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Technical Paper

Diesel Flex Plate Development Process

1993-11-01
932981
Basic procedures are described for the design and development of flexible drive plates that couple automatic transmissions to engines. An innovative combination of analysis and test techniques were employed during the development of a drive plate for a turbocharged diesel truck engine when premature failures occurred. FEA (finite element analysis) was expanded from use as a preliminary design tool to the prediction of high stress conditions and the loading that caused them. A laboratory test was developed to rapidly assess drive plate design changes based on these FEA predictions.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Automotive Air Conditioning -Components, System, and Vehicle

1972-02-01
720077
The basic theory and the techniques upon which the Air Conditioning Analytical Simulation Package (A/CASP) computer program system was developed is outlined. Methods for simulating car air conditioning components, systems, and cool-down performance by computerized mathematical models are presented. Solution techniques for the models of the evaporator, condenser, compressor, and vehicle are outlined. The correlation of test data and analytical predictions is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

A Progress Report on Electromagnetic Activity of Motor Vehicle Manufacturer's Association

1973-02-01
730057
Starting in 1965 and continuing through 1972, the Radio Committee of the Motor Vehicles Manufacturers Association (MVMA) has been the coordinator of a number of electromagnetic research projects. These investigations have included extensive applications of the updated SAE Standard, Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation From Motor Vehicles (20-1000 MHz)-SAE J551a. Furthermore, there were joint testing programs with the Electronic Industries Association which encompassed measuring degradation in the performance of Land Mobile Radio Service receivers resulting from varying levels of impulsive-type radiation from motor vehicles. In addition, efforts were expended in using statistical approaches for testing a number of hypotheses covering a conversion of impulsive vehicle noise data to the interference potential to Land Mobile receivers.
Technical Paper

The 1978 Chrysler Torque Converter Lock-Up Clutch

1978-02-01
780100
A torque converter lock-up clutch was introduced by Chrysler Corporation in a majority of its passenger cars in the 1978 model year. The lock-up clutch improves fuel economy by eliminating torque converter slip in direct gear above a predetermined speed. The clutch and its controls were designed to fit within the confines of the existing transmission. The development of the clutch was primarily concerned with achieving adequate endurance life, good shift quality and isolation of torsional vibrations.
Technical Paper

Chrysler's New Front Wheel Drive Automatic Transmission

1979-02-01
790018
A new three-speed automatic transmission has been designed, developed and is being produced in the U.S. by the Chrysler Corporation for its new family of front wheel drive vehicles. The transmission was designed around the Chrysler-proven TorqueFlite concept. The features of the new transmission include a “folded” construction for installation in a transverse power train. The case is a one-piece aluminum die cast housing and contains the final drive and differential unit. This paper describes the design and development of this new automatic transmission.
Technical Paper

Computer-Based Selection of Balanced-Life Automotive Gears

1960-01-01
600036
THIS PAPER describes balanced-life concept of gear design — in which the gear and pinion are designed to fail simultaneously. An example is presented to show how this concept allows a combination of minimum size and maximum capacity in gas turbine application. Various reasons for failure and factors in long gear life are discussed. The author analyzes the calculations needed and their programming for a digital computer. Calculating gear designs for production is a time consuming, demanding task to do manually. The use of the computer has changed this — and brought about better gear design by making it possible to study more detailed analyses to evolve optimum solutions. This paper was the Sixth L. Ray Buckendale Lecture, presented at the 1960 SAE Annual Meeting.
Technical Paper

Design and Selection Factors for Automatic Transaxle Tapered Roller Bearings

1992-02-01
920609
Tapered roller bearings have proven successful in a number of high-volume automatic transaxle designs. Typically, tapered roller bearings are required to carry high loads generated by helical and hypoid gears. To meet the demands of a successful design, a number of factors must be considered in the selection and application of tapered roller bearings. This paper presents a discussion of these factors as well as results from Chrysler's transaxle testing. Selection of tapered roller bearings is based on the transmission duty cycle developed using load and speed histograms, gear data, size constraints, and life requirements. A bearing life analysis considering the total transaxle system is conducted using a sophisticated computer program. Various system effects are analyzed including the load/speed cycle, housing and shaft rigidity, lubrication, bearing setting, thermal effects, and bearing internal design.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

1992-02-01
920322
A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

The Chrysler PowerFlite Transmission

1954-01-01
540261
THE design and construction of the PowerFlite automatic transmission are described by the authors. It is of the torque converter type, some models being water-cooled, while others are direct air cooled. Details of the hydraulic controls are explained, including the one-piece shift valve and the shuttle valve for controlling closed-throttle shifts. It is claimed that this transmission has relative simplicity, light weight, and smoothness of operation.
Technical Paper

WHERE DOES ALL THE POWER GO?

