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Technical Paper

Can the k-ε Model Withstand the Challenges Posed by Complex Industrial Flows?

1997-04-08
971516
The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solution for three-dimensional flow about rotating short cylinders using the computer program AIRFLO3D. The flow Reynolds number was kept at 106 for all computations. The drag forces on the cylinder were obtained for different rotational speeds. Predictions were obtained for both an isolated cylinder and a cylinder on a moving ground. The standard k-ε model was employed to model the turbulence. Computed drag coefficients agreed well with the previous experimental data up to a spin ratio (=rω/V) of 1.5.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Embrittlement in Automotive Fastener Applications

1996-02-01
960312
Fastener failure due to hydrogen embrittlement is of significant concern in the automotive industry. These types of failures occur unexpectedly. They may be very costly to the automotive company and fastener supplier, not only monetarily, but also in terms of customer satisfaction and safety. This paper is an overview of a program which one automotive company initiated to minimize hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners. The objectives of the program were two-fold. One was to obtain a better understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomena as it relates to automotive fastener materials and processes. The second and most important objective, was to eliminate hydrogen embrittlement failures in vehicles. Early program efforts concentrated on a review of fastener applications and corrosion protection systems to optimize coated fasteners for hydrogen embrittlement resistance.
Technical Paper

Achieving Dent Resistance Improvements and Weight Reduction Through Stamping Process Optimization and Steel Substitution

1996-02-01
960025
Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Foam: The Effect of the State of Stress

1996-11-01
962418
The Finite Element predictions of the physical response of foams during impact by a rigid body (such as, the Hybrid III head form) is determined by material law equations generally approximated based on the theory of elastoplasticity. However, the structural aspect of foam, its discontinuous nature, makes it difficult to apply the laws of continuum mechanics and construct constitutive equations for foam-like material. One part of the problem relates to the state of stress. In materials such as steel, the state of hydrostatic stress does not affect the stress strain behavior under uniaxial compression or tension in plastic regime. In other words, when steel is subject to hydrostatic pressures the stress strain characteristic can be predicted from a uniaxial test. However, if the stresses acting on a section of foam are triaxial, the response of a head-form may be different than predicted from uniaxial test data.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy for the In-Cylinder Flow of a Four-Valve 3.5L SI Engine Using 3-D LDV Measurements

1997-02-24
970793
A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Dent Resistance Performance of Automotive Steel Body Panels

1997-02-24
970158
In recent years, strict weight reduction targets have pushed auto manufacturers to use lighter gauge sheet steels in all areas of the vehicle including exterior body panels. As sheet metal thicknesses are reduced, dentability of body panels becomes of increasing concern. Thus, the goal becomes one of reducing sheet metal thickness while maintaining acceptable dent resistance. Most prior work in this area has focused on quasi-static loading conditions. In this study, both quasi-static and dynamic dent tests are evaluated. Fully assembled doors made from mild, medium strength bake hardenable and non-bake hardenable steels are examined. The quasi-static dent test is run at a test speed of 0.1 m/minute while the dynamic dent test is run at a test speed of 26.8 m/minute. Dynamic dent testing is of interest because it more closely approximates real life denting conditions such as in-plant handling and transit damage, and parking lot damage from car door and shopping cart impact.
Technical Paper

Improvements in the Dent Resistance of Steel Body Panels

1992-02-01
920243
A computer-controlled body panel testing machine has been used to quantify stiffness and dent resistance of body panels at Chrysler. The influence of yield strength and local reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of automotive door panels has been investigated. Medium strength steels in the range of 210 -240 MPa yield strength have produced significant improvements in dent resistance over a 160 MPa yield strength steel. Considerable improvements in dent resistance can also be attributed to the use of local, adhesively attached, glass fiber reinforcement patches. The effects of boundary conditions and panel shape on stiffness and dent resistance are illustrated in this application.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Aluminum, Sheet Molding Compound and Steel for Hoods

1992-02-01
920242
A unique opportunity arose to make a direct comparison of aluminum, sheet molding compound (SMC) and steel using a common hood design. In considering all possible material combinations of inner and outer panels, it was discovered that some of the combinations were incompatible due to material properties. Only the compatible material combinations were considered. Three different joining techniques - welding, bonding and bonded hem flanging - were evaluated. The cost, weight and structural performance of the chosen hood material combinations were established. Areas of further development were identified, including design optimization for specific material combinations.
Technical Paper

Carbon and Sulfur Effects on Performance of Microalloyed Spindle Forgings

1993-03-01
930966
Five heats of vanadium-microalloyed steel with carbon contents from 0.29% to 0.40% and sulfur contents from 0.031% to 0.110% were forged into automotive spindles and air cooled. Three of the steels were continuously cast whereas the other two were ingot cast. The forged spindles were subjected to microstructural analysis, mechanical property testing, full component testing and machinability testing. The microstructures of the five steels consisted of pearlite and ferrite which nucleated on prior austenite grain boundaries and predominantly on intragranularly dispersed sulfide inclusions of the resulfurized grades. Ultimate tensile strengths and room temperature Charpy V-notch impact toughness values were relatively insensitive to processing and compositional variations. The room temperature tensile and room-temperature impact properties ranged from 820 MPa to 1000 MPa (120 to 145 ksi) and from 13 Joules to 19 Joules (10 to 14 ft-lbs), respectively, for the various steels.
Technical Paper

