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Technical Paper

Diesel Flex Plate Development Process

1993-11-01
932981
Basic procedures are described for the design and development of flexible drive plates that couple automatic transmissions to engines. An innovative combination of analysis and test techniques were employed during the development of a drive plate for a turbocharged diesel truck engine when premature failures occurred. FEA (finite element analysis) was expanded from use as a preliminary design tool to the prediction of high stress conditions and the loading that caused them. A laboratory test was developed to rapidly assess drive plate design changes based on these FEA predictions.
Technical Paper

Engine Misfire Detection by Ionization Current Monitoring

1995-02-01
950003
Engine misfires cause a negative impact on exhaust emissions. Severe cases could damage the catalyst system permanently. These are the basic reasons why CARB (California Air Resources Board) mandated the detection of engine misfires in their OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics II) regulations. For the last several years, automobile manufacturers and their suppliers have been working diligently on various solutions for the “Misfire Detection” challenge. Many have implemented a solution called “Crankshaft Velocity Fluctuation” (CVF), which utilizes the crank sensor input to calculate the variation of the crankshaft rotational speed. The theory is that any misfires will contribute to a deceleration of the crankshaft velocity due to the absence of pressure torque. This approach is marginal at best due to the fact that there could be many contributors to a crankshaft velocity deceleration under various operating conditions. To sort out which is a true misfire is a very difficult task.
Technical Paper

Reducing Cold-Start Emissions by Catalytic Converter Thermal Management

1995-02-01
950409
Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m2K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146°C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27°C.
Technical Paper

A Progress Report on Electromagnetic Activity of Motor Vehicle Manufacturer's Association

1973-02-01
730057
Starting in 1965 and continuing through 1972, the Radio Committee of the Motor Vehicles Manufacturers Association (MVMA) has been the coordinator of a number of electromagnetic research projects. These investigations have included extensive applications of the updated SAE Standard, Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation From Motor Vehicles (20-1000 MHz)-SAE J551a. Furthermore, there were joint testing programs with the Electronic Industries Association which encompassed measuring degradation in the performance of Land Mobile Radio Service receivers resulting from varying levels of impulsive-type radiation from motor vehicles. In addition, efforts were expended in using statistical approaches for testing a number of hypotheses covering a conversion of impulsive vehicle noise data to the interference potential to Land Mobile receivers.
Technical Paper

The 1978 Chrysler Torque Converter Lock-Up Clutch

1978-02-01
780100
A torque converter lock-up clutch was introduced by Chrysler Corporation in a majority of its passenger cars in the 1978 model year. The lock-up clutch improves fuel economy by eliminating torque converter slip in direct gear above a predetermined speed. The clutch and its controls were designed to fit within the confines of the existing transmission. The development of the clutch was primarily concerned with achieving adequate endurance life, good shift quality and isolation of torsional vibrations.
Technical Paper

TFC/IW

1978-02-01
780937
TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia (test) weight is a useful concept in analyzing the total or composite fuel economy generated in thousands of tests using the carbon balance technique in EPA Federal Test Procedure and Highway Driving Cycle. TFC/IW is a measure of drive train efficiency that requires no additional complicating assumptions. It is applicable to one test or a fleet representing many tests.
Technical Paper

Chrysler's New Front Wheel Drive Automatic Transmission

1979-02-01
790018
A new three-speed automatic transmission has been designed, developed and is being produced in the U.S. by the Chrysler Corporation for its new family of front wheel drive vehicles. The transmission was designed around the Chrysler-proven TorqueFlite concept. The features of the new transmission include a “folded” construction for installation in a transverse power train. The case is a one-piece aluminum die cast housing and contains the final drive and differential unit. This paper describes the design and development of this new automatic transmission.
Technical Paper

Design and Selection Factors for Automatic Transaxle Tapered Roller Bearings

1992-02-01
920609
Tapered roller bearings have proven successful in a number of high-volume automatic transaxle designs. Typically, tapered roller bearings are required to carry high loads generated by helical and hypoid gears. To meet the demands of a successful design, a number of factors must be considered in the selection and application of tapered roller bearings. This paper presents a discussion of these factors as well as results from Chrysler's transaxle testing. Selection of tapered roller bearings is based on the transmission duty cycle developed using load and speed histograms, gear data, size constraints, and life requirements. A bearing life analysis considering the total transaxle system is conducted using a sophisticated computer program. Various system effects are analyzed including the load/speed cycle, housing and shaft rigidity, lubrication, bearing setting, thermal effects, and bearing internal design.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

1992-02-01
920322
A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

The Chrysler PowerFlite Transmission

1954-01-01
540261
THE design and construction of the PowerFlite automatic transmission are described by the authors. It is of the torque converter type, some models being water-cooled, while others are direct air cooled. Details of the hydraulic controls are explained, including the one-piece shift valve and the shuttle valve for controlling closed-throttle shifts. It is claimed that this transmission has relative simplicity, light weight, and smoothness of operation.
Technical Paper

WHERE DOES ALL THE POWER GO?

