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Technical Paper

The New PLYMOUTH Engine

1956-01-01
560019
PLYMOUTH'S new V-8 engine has a specific output of 0.65 bhp/cu in. and 145-psi bmep — obtained through a combination of high thermal, volumetric, and mechanical efficiencies. Good design, the author points out, has achieved this high output despite the dual-venturi carburetor and the 7.6/1 compression ratio, selected for satisfactory operation on regular-grade fuels. The engine has a bore and stroke of 3.563 × 3¼, weighs 568 lb without flywheel, is 29⅜ in. long, and is designed for optimum response to future compression ratio increases. (A report of oral discussion following presentation of this paper appears on p. 220, following “The New Packard V-8 Engine,” by W. E. Schwieder.)
Technical Paper

Considerations Affecting the Life of Automotive Camshafts and Tappets

1956-01-01
560015
WORK done in a development program relative to camshafts and tappets in the design of the Chrysler overhead-valve V-8 engine is described. The types of failure encountered are categorized as wear, scuffing, and fatigue. An accelerated test procedure was designed to promote early cam-tappet failures, and the development work was predicated upon the results obtained therefrom. Among the variables affecting the failure conditions, major emphasis was placed on material development. Specifically, the greater amount of time was spent in determining the optimum tappet material, while some time was devoted to the camshaft material. A combination of adjusted chemical composition and heat-treatment of hardenable cast iron for camshaft and tappets provided the best solution to the failure problems.
Technical Paper

Development Highlights and Unique Features of New Chrysler V-8 Engine

1951-01-01
510196
THE design and development of the new valve-in-head V-8 Chrysler engine of 7.5 compression ratio are described here. Among the features discussed by the authors are: the hemispherical combustion chamber, V-8 cylinder arrangement, double-breaker distributor, “thermal flywheel” on automatic choke, and exhaust-heated and water-jacketed throttle bodies. The hemispherical combustion chamber was adopted after it had displayed excellent volumetric and indicated thermal efficiencies, and an ability to maintain these high efficiencies in service. The high volumetric efficiency, for example, is considered to be due to such design features as valves not crowded together, nor surrounded closely by the combustion-chamber walls. They are thereby fully effective in the flow of the fuel-air mixture and the exhaust gases. The authors also present performance data for this engine, which, at full throttle, develops 180 hp at 4000 rpm and 312 ft-lb of torque at 2000 rpm.
Technical Paper

TRUCK PERFORMANCE— Computed versus Measured Data

1958-01-01
580040
THIS paper outlines tests made to verify the SAE recommended practice for estimating truck ability performance described in TR-82. The author has collected data on four vehicles and compares it with the results computed in TR-82 and with a Method X. The data includes information on air and rolling resistance, effect of wind velocity, chassis friction power, grade ability, and the like. The author concludes that the SAE method of TR-82 is at the present time the most reliable method for computing truck ability.
Technical Paper

Effect of Valve-Cam Ramps on Valve Train Dynamics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0801
Testing of an OHC valve train with hydraulic lash adjuster in which the valve displacements, velocities and accelerations were measured and analyzed in both time and frequency domains, coupled with analysis of the frequency content of the valve acceleration function and its ramps, show that traditional designs of the opening and closing ramps used on some IC engine valve cams can exacerbate vibration in the follower system causing higher levels of spring surge and noise. Suggestions are made for improvement to the design of the beginning and ending transitions of valve motion which can potentially reduce dynamic oscillation and vibration in the follower train.
Technical Paper

Can the k-ε Model Withstand the Challenges Posed by Complex Industrial Flows?

