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Technical Paper

Can the k-ε Model Withstand the Challenges Posed by Complex Industrial Flows?

1997-04-08
971516
The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solution for three-dimensional flow about rotating short cylinders using the computer program AIRFLO3D. The flow Reynolds number was kept at 106 for all computations. The drag forces on the cylinder were obtained for different rotational speeds. Predictions were obtained for both an isolated cylinder and a cylinder on a moving ground. The standard k-ε model was employed to model the turbulence. Computed drag coefficients agreed well with the previous experimental data up to a spin ratio (=rω/V) of 1.5.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of HC Emissions During Cold Start of Gasoline Engines

1995-10-01
952402
A cycle-by-cycle analysis of HC emissions from each cylinder of a four-stroke V-6, 3.3 L production engine was made during cold start. The HC emissions were measured in the exhaust port using a high frequency flame ionization detector (FID). The effect of the initial startup position of the piston and valves in the cycle on combustion and HC emissions from each cylinder was examined. The mass of fuel injected, burned and emitted was calculated for each cycle. The equivalence ratio of the charge in the firing cycles was determined. The analysis covered the first 120 cycles and included the effect of engine transients on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

The Behavior of Multiphase Fuel-Flow in the Intake Port

1994-03-01
940445
Most of the current fuel supply specifications, including the key parameters in the transient fuel control strategies, are experimentally determined since the complexity of multiphase fuel flow behavior inside the intake manifold is still not quantitatively understood. Optimizing these specifications, especially the parameters in transient fueling systems, is a key issue in improving fuel efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions. In this paper, a model of fuel spray, wall-film flow and wall-film vaporization has been developed to gain a better understanding of the multiphase fuel-flow behavior within the intake manifold which may help to determine the fuel supply specifications in a multi-point injection system.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Embrittlement in Automotive Fastener Applications

1996-02-01
960312
Fastener failure due to hydrogen embrittlement is of significant concern in the automotive industry. These types of failures occur unexpectedly. They may be very costly to the automotive company and fastener supplier, not only monetarily, but also in terms of customer satisfaction and safety. This paper is an overview of a program which one automotive company initiated to minimize hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners. The objectives of the program were two-fold. One was to obtain a better understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomena as it relates to automotive fastener materials and processes. The second and most important objective, was to eliminate hydrogen embrittlement failures in vehicles. Early program efforts concentrated on a review of fastener applications and corrosion protection systems to optimize coated fasteners for hydrogen embrittlement resistance.
Technical Paper

Achieving Dent Resistance Improvements and Weight Reduction Through Stamping Process Optimization and Steel Substitution

1996-02-01
960025
Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Foam: The Effect of the State of Stress

1996-11-01
962418
The Finite Element predictions of the physical response of foams during impact by a rigid body (such as, the Hybrid III head form) is determined by material law equations generally approximated based on the theory of elastoplasticity. However, the structural aspect of foam, its discontinuous nature, makes it difficult to apply the laws of continuum mechanics and construct constitutive equations for foam-like material. One part of the problem relates to the state of stress. In materials such as steel, the state of hydrostatic stress does not affect the stress strain behavior under uniaxial compression or tension in plastic regime. In other words, when steel is subject to hydrostatic pressures the stress strain characteristic can be predicted from a uniaxial test. However, if the stresses acting on a section of foam are triaxial, the response of a head-form may be different than predicted from uniaxial test data.
Technical Paper

Engine Misfire Detection by Ionization Current Monitoring

1995-02-01
950003
Engine misfires cause a negative impact on exhaust emissions. Severe cases could damage the catalyst system permanently. These are the basic reasons why CARB (California Air Resources Board) mandated the detection of engine misfires in their OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics II) regulations. For the last several years, automobile manufacturers and their suppliers have been working diligently on various solutions for the “Misfire Detection” challenge. Many have implemented a solution called “Crankshaft Velocity Fluctuation” (CVF), which utilizes the crank sensor input to calculate the variation of the crankshaft rotational speed. The theory is that any misfires will contribute to a deceleration of the crankshaft velocity due to the absence of pressure torque. This approach is marginal at best due to the fact that there could be many contributors to a crankshaft velocity deceleration under various operating conditions. To sort out which is a true misfire is a very difficult task.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Phase-Shift Measurement of the Time-Resolved UBHC Emissions

