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Technical Paper

Characterization of Lunar Surfaces and Concepts of Manned Lunar Roving Vehicles

This paper discusses the development of criteria necessary to establish reliable lunar exploration and construction vehicle concepts. To establish the basis for the development of these criteria, an exploration mission using the presently conceived Apollo launch vehicle system is described. The criteria resulting from the study of the contribution made by the hostile lunar environment and the life support system requirements within the framework of the selected mission are established. Soils testing in a hard vacuum is described, as are tests of models under simulated lunar terrain environment. Two lunar vehicle configurations are reviewed, including design parameters and subsystem development.
Technical Paper

The First Standard Automotive Crash Dummy

The SAE Recommended Practice J963 “Anthropomorphic Test Device for Dynamic Testing” describes a standard 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test dummy. For nearly three years the Crash Test Dummy Task Force worked with the limited data available in selecting values for the body dimensions and ranges of motion. The data for specifying the values of mass distribution were developed experimentally as was a test procedure for determining the dynamic spring rate of the thorax.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Design Analysis of Instrument Panel Impact Zone

In anticipation of complying with European standards for impact protection, an instrument panel design was analyzed to determine A. impact zone boundaries B. impact test velocities for the head of a front seat passenger. Chrysler computer aided design (C.A.D.) surfacing capabilities were utilized in the solution. Early knowledge of impact zone location is important to intelligent design decisions; knowledge of impact velocities aids in performing compliance testing.
Technical Paper

Digital Recording of Vehicle Crash Data

This paper discusses the development and implementation of a 16 channel data acquisition system for high “G” impact testing which includes a self-contained, on-board data acquisition unit, a programmer-exerciser and debriefing subsystems. The microprocessor controlled, on-board unit contains all signal conditioning, A/D conversion hardware and logic to store 4K 12 bit samples of data per channel. This unit will debrief into an oscilloscope, a desk-top computer or a large disk-based minicomputer system. Advantages over previous systems include the elimination of costly hardware (such as umbilical cables and recorders), and a reduction in pre-test preparation and data processing time.
Technical Paper

How Seat Design Characteristics Affect Impact Injury Criteria

The seat can play an important part in improving occupant safety during a car impact. This paper discusses research done to determine how characteristics of seat design affect occupant safety. Impact simulator tests have been run which determine how variation of five specific seat characteristics affect FMVSS 208 occupant injury criteria. These tests simulated a 48.3 km/h (30 mi/h) frontal Oarrier impact using a 50th percentile male anthropomorphic device restrained by a two-point passive shoulder belt system. The five seat characteristics tested were the following: 1) Seat Frame Angle, 2) Seat Frame Structure, 3) H-Point Distance Above the Seat Frame, 4) Energy Absorption of the Seat Frame, and 5) Seat Cushion Foam Firmness. Test results show that the first characteristic can improve all injury criteria. The other four will improve some injury criteria at the expense of others.
Technical Paper

Reliability Estimation and Failure Prediction of Vehicle Systems and Components

For designing new products or developing new specifications, the reliability performance of systems and components experienced by the customer provides invaluable information for the engineer. This information, not only provides for the visibility of reliability requirements, but also an awareness of potential degradation of the systems and components during its life cycle. In this paper, a method is presented for predicting vehicle system and component reliability from vehicle fleet repair data. This method combines sampling stratification, computer data analysis and statistical modeling techniques into a reliability analysis procedure to provide reliability prediction. Specifically, published vehicle fleet data was used to provide the basis for predicting the vehicle system and component reliability at any mileage level.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Studies of Polyurethane Foam for Energy Absorption in Automotive Interiors

This paper describes and characterizes energy-absorbing polyurethane foam as exemplified foam made with Bayfill EA systems. This paper emphasizes its use for automotive passive restraint systems. Static and dynamic properties will be presented. In addition the effect of velocity, weight, density, and vehicle environment on energy absorption will be discussed. RECENT federal requirements for the safety of occupants in automobiles has prompted the industry to investigate light weight and low cost materials for energy management. The use of passive restraints in interiors, i.e. air-bags, has necessitated the development of energy-absorbing instrument panels (IP) for passenger cars and multi-purpose vehicles. When air-bags are deployed in a collision the passenger tends to slide under the bag impacting the knee into the instrument panel. Foam as an energy absorbing material has played an important role in the development of knee bolsters for these interiors.
Technical Paper