1957-01-01
570058
AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

Predicting ROAD PERFORMANCE of Commercial Vehicles

1950-01-01
500172
A SIMPLE method of predicting truck performance in terms of grade ability at a given road speed, taking into consideration rolling resistance, air resistance, and chassis friction is presented here. A brief review of fundamental considerations is given first, then the method recommended for predicting vehicle ability at a selected speed, and finally a few words on the prediction of maximum possible road speed and selection of gear ratios. The basis of the solution is the determination and expression of vehicle resistances in terms of horsepower - that is, in terms of forces acting at a velocity. A convenient method of solving the grade problem at a given speed is by means of a tabular computation sheet, which is given, together with tables and charts. These assist in making the computation an easy one as well as giving the necessary data on vehicle resistances.
Technical Paper

Energy and the Automobile - General Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Consumption

1973-02-01
730518
Since 1968, vehicle weight increases and emissions controls have reduced fuel economy substantially. Additional losses in economy and acceleration will be experienced through 1976. Recommendations are made to lessen the impact of the predicted losses. Factors influencing fuel economy and acceleration are examined for an intermediate car. Changes in engine efficiency and displacement, compression ratio, torque converter, transmission, axle ratio, aerodynamic drag, tires, accessories, vehicle weight, and emissions controls are examined. When practical, the effects of 10% changes are analyzed. Comparisons are also made with a subcompact and a luxury vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Lever Analogy: A New Tool in Transmission Analysis

1981-02-01
810102
A new tool for analyzing transmissions that use planetary gearsets is presented. With this tool, entire transmissions are usually represented by a single lever, and the calculation of most characteristics is as simple as summing moments of a lever. A miniature cookbook of levers, for various planetary arrangements is included which can be helpful in selecting a planetary to achieve the desired objectives of a user.
Technical Paper

Digital Recording of Vehicle Crash Data

1981-06-01
810810
This paper discusses the development and implementation of a 16 channel data acquisition system for high “G” impact testing which includes a self-contained, on-board data acquisition unit, a programmer-exerciser and debriefing subsystems. The microprocessor controlled, on-board unit contains all signal conditioning, A/D conversion hardware and logic to store 4K 12 bit samples of data per channel. This unit will debrief into an oscilloscope, a desk-top computer or a large disk-based minicomputer system. Advantages over previous systems include the elimination of costly hardware (such as umbilical cables and recorders), and a reduction in pre-test preparation and data processing time.
Technical Paper

Statistical Decision Making in FMVSS Testing

1989-02-01
890771
This paper presents a method of accounting for sample variability and sample size in establishing the acceptable bogey levels. The technique makes use of the statistical tolerance theory which accounts for the variability of the sample mean and standard deviation by determining a K-factor adjusted for sample size. The result is a tolerance that is reasonably assumed to cover a specified fraction of the population of parts. The technique, although not as simple as a fixed bogey, does discriminate between designs with different levels of energy management robustness.
Technical Paper

Design Features of the JUNKERS 211B AIRCRAFT ENGINE

1942-01-01
420123
THE Junkers 211B engine follows the usual German practice of very large displacements and conservative mean effective pressures and rotative speeds. However, the relative light weight per unit of displacement results in a net weight per horsepower that is not far above its competitors. Fully automatic devices which control propeller speed, manifold pressure, mixture ratio, spark advance, and supercharger gear ratio follow the German policy of removing all possible distractions from the pilot. This is one of three large liquid-cooled engines known to be produced in quantity in Germany; it powers an impressive percentage of the Luftwaffe. While of external appearance and displacement that resemble the Daimler-Benz DB-601 engine, the fundamental construction, detail design practice, and metallurgy of the Junkers 211B are surprisingly different.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Embrittlement in Automotive Fastener Applications

1996-02-01
960312
Fastener failure due to hydrogen embrittlement is of significant concern in the automotive industry. These types of failures occur unexpectedly. They may be very costly to the automotive company and fastener supplier, not only monetarily, but also in terms of customer satisfaction and safety. This paper is an overview of a program which one automotive company initiated to minimize hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners. The objectives of the program were two-fold. One was to obtain a better understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomena as it relates to automotive fastener materials and processes. The second and most important objective, was to eliminate hydrogen embrittlement failures in vehicles. Early program efforts concentrated on a review of fastener applications and corrosion protection systems to optimize coated fasteners for hydrogen embrittlement resistance.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pelvis-Chest Interactions in Hybrid III

1995-02-01
950663
The interaction ILLEGIBLEf the chest of the Hybrid III dummy with the air bag restrILLEGIBLEt system during a crash is complex. Forces applied to one ILLEGIBLEmponent of the dummy can generate an unexpected response in a distal part. Motion, both linear and angular, of the pelvis during impact can create an enigmatic spike in the acceleration of the chest. Because significant changes in the chest acceleration response can affect the development of an airbag system, this pelvis-chest interaction is cause for concern. The factors that appear to affect the chest acceleration spike as a result of the pelvis-chest interaction are: the mass moment of inertia of the pelvis, the interaction of the pelvis with the femur, the characteristic of the lumbar spine, and the differential velocity of the pelvis with respect to the chest.
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