1997-04-08
971516
The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solution for three-dimensional flow about rotating short cylinders using the computer program AIRFLO3D. The flow Reynolds number was kept at 106 for all computations. The drag forces on the cylinder were obtained for different rotational speeds. Predictions were obtained for both an isolated cylinder and a cylinder on a moving ground. The standard k-ε model was employed to model the turbulence. Computed drag coefficients agreed well with the previous experimental data up to a spin ratio (=rω/V) of 1.5.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy for the In-Cylinder Flow of a Four-Valve 3.5L SI Engine Using 3-D LDV Measurements

1997-02-24
970793
A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows.
Technical Paper

Changes in Reliability During the Design and Development Process of a Vehicle's Electrical/Electronic Systems

1995-02-01
950826
The changes in reliability of the Electrical/Electronic Systems of a vehicle-line during its early design and development engineering processes have been studied. A computerized vehicle failure tracking system was used to provide results from several stages of early development vehicle testing at the proving grounds. The data were analyzed using a software program that assumes that failures in a repairable system, such as a car, occur as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Results suggest that, under normal circumstances, a significant and quantitative improvement in reliability is achievable as the system or component design progresses through the early design and development processes. This also provides a means of predicting future system(s) reliability when the system(s) is in production.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rubber-Like Headform Skin Model for Predicting the Head Injury Criterion (HIC)

1995-02-01
950883
This paper describes the development of a rubber-like skin Finite Elements Model (FEM) for the Hybrid III headform and an experimental method to determine its material properties. The finite element modeling procedures, using material parameters derived from tests conducted on the headform skin (rubber) material, are described. Dynamic responses and computations of HIC using the developed headform model show that an Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic (EPH) material model of the rubber can be used for headform impact simulations. The results obtained from the headform simulation using an EPH rubber material model and drop tower tests of the headform on both a rigid and a deformable structure will be compared, in order to show the applicability of the EPH model.
Technical Paper

Inadvertent Air Bag Sensor Testing for Off-Road Vehicles

1993-11-01
933020
This paper presents the development of a test procedure for evaluation of inadvertent deployment of air bags. The methodology and early development of the procedure is discussed along with additional criteria thought to be required for trucks and sport utility vehicles. Tests conducted address severe off-road use in relation to air bag sensing systems. Data is collected from accelerometers. After worst case test conditions are identified (examples include rough road, snow plowing and jerk towing events), the data is analyzed and comparisons for design decisions can be made.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 8.0-Liter V-10 Engine

1993-11-01
933033
Chrysler Corporation has developed an 8.0-liter engine for light truck applications. Numerous features combine to produce the highest power and torque ratings of any gasoline-fueled light truck engine currently available while also providing commensurate durability. These features include: a deep-skirt ten-cylinder 90° “V” block, a Helmholtz resonator intake manifold that enhances both low and mid-range torque, light die cast all-aluminum pistons for low vibration, a unique firing order for smooth operation, a “Y” block configuration for strength and durability, a heavy duty truck-type thermostat to control warm up, and a direct ignition system.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Energy Management Materials for Head Impact Protection

1997-02-24
970159
Energy management materials are widely used in automotive interiors in instrument panel, knee bolster, and door absorber applications to reduce the risk of injury to an occupant during a crash. Automobile manufacturers must meet standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that identify maximum levels of injury to an occupant. The recent NHTSA upgrade to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201 test procedure(1) for upper interior head impact protection has prompted energy management materials' use in several new areas of affected vehicles. While vehicle evaluations continue, results to date show that energy management foams can be effective in reducing the head injury criterion [HIC(d)] to acceptable government and OEM levels.
Technical Paper

Performance of Heat-Resistant Alloys in Emission-Control Systems

1974-02-01
740093
An extensive program has been established to screen and evaluate heat- and corrosion-resistant alloys that may have some potential application in emission-control systems anywhere from the exhaust manifold to the tailpipe. The various phases of this program, which include tests conducted in air and controlled exhaust atmospheres at temperatures between 1300-2200°F are described. Some selected test data and the results of metallographic studies are presented to illustrate how representative alloys react to the various test conditions. The characteristics and functions of the basic emission-control devices are reviewed in light of their effect upon materials requirements.
Technical Paper