Statistical Decision Making in FMVSS Testing

This paper presents a method of accounting for sample variability and sample size in establishing the acceptable bogey levels. The technique makes use of the statistical tolerance theory which accounts for the variability of the sample mean and standard deviation by determining a K-factor adjusted for sample size. The result is a tolerance that is reasonably assumed to cover a specified fraction of the population of parts. The technique, although not as simple as a fixed bogey, does discriminate between designs with different levels of energy management robustness.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Test Device for the Optimization of Seat Belt System Component Design and Installation Geometry

A laboratory test fixture was designed and built to simulate seat belt assembly installations. The anchor positions of the retractor and pillar loop, and the engaged or free-hanging position of the latchplate can be varied to either simulate a vehicle's seat belt system geometry, or to optimize a proposed geometry. The required retraction forces for a simulated geometry are determined by replacing the retractor action with a motorized load transducer that measures the force required to stow the latchplate. The pillar loop, webbing, latchplate, and their relative positions can be varied until the minimum retraction force that successfully stores the latchplate is determined. The geometry of such a condition can then be applied to future designs of seat belt assembly components and their anchor positions.
Technical Paper

Application of Design and Development Techniques for Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

Gasoline direct injection technology is receiving increased attention among automotive engineers due to its high potential to reach future emission and fuel economy goals. This paper reports some of the design and development techniques in use at Chrysler as applied to four-stroke Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engines. The spray characteristics of Chrysler's single-fluid high-pressure injector are reported. Tools used in the design process are identified. Observations of the in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process using laser diagnostic techniques and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are described. Finally, combustion and emissions characteristics using Design of Experiment (DoE) tests are presented.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Impact Test Accelerations: A Damage Index for the Head and Torso

The head Severity Index concept has attracted widespread attention in the automotive industry. This index is intended to estimate human survivability in a systematic way without relying on judgment values. It is employed for evaluating the probability of internal head injury for those indeterminate conditions where the human tolerance limits are not clearly defined. This paper discusses a damage index which is believed to be superior to the current Severity Index in several respects: 1. The concept is applicable to internal injuries of the torso as well as the head. 2. It is felt to describe the actual damage mechanism more directly. 3. It fits the Wayne State head tolerance curve better than the Severity Index. 4. It is suitable for analyzing impact pulses of any time duration. Examples cited in this paper include rocket sled exposures (250 ms duration) down to severe head impacts (5 ms duration). 5. It is more convenient to employ.
Technical Paper

A Basic Study of “Energy-Absorbing” Vehicle Structure and Occupant Restraints by Mathematical Model

Simplified mathematical modeling has been employed to investigate the relationship between automobile forestructure energy absorption and the restraint loads applied to passengers during a 30 mph barrier collision. A two-massmodel was developed and validated to compute restraint loading from a given passenger compartment deceleration. The effect of various deceleration curves, representing forestructure modifications, is reported. A “constant force” restraint system is also evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Progress Report on Electromagnetic Activity of Motor Vehicle Manufacturer's Association

Starting in 1965 and continuing through 1972, the Radio Committee of the Motor Vehicles Manufacturers Association (MVMA) has been the coordinator of a number of electromagnetic research projects. These investigations have included extensive applications of the updated SAE Standard, Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation From Motor Vehicles (20-1000 MHz)-SAE J551a. Furthermore, there were joint testing programs with the Electronic Industries Association which encompassed measuring degradation in the performance of Land Mobile Radio Service receivers resulting from varying levels of impulsive-type radiation from motor vehicles. In addition, efforts were expended in using statistical approaches for testing a number of hypotheses covering a conversion of impulsive vehicle noise data to the interference potential to Land Mobile receivers.
Technical Paper

