Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Engine Misfire Detection by Ionization Current Monitoring

1995-02-01
950003
Engine misfires cause a negative impact on exhaust emissions. Severe cases could damage the catalyst system permanently. These are the basic reasons why CARB (California Air Resources Board) mandated the detection of engine misfires in their OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics II) regulations. For the last several years, automobile manufacturers and their suppliers have been working diligently on various solutions for the “Misfire Detection” challenge. Many have implemented a solution called “Crankshaft Velocity Fluctuation” (CVF), which utilizes the crank sensor input to calculate the variation of the crankshaft rotational speed. The theory is that any misfires will contribute to a deceleration of the crankshaft velocity due to the absence of pressure torque. This approach is marginal at best due to the fact that there could be many contributors to a crankshaft velocity deceleration under various operating conditions. To sort out which is a true misfire is a very difficult task.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Phase-Shift Measurement of the Time-Resolved UBHC Emissions

1995-02-01
950161
The UBHC emissions during cold starting need to be controlled in order to meet the future stringent standards. This requires a better understanding of the characteristics of the time resolved UBHC signal measured by a high frequency FID and its phasing with respect to the valve events. The computer program supplied with the instrument and currently used to compute the phase shift has many uncertainties due to the unsteady nature of engine operation during starting. A new technique is developed to measure the in-situ phase shift of the UBHC signal under the transient thermodynamic and dynamic conditions of the engine. The UBHC concentration is measured at two locations in the exhaust manifold of one cylinder in a multicylinder port injected gasoline engine. The two locations are 77 mm apart. The downstream probe is positioned opposite to a solenoid-operated injector which delivers a gaseous jet of hydrocarbon-free nitrogen upon command.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 8.0-Liter V-10 Engine

1993-11-01
933033
Chrysler Corporation has developed an 8.0-liter engine for light truck applications. Numerous features combine to produce the highest power and torque ratings of any gasoline-fueled light truck engine currently available while also providing commensurate durability. These features include: a deep-skirt ten-cylinder 90° “V” block, a Helmholtz resonator intake manifold that enhances both low and mid-range torque, light die cast all-aluminum pistons for low vibration, a unique firing order for smooth operation, a “Y” block configuration for strength and durability, a heavy duty truck-type thermostat to control warm up, and a direct ignition system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Valve-Cam Ramps on Valve Train Dynamics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0801
Testing of an OHC valve train with hydraulic lash adjuster in which the valve displacements, velocities and accelerations were measured and analyzed in both time and frequency domains, coupled with analysis of the frequency content of the valve acceleration function and its ramps, show that traditional designs of the opening and closing ramps used on some IC engine valve cams can exacerbate vibration in the follower system causing higher levels of spring surge and noise. Suggestions are made for improvement to the design of the beginning and ending transitions of valve motion which can potentially reduce dynamic oscillation and vibration in the follower train.
Technical Paper

Unraveling the Chemical Phenomena Occurring in Spark Ignition Engines

1970-02-01
700489
The principles of combustion in a spark ignition engine are discussed. Engine processes and reactions are explained as to the manner in which they influence exhaust composition. The subject is approached by considering how chemical phenomena interact in a complex system such as a spark ignition engine. Special attention is given to the effect on exhaust composition of such factors as engine design and modifications, fuel composition, and engine maintenance.
Technical Paper

Chrysler Evaporation Control System The Vapor Saver for 1970

1970-02-01
700150
A system for controlling gasoline evaporation losses from 1970 model Chrysler Corp. cars and light trucks was developed, certified for sale in California, and put into production. Evaporation losses from both the carburetor and the fuel tank are conducted to the engine crankcase for storage while the engine is shut down. The vapors are removed from the crankcase and utilized in the combustion process during subsequent vehicle operation. Particularly interesting in this unique, no-moving parts system, are the reliability and durability, and the vapor-liquid separator “standpipe.”
Technical Paper