1957-01-01
570058
AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

Body Aerodynamics and Heater Air Flow

1966-02-01
660388
The heater air flow rate is a function not only of the heater itself but also of the size and location of the heater system air inlets, the car body air outlets, and the body surface pressure at these inlets and outlets. Favorable pressure conditions generally exist at the typical top cowl heater air inlet; however, the aerodynamics of each particular vehicle should be studied to confirm the existence of these conditions. Little consideration has been given to body air outlet pressure conditions since body leakage paths have generally served as adequate air outlets; but, as body leakage is reduced, specific air outlets must be considered and a knowledge of aerodynamics is essential to the achieving of appropriately sized and appropriately located air outlets.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas Converter Performance and Durability

1993-03-01
930222
Natural gas-fueled vehicles impose unique requirements on exhaust aftertreatment systems. Methane conversion, which is very difficult for conventional automotive catalysts, may be required, depending on future regulatory directions. Three-way converter operating windows for simultaneous conversion of HC, CO, and NOx are considerably more narrow with gas engine exhaust. While several studies have demonstrated acceptable fresh converter performance, aged performance remains a concern. This paper presents the results of a durability study of eight catalytic converters specifically developed for natural gas engines. The converters were aged for 300 hours on a natural gas-fueled 7.0L Chevrolet engine operated at net stoichiometry. Catalyst performance was evaluated using both air/fuel traverse engine tests and FTP vehicle tests. Durability cycle severity and a comparison of results for engine and vehicle tests are discussed.
Technical Paper

Experience in Sand Casting Aluminum MMC Prototype Components

1993-03-01
930179
Typical sand-casting techniques have been shown to be inappropriate in pouring particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) castings. New gating/risering configurations were necessary to produce castings of acceptable soundness. Several automotive components, including brake rotors, cylinder liners and camshaft thrust plates, were prepared using special techniques. Initial durability test results of several Al-MMC prototype components are presented.
Technical Paper

Energy and the Automobile - General Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Consumption

1973-02-01
730518
Since 1968, vehicle weight increases and emissions controls have reduced fuel economy substantially. Additional losses in economy and acceleration will be experienced through 1976. Recommendations are made to lessen the impact of the predicted losses. Factors influencing fuel economy and acceleration are examined for an intermediate car. Changes in engine efficiency and displacement, compression ratio, torque converter, transmission, axle ratio, aerodynamic drag, tires, accessories, vehicle weight, and emissions controls are examined. When practical, the effects of 10% changes are analyzed. Comparisons are also made with a subcompact and a luxury vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Lever Analogy: A New Tool in Transmission Analysis

1981-02-01
810102
A new tool for analyzing transmissions that use planetary gearsets is presented. With this tool, entire transmissions are usually represented by a single lever, and the calculation of most characteristics is as simple as summing moments of a lever. A miniature cookbook of levers, for various planetary arrangements is included which can be helpful in selecting a planetary to achieve the desired objectives of a user.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management of Hydraulic Fluids and Lubricant Oils at Chrysler

1998-11-30
982221
A systematic life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used by Chrysler Corporation to compare existing and alternate hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils in thirteen classifications at a manufacturing facility. The presence of restricted or regulated chemicals, recyclability, and recycled content of the various products were also compared. For ten of the thirteen types of product, an alternate product was identified as more beneficial. This LCM study provided Chrysler personnel with a practical purchasing tool to identify the most cost effective hydraulic fluid or lubricant oil product available for a chosen application on an LCM basis.
Technical Paper

Extending the Enterprise: The Supplier Role in Product Stewardship

1995-12-01
952785
The bounds of Early Supplier Involvement (ESI) are extended through an integrated global raw material strategy which encompasses regulated substance control, material selection and rationalization, and design for recyclability/separability. A life cycle management (LCM) model is used to evaluate environmental, health, safety and recycling (EHS&R) issues in a systematic business decision framework.
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