1995-02-01
950161
The UBHC emissions during cold starting need to be controlled in order to meet the future stringent standards. This requires a better understanding of the characteristics of the time resolved UBHC signal measured by a high frequency FID and its phasing with respect to the valve events. The computer program supplied with the instrument and currently used to compute the phase shift has many uncertainties due to the unsteady nature of engine operation during starting. A new technique is developed to measure the in-situ phase shift of the UBHC signal under the transient thermodynamic and dynamic conditions of the engine. The UBHC concentration is measured at two locations in the exhaust manifold of one cylinder in a multicylinder port injected gasoline engine. The two locations are 77 mm apart. The downstream probe is positioned opposite to a solenoid-operated injector which delivers a gaseous jet of hydrocarbon-free nitrogen upon command.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction in Sheet Forming Simulation

1994-03-01
940937
Although numerical simulation techniques for sheet metal forming become increasingly maturing in recent years, prediction of springback remains a topic of current investigation. The main point of this paper is to illustrate the effectiveness of a modelling approach where static implicit schemes are used for the prediction of springback regardless whether a static implicit or dynamic explicit scheme is used in the forming simulation. The approach is demonstrated by revisiting the 2-D draw bending of NUMISHEET'93 and numerical results on two real world stampings.
Technical Paper

Analyzing Vibrations in an IC Engine Valve Train

1998-02-23
980570
This study analyzes the vibration characteristics of the valve train of a 2.0L SOHC Chrysler Corp. Neon engine over a range of operating speeds to investigate and demonstrate the advantages and limitations of various dynamic measurements such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration in this application. The valve train was tested in a motoring fixture at speeds of 500 to 3500 camshaft rpm. The advantages of analyzing both time and frequency domain measurements are described. Both frequency and order analysis were done on the data. The theoretical order spectra of cam displacement and acceleration were computed and compared to the experimental data. Deconvolution was used to uncover characteristic frequencies of vibration in the system. The theoretical cam acceleration spectrum was deconvolved from measured acceleration spectra to reveal the frequency response function of the follower system.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 8.0-Liter V-10 Engine

1993-11-01
933033
Chrysler Corporation has developed an 8.0-liter engine for light truck applications. Numerous features combine to produce the highest power and torque ratings of any gasoline-fueled light truck engine currently available while also providing commensurate durability. These features include: a deep-skirt ten-cylinder 90° “V” block, a Helmholtz resonator intake manifold that enhances both low and mid-range torque, light die cast all-aluminum pistons for low vibration, a unique firing order for smooth operation, a “Y” block configuration for strength and durability, a heavy duty truck-type thermostat to control warm up, and a direct ignition system.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy for the In-Cylinder Flow of a Four-Valve 3.5L SI Engine Using 3-D LDV Measurements

1997-02-24
970793
A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows.
Technical Paper

Tumble and Swirl Quantification within a Motored Four-Valve SI Engine Cylinder Based on 3-D LDV Measurements

1997-02-24
970792
The flow field contained within ten planes inside a cylinder of a 3.5 liter, 24-valve, V-6 engine was mapped using a three-dimensional Laser Doppler Velocimetry (3-D LDV) system. A total of 1,548 LDV measurement locations were used to construct the time history of the in-cylinder flow fields during the intake and compression strokes. The measurements began during the intake stroke at a crank angle of 60° ATDC and continued until approximately 280° ATDC. The ensemble averaged LDV measurements allowed for a quantitative analysis of the dynamic in-cylinder flow process in terms of tumble and swirl motions. Both of these quantities were calculated at every 1.8 crank degrees during the described measurement interval. Tumble calculations were performed about axes in multiple planes in both the Cartesian directions perpendicular to the plane of the piston top. Swirl calculations were also accomplished in multiple planes that lie parallel to the plane of the piston top.
Technical Paper

Improvements in the Dent Resistance of Steel Body Panels

1992-02-01
920243
A computer-controlled body panel testing machine has been used to quantify stiffness and dent resistance of body panels at Chrysler. The influence of yield strength and local reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of automotive door panels has been investigated. Medium strength steels in the range of 210 -240 MPa yield strength have produced significant improvements in dent resistance over a 160 MPa yield strength steel. Considerable improvements in dent resistance can also be attributed to the use of local, adhesively attached, glass fiber reinforcement patches. The effects of boundary conditions and panel shape on stiffness and dent resistance are illustrated in this application.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Aluminum, Sheet Molding Compound and Steel for Hoods

