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Technical Paper

Engine Misfire Detection by Ionization Current Monitoring

1995-02-01
950003
Engine misfires cause a negative impact on exhaust emissions. Severe cases could damage the catalyst system permanently. These are the basic reasons why CARB (California Air Resources Board) mandated the detection of engine misfires in their OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics II) regulations. For the last several years, automobile manufacturers and their suppliers have been working diligently on various solutions for the “Misfire Detection” challenge. Many have implemented a solution called “Crankshaft Velocity Fluctuation” (CVF), which utilizes the crank sensor input to calculate the variation of the crankshaft rotational speed. The theory is that any misfires will contribute to a deceleration of the crankshaft velocity due to the absence of pressure torque. This approach is marginal at best due to the fact that there could be many contributors to a crankshaft velocity deceleration under various operating conditions. To sort out which is a true misfire is a very difficult task.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Phase-Shift Measurement of the Time-Resolved UBHC Emissions

1995-02-01
950161
The UBHC emissions during cold starting need to be controlled in order to meet the future stringent standards. This requires a better understanding of the characteristics of the time resolved UBHC signal measured by a high frequency FID and its phasing with respect to the valve events. The computer program supplied with the instrument and currently used to compute the phase shift has many uncertainties due to the unsteady nature of engine operation during starting. A new technique is developed to measure the in-situ phase shift of the UBHC signal under the transient thermodynamic and dynamic conditions of the engine. The UBHC concentration is measured at two locations in the exhaust manifold of one cylinder in a multicylinder port injected gasoline engine. The two locations are 77 mm apart. The downstream probe is positioned opposite to a solenoid-operated injector which delivers a gaseous jet of hydrocarbon-free nitrogen upon command.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 8.0-Liter V-10 Engine

1993-11-01
933033
Chrysler Corporation has developed an 8.0-liter engine for light truck applications. Numerous features combine to produce the highest power and torque ratings of any gasoline-fueled light truck engine currently available while also providing commensurate durability. These features include: a deep-skirt ten-cylinder 90° “V” block, a Helmholtz resonator intake manifold that enhances both low and mid-range torque, light die cast all-aluminum pistons for low vibration, a unique firing order for smooth operation, a “Y” block configuration for strength and durability, a heavy duty truck-type thermostat to control warm up, and a direct ignition system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Valve-Cam Ramps on Valve Train Dynamics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0801
Testing of an OHC valve train with hydraulic lash adjuster in which the valve displacements, velocities and accelerations were measured and analyzed in both time and frequency domains, coupled with analysis of the frequency content of the valve acceleration function and its ramps, show that traditional designs of the opening and closing ramps used on some IC engine valve cams can exacerbate vibration in the follower system causing higher levels of spring surge and noise. Suggestions are made for improvement to the design of the beginning and ending transitions of valve motion which can potentially reduce dynamic oscillation and vibration in the follower train.
Technical Paper

Chrysler Evaporation Control System The Vapor Saver for 1970

1970-02-01
700150
A system for controlling gasoline evaporation losses from 1970 model Chrysler Corp. cars and light trucks was developed, certified for sale in California, and put into production. Evaporation losses from both the carburetor and the fuel tank are conducted to the engine crankcase for storage while the engine is shut down. The vapors are removed from the crankcase and utilized in the combustion process during subsequent vehicle operation. Particularly interesting in this unique, no-moving parts system, are the reliability and durability, and the vapor-liquid separator “standpipe.”
Technical Paper

High Performance Forged Steel Crankshafts - Cost Reduction Opportunities

1992-02-01
920784
Higher horsepower per liter engines have put more demand on the crankshaft, often requiring the use of forged steel. This paper examines cost reduction opportunities to offset the penalties associated with forged steel, with raw material and machinability being the primary factors evaluated. A cost model for crankshaft processing is utilized in this paper as a design tool to select the lowest cost material grade. This model is supported by fatigue and machinability data for various steel grades. Materials considered are medium carbon, low alloy, and microalloy steels; the effects of sulfur as a machining enhancer is also studied.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Aluminum, Sheet Molding Compound and Steel for Hoods

1992-02-01
920242
A unique opportunity arose to make a direct comparison of aluminum, sheet molding compound (SMC) and steel using a common hood design. In considering all possible material combinations of inner and outer panels, it was discovered that some of the combinations were incompatible due to material properties. Only the compatible material combinations were considered. Three different joining techniques - welding, bonding and bonded hem flanging - were evaluated. The cost, weight and structural performance of the chosen hood material combinations were established. Areas of further development were identified, including design optimization for specific material combinations.
Technical Paper

