being water-cooled, while others are direct air cooled. Details of the hydraulic controls are explained, including the one-piece shift valve and the shuttle valve for controlling closed-throttle shifts. It is claimed that this transmission has relative simplicity, light weight, and smoothness of operation.
Technical Paper

WHERE DOES ALL THE POWER GO?

1957-01-01
570058
AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

THE AUTOMOTIVE GAS TURBINE - Today and Tomorrow

1957-01-01
570057
THIS paper discusses the progress of research on the automotive gas turbine and predicts its future potentialities. Comparison of gas turbines and presently used engines shows the possibilities of the gas-turbine applications. Design, construction, and testing of gas turbines are discussed, especially in the light of economy and performance.
Technical Paper

Considerations Affecting the Life of Automotive Camshafts and Tappets

1956-01-01
560015
WORK done in a development program relative to camshafts and tappets in the design of the Chrysler overhead-valve V-8 engine is described. The types of failure encountered are categorized as wear, scuffing, and fatigue. An accelerated test procedure was designed to promote early cam-tappet failures, and the development work was predicated upon the results obtained therefrom. Among the variables affecting the failure conditions, major emphasis was placed on material development. Specifically, the greater amount of time was spent in determining the optimum tappet material, while some time was devoted to the camshaft material. A combination of adjusted chemical composition and heat-treatment of hardenable cast iron for camshaft and tappets provided the best solution to the failure problems.
Technical Paper

The New PLYMOUTH Engine

1956-01-01
560019
PLYMOUTH'S new V-8 engine has a specific output of 0.65 bhp/cu in. and 145-psi bmep — obtained through a combination of high thermal, volumetric, and mechanical efficiencies. Good design, the author points out, has achieved this high output despite the dual-venturi carburetor and the 7.6/1 compression ratio, selected for satisfactory operation on regular-grade fuels. The engine has a bore and stroke of 3.563 × 3¼, weighs 568 lb without flywheel, is 29⅜ in. long, and is designed for optimum response to future compression ratio increases. (A report of oral discussion following presentation of this paper appears on p. 220, following “The New Packard V-8 Engine,” by W. E. Schwieder.)
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