1992-02-01
920242
A unique opportunity arose to make a direct comparison of aluminum, sheet molding compound (SMC) and steel using a common hood design. In considering all possible material combinations of inner and outer panels, it was discovered that some of the combinations were incompatible due to material properties. Only the compatible material combinations were considered. Three different joining techniques - welding, bonding and bonded hem flanging - were evaluated. The cost, weight and structural performance of the chosen hood material combinations were established. Areas of further development were identified, including design optimization for specific material combinations.
Technical Paper

Experience in Sand Casting Aluminum MMC Prototype Components

1993-03-01
930179
Typical sand-casting techniques have been shown to be inappropriate in pouring particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) castings. New gating/risering configurations were necessary to produce castings of acceptable soundness. Several automotive components, including brake rotors, cylinder liners and camshaft thrust plates, were prepared using special techniques. Initial durability test results of several Al-MMC prototype components are presented.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 3.5 Liter V-6 Engine

1993-03-01
930875
A new 3.5 liter, 60 degrees V6 engine has been designed specifically for Chrysler's 1993 MY line of mid-size sedans - Dodge Intrepid, Eagle Vision, Chrysler Concorde and New Yorker. This new engine features many new components for enchanced performance. The cylinder head has a single overhead cam, four valve-per - cylinder design. The intake system is a cross-flow design equipped with dual throttle bodies, and the manifold also incorporates a vacuum operated tuning valve that increases the mid-range torque of the engine. A windage tray is used on every engine to reduce drag on the rotating components within the crankcase. Dual knock sensors (one per cylinder bank) are used to take advantage of the aggressive spark advance and high compression ratio. The engine also utilizes a plastic, helical, water pump impeller that contributes to low parasitic power losses. The engine incorporates many components and features to ensure durability.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Chromium and Chromium-Free Post-Phosphating Rinses on the Corrosion Performance of Zinc and Zinc Alloy Coated Sheet Steels After Five Years Outdoor Scab Corrosion Exposure

1993-10-01
932358
A selection of commercially available chromium and chromium-free post phosphate rinses along with a deionized water rinse were evaluated over several zinc and zinc-alloy coated sheet steels. The test specimens were pretreated and electrocoated on-line in an automotive assembly plant. The effect of the rinse treatments on the cosmetic corrosion performance of the substrates, after 5 years of exposure in an outdoor scab corrosion test was determined. After this exposure none of the rinse treatments had performed better than deionized water rinse on zinc and zinc-iron coated sheet. The zinc-nickel coating showed improved scribe creepage when treated with the Cr+6/Cr+3 rinse. Data is provided comparing the concentration of the treatments used vs scribe creepage and chipping corrosion paint loss.
Technical Paper

Five Year Outdoor Scab Corrosion Results on Zinc and Zinc Alloy Coated Sheet Steels

1993-10-01
932361
A comprehensive selection of automotive sheet steels were exposed in an outdoor scab corrosion test to provide a base-line of cosmetic corrosion performance. Eighteen different coated sheet steels along with CRS as a control were processed using two commercially available zinc phosphate chemistries. The phosphating was done using both immersion and spray phosphate processes in a laboratory and an automotive assembly plant. Scribe creepage results are reported for 5 years outdoor scab exposure. Comparisons of the scribe creepage behavior of CRS, zinc, and zinc alloy coatings and the effect of the phosphate treatment are provided. An estimate of 10 years field performance is made.
Technical Paper

Carbon and Sulfur Effects on Performance of Microalloyed Spindle Forgings

1993-03-01
930966
Five heats of vanadium-microalloyed steel with carbon contents from 0.29% to 0.40% and sulfur contents from 0.031% to 0.110% were forged into automotive spindles and air cooled. Three of the steels were continuously cast whereas the other two were ingot cast. The forged spindles were subjected to microstructural analysis, mechanical property testing, full component testing and machinability testing. The microstructures of the five steels consisted of pearlite and ferrite which nucleated on prior austenite grain boundaries and predominantly on intragranularly dispersed sulfide inclusions of the resulfurized grades. Ultimate tensile strengths and room temperature Charpy V-notch impact toughness values were relatively insensitive to processing and compositional variations. The room temperature tensile and room-temperature impact properties ranged from 820 MPa to 1000 MPa (120 to 145 ksi) and from 13 Joules to 19 Joules (10 to 14 ft-lbs), respectively, for the various steels.
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