Improvements in the Dent Resistance of Steel Body Panels

1992-02-01
920243
A computer-controlled body panel testing machine has been used to quantify stiffness and dent resistance of body panels at Chrysler. The influence of yield strength and local reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of automotive door panels has been investigated. Medium strength steels in the range of 210 -240 MPa yield strength have produced significant improvements in dent resistance over a 160 MPa yield strength steel. Considerable improvements in dent resistance can also be attributed to the use of local, adhesively attached, glass fiber reinforcement patches. The effects of boundary conditions and panel shape on stiffness and dent resistance are illustrated in this application.
Technical Paper

Considerations Affecting the Life of Automotive Camshafts and Tappets

1956-01-01
560015
WORK done in a development program relative to camshafts and tappets in the design of the Chrysler overhead-valve V-8 engine is described. The types of failure encountered are categorized as wear, scuffing, and fatigue. An accelerated test procedure was designed to promote early cam-tappet failures, and the development work was predicated upon the results obtained therefrom. Among the variables affecting the failure conditions, major emphasis was placed on material development. Specifically, the greater amount of time was spent in determining the optimum tappet material, while some time was devoted to the camshaft material. A combination of adjusted chemical composition and heat-treatment of hardenable cast iron for camshaft and tappets provided the best solution to the failure problems.
Technical Paper

The New PLYMOUTH Engine

1956-01-01
560019
PLYMOUTH'S new V-8 engine has a specific output of 0.65 bhp/cu in. and 145-psi bmep — obtained through a combination of high thermal, volumetric, and mechanical efficiencies. Good design, the author points out, has achieved this high output despite the dual-venturi carburetor and the 7.6/1 compression ratio, selected for satisfactory operation on regular-grade fuels. The engine has a bore and stroke of 3.563 × 3¼, weighs 568 lb without flywheel, is 29⅜ in. long, and is designed for optimum response to future compression ratio increases. (A report of oral discussion following presentation of this paper appears on p. 220, following “The New Packard V-8 Engine,” by W. E. Schwieder.)
Technical Paper

Determining Hardenability on Small Sizes

1941-01-01
410115
LIMITATIONS of the two general methods available for determining hardenability in steel, the authors point out, are that the test piece may not have a sufficient cross-section in which to develop the desired series of cooling rates, and that a special test piece (known as the L-type) must be machined for steels of low hardenability. The method using the Wuerfel bomb described in their paper, they explain, is directed primarily toward removal of these two limitations. Stated in terms of the critical diameter, they report that the results of the method are reproducible within ⅛ in.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 3.5 Liter V-6 Engine

1993-03-01
930875
A new 3.5 liter, 60 degrees V6 engine has been designed specifically for Chrysler's 1993 MY line of mid-size sedans - Dodge Intrepid, Eagle Vision, Chrysler Concorde and New Yorker. This new engine features many new components for enchanced performance. The cylinder head has a single overhead cam, four valve-per - cylinder design. The intake system is a cross-flow design equipped with dual throttle bodies, and the manifold also incorporates a vacuum operated tuning valve that increases the mid-range torque of the engine. A windage tray is used on every engine to reduce drag on the rotating components within the crankcase. Dual knock sensors (one per cylinder bank) are used to take advantage of the aggressive spark advance and high compression ratio. The engine also utilizes a plastic, helical, water pump impeller that contributes to low parasitic power losses. The engine incorporates many components and features to ensure durability.
Technical Paper

Carbon and Sulfur Effects on Performance of Microalloyed Spindle Forgings

1993-03-01
930966
Five heats of vanadium-microalloyed steel with carbon contents from 0.29% to 0.40% and sulfur contents from 0.031% to 0.110% were forged into automotive spindles and air cooled. Three of the steels were continuously cast whereas the other two were ingot cast. The forged spindles were subjected to microstructural analysis, mechanical property testing, full component testing and machinability testing. The microstructures of the five steels consisted of pearlite and ferrite which nucleated on prior austenite grain boundaries and predominantly on intragranularly dispersed sulfide inclusions of the resulfurized grades. Ultimate tensile strengths and room temperature Charpy V-notch impact toughness values were relatively insensitive to processing and compositional variations. The room temperature tensile and room-temperature impact properties ranged from 820 MPa to 1000 MPa (120 to 145 ksi) and from 13 Joules to 19 Joules (10 to 14 ft-lbs), respectively, for the various steels.
Technical Paper