TFC/IW

1978-02-01
780937
TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia (test) weight is a useful concept in analyzing the total or composite fuel economy generated in thousands of tests using the carbon balance technique in EPA Federal Test Procedure and Highway Driving Cycle. TFC/IW is a measure of drive train efficiency that requires no additional complicating assumptions. It is applicable to one test or a fleet representing many tests.
Technical Paper

The Development of Auto Temp II

1972-02-01
720288
The development of the AUTO TEMP II Temperature Control System used in Chrysler Corp. vehicles is summarized. A description of the design, development, function, and manufacturing aspects of the control system is presented, with emphasis on unique control parameters, reliability, serviceability, and check-out of production assemblies. Auto Temp II was developed by Chrysler in conjunction with Ranco Incorporated. The servo-controlled, closed-loop system, which has a sensitivity of 0.5 F, utilizes a water-flow control valve for temperature control, along with a cold engine lockout. The basic components are: sensor string, servo, and amplifier. All automatic functions involving control of mass flow rate, temperature, and distribution of the air entering the vehicle, are encompassed in one control unit. All components are mechanically linked through the gear train and are responsive to the amplifier through the feedback potentiometer.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Predicting the Formability of Materials

1972-02-01
720019
The paper presents a new method, based on standard laboratory cup tests, for predicting the formability of materials; in the example provided, the forming potentials of four new materials are shown. The properties of stretchability and drawability, which are the principal factors defining a material's forming limits, may be assessed using the Olsen spherical cup test and the Swift flat-bottomed cup test. In the shape analysis procedure described, the minimum amount of deformation needed to fix a desired shape is determined. Then necessary adjustments to tooling for optimum sheet metal usage are made based on calculations from a new type of chart showing stretch forming ratio and draw forming ratio, providing a comparison of the formabilities of a number of materials.
Technical Paper

Chrysler Evaporation Control System The Vapor Saver for 1970

1970-02-01
700150
A system for controlling gasoline evaporation losses from 1970 model Chrysler Corp. cars and light trucks was developed, certified for sale in California, and put into production. Evaporation losses from both the carburetor and the fuel tank are conducted to the engine crankcase for storage while the engine is shut down. The vapors are removed from the crankcase and utilized in the combustion process during subsequent vehicle operation. Particularly interesting in this unique, no-moving parts system, are the reliability and durability, and the vapor-liquid separator “standpipe.”
Technical Paper

Bonding Processes in Automotive Manufacture

1973-02-01
730136
Five bonding processes used in the automotive industry, ranging from structural adhesive to nonstructural and filler, are discussed in this paper. Surface preparation, including use of primers; nature, application, and curing of adhesive; secondary processes; in-line testing and destructive test methods; and repair processes are covered. The integral bonding of disc pad shoe assemblies is detailed. Vinyl plastisol adhesives are used for bonding assemblies. Windshield and backlight bonding is a semistructural adhesive application. Contact bonding cements bond exterior vinyl roof covering to roof panels. A vinyl plastisol sealer replaces solder on the joint between the roof and rear quarter panel.
Technical Paper

The First Standard Automotive Crash Dummy

1969-02-01
690218
The SAE Recommended Practice J963 “Anthropomorphic Test Device for Dynamic Testing” describes a standard 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test dummy. For nearly three years the Crash Test Dummy Task Force worked with the limited data available in selecting values for the body dimensions and ranges of motion. The data for specifying the values of mass distribution were developed experimentally as was a test procedure for determining the dynamic spring rate of the thorax.
Technical Paper

Suspension System Modeling and Structural Loading

1975-02-01
750134
The object of this paper is to present an overview of the procedure leading to the selection of suspension system pivot points, show how to resolve terrain and maneuver loads at the tire contact patch to the vehicles' structure, illustrate the modeling technique used for stress analysis of suspension system components, and illustrate a few examples of suspension system models used to aid in the solution of ride and handling problems.
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