PLYMOUTH'S new V-8 engine has a specific output of 0.65 bhp/cu in. and 145-psi bmep — obtained through a combination of high thermal, volumetric, and mechanical efficiencies. Good design, the author points out, has achieved this high output despite the dual-venturi carburetor and the 7.6/1 compression ratio, selected for satisfactory operation on regular-grade fuels. The engine has a bore and stroke of 3.563 × 3¼, weighs 568 lb without flywheel, is 29⅜ in. long, and is designed for optimum response to future compression ratio increases. (A report of oral discussion following presentation of this paper appears on p. 220, following “The New Packard V-8 Engine,” by W. E. Schwieder.)
WORK done in a development program relative to camshafts and tappets in the design of the Chrysler overhead-valve V-8 engine is described. The types of failure encountered are categorized as wear, scuffing, and fatigue. An accelerated test procedure was designed to promote early cam-tappet failures, and the development work was predicated upon the results obtained therefrom. Among the variables affecting the failure conditions, major emphasis was placed on material development. Specifically, the greater amount of time was spent in determining the optimum tappet material, while some time was devoted to the camshaft material. A combination of adjusted chemical composition and heat-treatment of hardenable cast iron for camshaft and tappets provided the best solution to the failure problems.
THE design and development of the new valve-in-head V-8 Chrysler engine of 7.5 compression ratio are described here. Among the features discussed by the authors are: the hemispherical combustion chamber, V-8 cylinder arrangement, double-breaker distributor, “thermal flywheel” on automatic choke, and exhaust-heated and water-jacketed throttle bodies. The hemispherical combustion chamber was adopted after it had displayed excellent volumetric and indicated thermal efficiencies, and an ability to maintain these high efficiencies in service. The high volumetric efficiency, for example, is considered to be due to such design features as valves not crowded together, nor surrounded closely by the combustion-chamber walls. They are thereby fully effective in the flow of the fuel-air mixture and the exhaust gases. The authors also present performance data for this engine, which, at full throttle, develops 180 hp at 4000 rpm and 312 ft-lb of torque at 2000 rpm.
Testing of an OHC valve train with hydraulic lash adjuster in which the valve displacements, velocities and accelerations were measured and analyzed in both time and frequency domains, coupled with analysis of the frequency content of the valve acceleration function and its ramps, show that traditional designs of the opening and closing ramps used on some IC engine valve cams can exacerbate vibration in the follower system causing higher levels of spring surge and noise. Suggestions are made for improvement to the design of the beginning and ending transitions of valve motion which can potentially reduce dynamic oscillation and vibration in the follower train.
The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solution for three-dimensional flow about rotating short cylinders using the computer program AIRFLO3D. The flow Reynolds number was kept at 106 for all computations. The drag forces on the cylinder were obtained for different rotational speeds. Predictions were obtained for both an isolated cylinder and a cylinder on a moving ground. The standard k-ε model was employed to model the turbulence. Computed drag coefficients agreed well with the previous experimental data up to a spin ratio (=rω/V) of 1.5.
A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows.
In recent years, strict weight reduction targets have pushed auto manufacturers to use lighter gauge sheet steels in all areas of the vehicle including exterior body panels. As sheet metal thicknesses are reduced, dentability of body panels becomes of increasing concern. Thus, the goal becomes one of reducing sheet metal thickness while maintaining acceptable dent resistance. Most prior work in this area has focused on quasi-static loading conditions. In this study, both quasi-static and dynamic dent tests are evaluated. Fully assembled doors made from mild, medium strength bake hardenable and non-bake hardenable steels are examined. The quasi-static dent test is run at a test speed of 0.1 m/minute while the dynamic dent test is run at a test speed of 26.8 m/minute. Dynamic dent testing is of interest because it more closely approximates real life denting conditions such as in-plant handling and transit damage, and parking lot damage from car door and shopping cart impact.
INDUCTION heating is a process or method by which metal parts are heated by simply placing them in an alternating magnetic field. The action is that of the transformer, whereby electrical energy is transferred or passed over to another isolated electric or secondary circuit by means of the magnetic field; thus, no physical attachments or electrical contacts are necessary to have electrical currents, which are dissipated as heat, flow in the parts to be processed. The strength and frequency of the alternating magnetic field can be selected to produce any desired rate of heating and ultimate temperature. A circuit can be set up to dry lacquer at 160 deg. fahr. on thin sheet-metal parts or to melt in record time immense steel ingots. Induction heating is now commercially applied in automotive production to many processes, and these are specified.
LIMITATIONS of the two general methods available for determining hardenability in steel, the authors point out, are that the test piece may not have a sufficient cross-section in which to develop the desired series of cooling rates, and that a special test piece (known as the L-type) must be machined for steels of low hardenability. The method using the Wuerfel bomb described in their paper, they explain, is directed primarily toward removal of these two limitations. Stated in terms of the critical diameter, they report that the results of the method are reproducible within ⅛ in.
Typical sand-casting techniques have been shown to be inappropriate in pouring particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) castings. New gating/risering configurations were necessary to produce castings of acceptable soundness. Several automotive components, including brake rotors, cylinder liners and camshaft thrust plates, were prepared using special techniques. Initial durability test results of several Al-MMC prototype components are presented.
Most of the current fuel supply specifications, including the key parameters in the transient fuel control strategies, are experimentally determined since the complexity of multiphase fuel flow behavior inside the intake manifold is still not quantitatively understood. Optimizing these specifications, especially the parameters in transient fueling systems, is a key issue in improving fuel efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions. In this paper, a model of fuel spray, wall-film flow and wall-film vaporization has been developed to gain a better understanding of the multiphase fuel-flow behavior within the intake manifold which may help to determine the fuel supply specifications in a multi-point injection system.