Experience in Sand Casting Aluminum MMC Prototype Components

1993-03-01
930179
Typical sand-casting techniques have been shown to be inappropriate in pouring particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) castings. New gating/risering configurations were necessary to produce castings of acceptable soundness. Several automotive components, including brake rotors, cylinder liners and camshaft thrust plates, were prepared using special techniques. Initial durability test results of several Al-MMC prototype components are presented.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of HC Emissions During Cold Start of Gasoline Engines

1995-10-01
952402
A cycle-by-cycle analysis of HC emissions from each cylinder of a four-stroke V-6, 3.3 L production engine was made during cold start. The HC emissions were measured in the exhaust port using a high frequency flame ionization detector (FID). The effect of the initial startup position of the piston and valves in the cycle on combustion and HC emissions from each cylinder was examined. The mass of fuel injected, burned and emitted was calculated for each cycle. The equivalence ratio of the charge in the firing cycles was determined. The analysis covered the first 120 cycles and included the effect of engine transients on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Design Features of the JUNKERS 211B AIRCRAFT ENGINE

1942-01-01
420123
THE Junkers 211B engine follows the usual German practice of very large displacements and conservative mean effective pressures and rotative speeds. However, the relative light weight per unit of displacement results in a net weight per horsepower that is not far above its competitors. Fully automatic devices which control propeller speed, manifold pressure, mixture ratio, spark advance, and supercharger gear ratio follow the German policy of removing all possible distractions from the pilot. This is one of three large liquid-cooled engines known to be produced in quantity in Germany; it powers an impressive percentage of the Luftwaffe. While of external appearance and displacement that resemble the Daimler-Benz DB-601 engine, the fundamental construction, detail design practice, and metallurgy of the Junkers 211B are surprisingly different.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Embrittlement in Automotive Fastener Applications

1996-02-01
960312
Fastener failure due to hydrogen embrittlement is of significant concern in the automotive industry. These types of failures occur unexpectedly. They may be very costly to the automotive company and fastener supplier, not only monetarily, but also in terms of customer satisfaction and safety. This paper is an overview of a program which one automotive company initiated to minimize hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners. The objectives of the program were two-fold. One was to obtain a better understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomena as it relates to automotive fastener materials and processes. The second and most important objective, was to eliminate hydrogen embrittlement failures in vehicles. Early program efforts concentrated on a review of fastener applications and corrosion protection systems to optimize coated fasteners for hydrogen embrittlement resistance.
Technical Paper

Achieving Dent Resistance Improvements and Weight Reduction Through Stamping Process Optimization and Steel Substitution

1996-02-01
960025
Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
Technical Paper

The Behavior of Multiphase Fuel-Flow in the Intake Port

1994-03-01
940445
Most of the current fuel supply specifications, including the key parameters in the transient fuel control strategies, are experimentally determined since the complexity of multiphase fuel flow behavior inside the intake manifold is still not quantitatively understood. Optimizing these specifications, especially the parameters in transient fueling systems, is a key issue in improving fuel efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions. In this paper, a model of fuel spray, wall-film flow and wall-film vaporization has been developed to gain a better understanding of the multiphase fuel-flow behavior within the intake manifold which may help to determine the fuel supply specifications in a multi-point injection system.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Dent Resistance Performance of Automotive Steel Body Panels

1997-02-24
970158
In recent years, strict weight reduction targets have pushed auto manufacturers to use lighter gauge sheet steels in all areas of the vehicle including exterior body panels. As sheet metal thicknesses are reduced, dentability of body panels becomes of increasing concern. Thus, the goal becomes one of reducing sheet metal thickness while maintaining acceptable dent resistance. Most prior work in this area has focused on quasi-static loading conditions. In this study, both quasi-static and dynamic dent tests are evaluated. Fully assembled doors made from mild, medium strength bake hardenable and non-bake hardenable steels are examined. The quasi-static dent test is run at a test speed of 0.1 m/minute while the dynamic dent test is run at a test speed of 26.8 m/minute. Dynamic dent testing is of interest because it more closely approximates real life denting conditions such as in-plant handling and transit damage, and parking lot damage from car door and shopping cart impact.
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