Computer-Based Selection of Balanced-Life Automotive Gears

1960-01-01
600036
THIS PAPER describes balanced-life concept of gear design — in which the gear and pinion are designed to fail simultaneously. An example is presented to show how this concept allows a combination of minimum size and maximum capacity in gas turbine application. Various reasons for failure and factors in long gear life are discussed. The author analyzes the calculations needed and their programming for a digital computer. Calculating gear designs for production is a time consuming, demanding task to do manually. The use of the computer has changed this — and brought about better gear design by making it possible to study more detailed analyses to evolve optimum solutions. This paper was the Sixth L. Ray Buckendale Lecture, presented at the 1960 SAE Annual Meeting.
Technical Paper

High Performance Forged Steel Crankshafts - Cost Reduction Opportunities

1992-02-01
920784
Higher horsepower per liter engines have put more demand on the crankshaft, often requiring the use of forged steel. This paper examines cost reduction opportunities to offset the penalties associated with forged steel, with raw material and machinability being the primary factors evaluated. A cost model for crankshaft processing is utilized in this paper as a design tool to select the lowest cost material grade. This model is supported by fatigue and machinability data for various steel grades. Materials considered are medium carbon, low alloy, and microalloy steels; the effects of sulfur as a machining enhancer is also studied.
Technical Paper

THE AUTOMOTIVE GAS TURBINE - Today and Tomorrow

1957-01-01
570057
THIS paper discusses the progress of research on the automotive gas turbine and predicts its future potentialities. Comparison of gas turbines and presently used engines shows the possibilities of the gas-turbine applications. Design, construction, and testing of gas turbines are discussed, especially in the light of economy and performance.
Technical Paper

Considerations Affecting the Life of Automotive Camshafts and Tappets

1956-01-01
560015
WORK done in a development program relative to camshafts and tappets in the design of the Chrysler overhead-valve V-8 engine is described. The types of failure encountered are categorized as wear, scuffing, and fatigue. An accelerated test procedure was designed to promote early cam-tappet failures, and the development work was predicated upon the results obtained therefrom. Among the variables affecting the failure conditions, major emphasis was placed on material development. Specifically, the greater amount of time was spent in determining the optimum tappet material, while some time was devoted to the camshaft material. A combination of adjusted chemical composition and heat-treatment of hardenable cast iron for camshaft and tappets provided the best solution to the failure problems.
Technical Paper

The New PLYMOUTH Engine

1956-01-01
560019
PLYMOUTH'S new V-8 engine has a specific output of 0.65 bhp/cu in. and 145-psi bmep — obtained through a combination of high thermal, volumetric, and mechanical efficiencies. Good design, the author points out, has achieved this high output despite the dual-venturi carburetor and the 7.6/1 compression ratio, selected for satisfactory operation on regular-grade fuels. The engine has a bore and stroke of 3.563 × 3¼, weighs 568 lb without flywheel, is 29⅜ in. long, and is designed for optimum response to future compression ratio increases. (A report of oral discussion following presentation of this paper appears on p. 220, following “The New Packard V-8 Engine,” by W. E. Schwieder.)
Technical Paper

Chrysler 3.5 Liter V-6 Engine

1993-03-01
930875
A new 3.5 liter, 60 degrees V6 engine has been designed specifically for Chrysler's 1993 MY line of mid-size sedans - Dodge Intrepid, Eagle Vision, Chrysler Concorde and New Yorker. This new engine features many new components for enchanced performance. The cylinder head has a single overhead cam, four valve-per - cylinder design. The intake system is a cross-flow design equipped with dual throttle bodies, and the manifold also incorporates a vacuum operated tuning valve that increases the mid-range torque of the engine. A windage tray is used on every engine to reduce drag on the rotating components within the crankcase. Dual knock sensors (one per cylinder bank) are used to take advantage of the aggressive spark advance and high compression ratio. The engine also utilizes a plastic, helical, water pump impeller that contributes to low parasitic power losses. The engine incorporates many components and features to ensure durability.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas Converter Performance and Durability