Energy and the Automobile - General Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Consumption

Since 1968, vehicle weight increases and emissions controls have reduced fuel economy substantially. Additional losses in economy and acceleration will be experienced through 1976. Recommendations are made to lessen the impact of the predicted losses. Factors influencing fuel economy and acceleration are examined for an intermediate car. Changes in engine efficiency and displacement, compression ratio, torque converter, transmission, axle ratio, aerodynamic drag, tires, accessories, vehicle weight, and emissions controls are examined. When practical, the effects of 10% changes are analyzed. Comparisons are also made with a subcompact and a luxury vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Procedure for Measuring Instrument Panel Visibility

A procedure has been developed for measuring the relative visibility of automotive instrument panel graphics and components. Through use of a Luckiesh-Moss Visibility Meter, discreet values of visibility can be assigned to visual targets and related to driver reaction time. Also, eyes off the road lapsed time boundaries may be established which will define visibility requirements necessary to serve the total driver population. These requirements can be translated into meaningful guidelines or standards for visibility attributes such as size, shape, color, contrast, and position of graphics, controls, and indicators. How visibility measurements are made and interpreted and the visibility measuring facility are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper


TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia (test) weight is a useful concept in analyzing the total or composite fuel economy generated in thousands of tests using the carbon balance technique in EPA Federal Test Procedure and Highway Driving Cycle. TFC/IW is a measure of drive train efficiency that requires no additional complicating assumptions. It is applicable to one test or a fleet representing many tests.
Technical Paper

The 1978 Chrysler Torque Converter Lock-Up Clutch

A torque converter lock-up clutch was introduced by Chrysler Corporation in a majority of its passenger cars in the 1978 model year. The lock-up clutch improves fuel economy by eliminating torque converter slip in direct gear above a predetermined speed. The clutch and its controls were designed to fit within the confines of the existing transmission. The development of the clutch was primarily concerned with achieving adequate endurance life, good shift quality and isolation of torsional vibrations.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Automotive Front Seat Structure Constructed of Polymer Composite

Seats play an important role in determining customer satisfaction and safety. They also represent three to five percent of the overall vehicle cost and weight. Therefore, automotive manufacturers are continuously seeking ways to improve the areas of comfort, safety, reliability, cost and weight within the seat system. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of an automotive front seat constructed of injection molded nylon frames and metal mechanisms. This development program was initiated for the purpose of reducing vehicle weight while increasing the reliability and safety of the front seats. This paper will review the material and process selection decision, a design overview, the performance criteria and the results of tests performed on the injection molded front seats.
Technical Paper

Fuel Mixture Temperature Variations in the Intake Port

Temperature variation and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port injection play a significant role in the mixture preparation process, especially during the warm up period. Cold temperatures in the intake port result in a large amount of liquid-fuel film. Since the liquid-fuel film responds at a slower speed than the gas-phase flow during transient operations, the liquid-fuel film acts as a fuel sink (or source) and can degrade the vehicle's driveability, fuel economy, and emissions control. In this work, a one-dimensional, unsteady, multicomponent, multiphase flow model has been developed to study the mixture formation process in the intake port for a modern, multipoint-fuel-injection, gasoline engine. The droplet, liquid film and gas-phase mixture temperature variations and the effects of charge air, initial fuel and port wall temperatures involved in generating the air-fuel mixture are examined.
Technical Paper

Plastic Material Separation on Vehicle Subsystems

Hand dismantling of certain automotive parts has been an accepted process to remove high value materials, but in large scale recycling this may not be economical. In plastics, a pure non contaminated material stream is critical for maintaining high material values and this means designing plastic parts that can be machine separated. One candidate for separating the plastics in vehicle subsystems such as instrument panels and door trim panels is density separation. In order to better understand what processes are required to develop design requirements for automated plastic separation methods Chrysler and the Vehicle Recycling Partnership have undertaken a major materials separation study with MBA Polymers. In this paper, we describe the material separation methods and the application of these methods to three automotive interior assemblies.