Higher horsepower per liter engines have put more demand on the crankshaft, often requiring the use of forged steel. This paper examines cost reduction opportunities to offset the penalties associated with forged steel, with raw material and machinability being the primary factors evaluated. A cost model for crankshaft processing is utilized in this paper as a design tool to select the lowest cost material grade. This model is supported by fatigue and machinability data for various steel grades. Materials considered are medium carbon, low alloy, and microalloy steels; the effects of sulfur as a machining enhancer is also studied.
A new 3.5 liter, 60 degrees V6 engine has been designed specifically for Chrysler's 1993 MY line of mid-size sedans - Dodge Intrepid, Eagle Vision, Chrysler Concorde and New Yorker. This new engine features many new components for enchanced performance. The cylinder head has a single overhead cam, four valve-per - cylinder design. The intake system is a cross-flow design equipped with dual throttle bodies, and the manifold also incorporates a vacuum operated tuning valve that increases the mid-range torque of the engine. A windage tray is used on every engine to reduce drag on the rotating components within the crankcase. Dual knock sensors (one per cylinder bank) are used to take advantage of the aggressive spark advance and high compression ratio. The engine also utilizes a plastic, helical, water pump impeller that contributes to low parasitic power losses. The engine incorporates many components and features to ensure durability.
Five heats of vanadium-microalloyed steel with carbon contents from 0.29% to 0.40% and sulfur contents from 0.031% to 0.110% were forged into automotive spindles and air cooled. Three of the steels were continuously cast whereas the other two were ingot cast. The forged spindles were subjected to microstructural analysis, mechanical property testing, full component testing and machinability testing. The microstructures of the five steels consisted of pearlite and ferrite which nucleated on prior austenite grain boundaries and predominantly on intragranularly dispersed sulfide inclusions of the resulfurized grades. Ultimate tensile strengths and room temperature Charpy V-notch impact toughness values were relatively insensitive to processing and compositional variations. The room temperature tensile and room-temperature impact properties ranged from 820 MPa to 1000 MPa (120 to 145 ksi) and from 13 Joules to 19 Joules (10 to 14 ft-lbs), respectively, for the various steels.
Most United States vehicle assembly plants produce significantly more automatic transmission equipped vehicles than manual transmission vehicles. Assembling these two vehicles on a common production line can create complexity problems. This paper describes the design and development of a pre-assembled manual transmission clutch and flywheel modular assembly which reduces most of these problems. This assembly is used on the 1993 model year mini-van with a 2.5L four cylinder engine. This modular clutch system utilizes the same starter ring gear carrier (driveplate) used on automatic transmission equipped vehicles. It pilots into the crankshaft similar to the automatic transmission torque converter. It is balanced as an assembly which results in a lower system imbalance. A significant system piece cost saving, in comparison with today's competitive market, was achieved.
A cycle-by-cycle analysis of HC emissions from each cylinder of a four-stroke V-6, 3.3 L production engine was made during cold start. The HC emissions were measured in the exhaust port using a high frequency flame ionization detector (FID). The effect of the initial startup position of the piston and valves in the cycle on combustion and HC emissions from each cylinder was examined. The mass of fuel injected, burned and emitted was calculated for each cycle. The equivalence ratio of the charge in the firing cycles was determined. The analysis covered the first 120 cycles and included the effect of engine transients on HC emissions.
Engine misfires cause a negative impact on exhaust emissions. Severe cases could damage the catalyst system permanently. These are the basic reasons why CARB (California Air Resources Board) mandated the detection of engine misfires in their OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics II) regulations. For the last several years, automobile manufacturers and their suppliers have been working diligently on various solutions for the “Misfire Detection” challenge. Many have implemented a solution called “Crankshaft Velocity Fluctuation” (CVF), which utilizes the crank sensor input to calculate the variation of the crankshaft rotational speed. The theory is that any misfires will contribute to a deceleration of the crankshaft velocity due to the absence of pressure torque. This approach is marginal at best due to the fact that there could be many contributors to a crankshaft velocity deceleration under various operating conditions. To sort out which is a true misfire is a very difficult task.
The UBHC emissions during cold starting need to be controlled in order to meet the future stringent standards. This requires a better understanding of the characteristics of the time resolved UBHC signal measured by a high frequency FID and its phasing with respect to the valve events. The computer program supplied with the instrument and currently used to compute the phase shift has many uncertainties due to the unsteady nature of engine operation during starting. A new technique is developed to measure the in-situ phase shift of the UBHC signal under the transient thermodynamic and dynamic conditions of the engine. The UBHC concentration is measured at two locations in the exhaust manifold of one cylinder in a multicylinder port injected gasoline engine. The two locations are 77 mm apart. The downstream probe is positioned opposite to a solenoid-operated injector which delivers a gaseous jet of hydrocarbon-free nitrogen upon command.
This study analyzes the vibration characteristics of the valve train of a 2.0L SOHC Chrysler Corp. Neon engine over a range of operating speeds to investigate and demonstrate the advantages and limitations of various dynamic measurements such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration in this application. The valve train was tested in a motoring fixture at speeds of 500 to 3500 camshaft rpm. The advantages of analyzing both time and frequency domain measurements are described. Both frequency and order analysis were done on the data. The theoretical order spectra of cam displacement and acceleration were computed and compared to the experimental data. Deconvolution was used to uncover characteristic frequencies of vibration in the system. The theoretical cam acceleration spectrum was deconvolved from measured acceleration spectra to reveal the frequency response function of the follower system.