1993-03-01
930222
Natural gas-fueled vehicles impose unique requirements on exhaust aftertreatment systems. Methane conversion, which is very difficult for conventional automotive catalysts, may be required, depending on future regulatory directions. Three-way converter operating windows for simultaneous conversion of HC, CO, and NOx are considerably more narrow with gas engine exhaust. While several studies have demonstrated acceptable fresh converter performance, aged performance remains a concern. This paper presents the results of a durability study of eight catalytic converters specifically developed for natural gas engines. The converters were aged for 300 hours on a natural gas-fueled 7.0L Chevrolet engine operated at net stoichiometry. Catalyst performance was evaluated using both air/fuel traverse engine tests and FTP vehicle tests. Durability cycle severity and a comparison of results for engine and vehicle tests are discussed.
Technical Paper

Experience in Sand Casting Aluminum MMC Prototype Components

1993-03-01
930179
Typical sand-casting techniques have been shown to be inappropriate in pouring particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) castings. New gating/risering configurations were necessary to produce castings of acceptable soundness. Several automotive components, including brake rotors, cylinder liners and camshaft thrust plates, were prepared using special techniques. Initial durability test results of several Al-MMC prototype components are presented.
Technical Paper

Energy and the Automobile - General Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Consumption

1973-02-01
730518
Since 1968, vehicle weight increases and emissions controls have reduced fuel economy substantially. Additional losses in economy and acceleration will be experienced through 1976. Recommendations are made to lessen the impact of the predicted losses. Factors influencing fuel economy and acceleration are examined for an intermediate car. Changes in engine efficiency and displacement, compression ratio, torque converter, transmission, axle ratio, aerodynamic drag, tires, accessories, vehicle weight, and emissions controls are examined. When practical, the effects of 10% changes are analyzed. Comparisons are also made with a subcompact and a luxury vehicle.
Technical Paper

Application of Design and Development Techniques for Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0506
Gasoline direct injection technology is receiving increased attention among automotive engineers due to its high potential to reach future emission and fuel economy goals. This paper reports some of the design and development techniques in use at Chrysler as applied to four-stroke Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engines. The spray characteristics of Chrysler's single-fluid high-pressure injector are reported. Tools used in the design process are identified. Observations of the in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process using laser diagnostic techniques and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are described. Finally, combustion and emissions characteristics using Design of Experiment (DoE) tests are presented.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of HC Emissions During Cold Start of Gasoline Engines

1995-10-01
952402
A cycle-by-cycle analysis of HC emissions from each cylinder of a four-stroke V-6, 3.3 L production engine was made during cold start. The HC emissions were measured in the exhaust port using a high frequency flame ionization detector (FID). The effect of the initial startup position of the piston and valves in the cycle on combustion and HC emissions from each cylinder was examined. The mass of fuel injected, burned and emitted was calculated for each cycle. The equivalence ratio of the charge in the firing cycles was determined. The analysis covered the first 120 cycles and included the effect of engine transients on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Design Features of the JUNKERS 211B AIRCRAFT ENGINE

1942-01-01
420123
THE Junkers 211B engine follows the usual German practice of very large displacements and conservative mean effective pressures and rotative speeds. However, the relative light weight per unit of displacement results in a net weight per horsepower that is not far above its competitors. Fully automatic devices which control propeller speed, manifold pressure, mixture ratio, spark advance, and supercharger gear ratio follow the German policy of removing all possible distractions from the pilot. This is one of three large liquid-cooled engines known to be produced in quantity in Germany; it powers an impressive percentage of the Luftwaffe. While of external appearance and displacement that resemble the Daimler-Benz DB-601 engine, the fundamental construction, detail design practice, and metallurgy of the Junkers 211B are surprisingly different.
Technical Paper

Assessing Design Concepts for NVH Using HYFEX (Hybrid Finite Element/Experimental) Modeling

1995-05-01
951249
This paper outlines several methodologies which use finite element and experimental models to predict vehicle NVH responses. Trimmed body experimental modal subsystem models are incorporated into the finite element system model to evaluate engine mounting systems for low frequency vibration problems. Higher frequency noise issues related to road input are evaluated using experimentally derived acoustic transfer functions combined with finite element subsystem model responses. Specific examples of system models built to simulate idle shake and road noise are given. Applications to engine mounting, suspension design, and body structure criteria are discussed.
X