High Performance Forged Steel Crankshafts - Cost Reduction Opportunities

1992-02-01
920784
Higher horsepower per liter engines have put more demand on the crankshaft, often requiring the use of forged steel. This paper examines cost reduction opportunities to offset the penalties associated with forged steel, with raw material and machinability being the primary factors evaluated. A cost model for crankshaft processing is utilized in this paper as a design tool to select the lowest cost material grade. This model is supported by fatigue and machinability data for various steel grades. Materials considered are medium carbon, low alloy, and microalloy steels; the effects of sulfur as a machining enhancer is also studied.
Technical Paper

Design Criteria for the Dent Resistance of Auto Body Panels

1974-02-01
740081
One solution to the problem of spiraling automotive weights is the substitution of thinner high strength steels or thicker aluminum alloy outer body panels. In doing so the dent resistance of these panels must not be sacrificed. This study investigates the dent resistance of doubly curved rectangular panels in various steels and aluminum alloys. Dent depth on the order of magnitude of the panel thickness was studied. An empirical equation is developed that relates dent resistance to the yield strengths, metal thickness, and panel geometry.
Technical Paper

Energy and the Automobile - General Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Consumption

1973-02-01
730518
Since 1968, vehicle weight increases and emissions controls have reduced fuel economy substantially. Additional losses in economy and acceleration will be experienced through 1976. Recommendations are made to lessen the impact of the predicted losses. Factors influencing fuel economy and acceleration are examined for an intermediate car. Changes in engine efficiency and displacement, compression ratio, torque converter, transmission, axle ratio, aerodynamic drag, tires, accessories, vehicle weight, and emissions controls are examined. When practical, the effects of 10% changes are analyzed. Comparisons are also made with a subcompact and a luxury vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Development of the Charger Daytona for Stock Car Competition

1970-02-01
700036
The aerodynamic features of the race version of the Charger Daytona, an aerodynamically modified 1970 Charger, are discussed. Effects of major specific modifications are evaluated individually and as a total package. Wind tunnel techniques and philosophy employed in the Daytona Development Program are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Body Aerodynamics and Heater Air Flow

1966-02-01
660388
The heater air flow rate is a function not only of the heater itself but also of the size and location of the heater system air inlets, the car body air outlets, and the body surface pressure at these inlets and outlets. Favorable pressure conditions generally exist at the typical top cowl heater air inlet; however, the aerodynamics of each particular vehicle should be studied to confirm the existence of these conditions. Little consideration has been given to body air outlet pressure conditions since body leakage paths have generally served as adequate air outlets; but, as body leakage is reduced, specific air outlets must be considered and a knowledge of aerodynamics is essential to the achieving of appropriately sized and appropriately located air outlets.
Technical Paper

Application of Induction Heating in Automotive Production

1935-01-01
350121
INDUCTION heating is a process or method by which metal parts are heated by simply placing them in an alternating magnetic field. The action is that of the transformer, whereby electrical energy is transferred or passed over to another isolated electric or secondary circuit by means of the magnetic field; thus, no physical attachments or electrical contacts are necessary to have electrical currents, which are dissipated as heat, flow in the parts to be processed. The strength and frequency of the alternating magnetic field can be selected to produce any desired rate of heating and ultimate temperature. A circuit can be set up to dry lacquer at 160 deg. fahr. on thin sheet-metal parts or to melt in record time immense steel ingots. Induction heating is now commercially applied in automotive production to many processes, and these are specified.
Technical Paper

Determining Hardenability on Small Sizes

1941-01-01
410115
LIMITATIONS of the two general methods available for determining hardenability in steel, the authors point out, are that the test piece may not have a sufficient cross-section in which to develop the desired series of cooling rates, and that a special test piece (known as the L-type) must be machined for steels of low hardenability. The method using the Wuerfel bomb described in their paper, they explain, is directed primarily toward removal of these two limitations. Stated in terms of the critical diameter, they report that the results of the method are reproducible within ⅛ in.
Technical Paper

TRUCK PERFORMANCE— Computed versus Measured Data

1958-01-01
580040
THIS paper outlines tests made to verify the SAE recommended practice for estimating truck ability performance described in TR-82. The author has collected data on four vehicles and compares it with the results computed in TR-82 and with a Method X. The data includes information on air and rolling resistance, effect of wind velocity, chassis friction power, grade ability, and the like. The author concludes that the SAE method of TR-82 is at the present time the most reliable method for computing truck ability.
Technical Paper

Considerations Affecting the Life of Automotive Camshafts and Tappets

1956-01-01
560015
WORK done in a development program relative to camshafts and tappets in the design of the Chrysler overhead-valve V-8 engine is described. The types of failure encountered are categorized as wear, scuffing, and fatigue. An accelerated test procedure was designed to promote early cam-tappet failures, and the development work was predicated upon the results obtained therefrom. Among the variables affecting the failure conditions, major emphasis was placed on material development. Specifically, the greater amount of time was spent in determining the optimum tappet material, while some time was devoted to the camshaft material. A combination of adjusted chemical composition and heat-treatment of hardenable cast iron for camshaft and tappets provided the best solution to the failure problems.
Technical Paper

WHERE DOES ALL THE POWER GO?

1957-01-01
570058
AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

Predicting ROAD PERFORMANCE of Commercial Vehicles

1950-01-01
500172
A SIMPLE method of predicting truck performance in terms of grade ability at a given road speed, taking into consideration rolling resistance, air resistance, and chassis friction is presented here. A brief review of fundamental considerations is given first, then the method recommended for predicting vehicle ability at a selected speed, and finally a few words on the prediction of maximum possible road speed and selection of gear ratios. The basis of the solution is the determination and expression of vehicle resistances in terms of horsepower - that is, in terms of forces acting at a velocity. A convenient method of solving the grade problem at a given speed is by means of a tabular computation sheet, which is given, together with tables and charts. These assist in making the computation an easy one as well as giving the necessary data on vehicle resistances.
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