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Technical Paper

A Technique to Predict Thermal Buckling in Automotive Body Panels by Coupling Heat Transfer and Structural Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0943
This paper describes a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of vehicle body panel buckling in an electrophoretic coat (electro-coat or e-coat) and/or paint oven environment. The simulation couples computational heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. Heat transfer analysis is used to predict temperature distribution throughout a vehicle body in curing ovens. The vehicle body temperature profile from the heat transfer analysis is applied as an input for a structural analysis to predict buckling. This study is focused on the radiant section of the curing ovens. The radiant section of the oven has the largest temperature gradients within the body structure. This methodology couples a fully transient thermal analysis to simulate the structure through the electro-coat and paint curing environments with a structural, buckling analysis.
Technical Paper

A Practical Procedure to Predict AIS Inlet Noise Using CAE Simulation Tools

2013-04-08
2013-01-1004
The air induction system (AIS), which provides clean air to the engine for combustion, is very important for engine acoustics. A practical CAE procedure to predict AIS inlet noise is presented in this paper. GT-Power, a commercially available software program can be used to simulate the engine performance and predict air induction noise. The accuracy of GT-Power is dependent on many variables, such as: proper duct discretization size, proper number of flow splits to model the air box and the capturing of the correct resonator geometry for tuning frequency. Since GT-Power is based on a 1D assumption, several iterations need be performed to model the complex AIS components, such as, irregular shaped air box, resonator volume, porous ducts and perforated pipes. Because of this, the GT-Power AIS model needs to be correlated to test data using transmission loss data.
Technical Paper

Smart Meshing Template Process with CAD/CAE Link

2013-04-08
2013-01-0637
The benefits of utilizing virtual engineering include not only shortened product development time and reduced reliance on expensive physical testing, but also the opportunities for greater standardization to support higher product quality. This paper describes a project for building a smart meshing template with a CAD/CAE link. The objective of the project is to optimize the utilization of CAD software and CAE preprocessing software capabilities. The deliverable of the project is a cylinder head mesh template which meets all the cylinder head durability simulation meshing requirements, and which links to CAD/CAE software. Special surface areas identified are built into the cylinder head CAD model design. By using one of the features in CAD software, all the special surfaces can be automatically updated throughout the design process.
Journal Article

Transient Thermal Analysis of Diesel Fuel Systems

2012-04-16
2012-01-1049
In this paper, a transient thermal analysis model for Diesel fuel systems is presented. The purpose of this work is to determine the fuel temperature at various locations along the system, especially inside the tank and at the returned fuel inlet to the tank. Due to the fact that the fuel level is continuously changing during any driving condition, the fuel mass inside the tank is also continuously changing. Consequently, the fuel temperature will change even under steady driving or idle conditions, therefore, this problem should be analyzed using transient thermal analysis models. Effective thermal management requires controlling the surface temperature of the fuel tank, fuel lines and the fuel temperature at the fuel return line as well as inside the tank [1, 2]. Based on the thermal analysis results, it is possible to determine the major source of heat input at several locations of the fuel system.
Technical Paper

Further CFD Studies for Detailed Tires using Aerodynamics Simulation with Rolling Road Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0756
In an environment of tougher engineering constraints to deliver tomorrow's aerodynamic vehicles, evaluation of aerodynamics early in the design process using digital prototypes and simulation tools has become more crucial for meeting cost and performance targets. Engineering needs have increased the demands on simulation software to provide robust solutions under a range of operating conditions and with detailed geometry representation. In this paper the application of simulation tools to wheel design in on-road operating conditions is explored. Typically, wheel and wheel cover design is investigated using physical tests very late in the development process, and requires costly testing of many sets of wheels in an on-road testing environment (either coast-down testing or a moving-ground wind-tunnel).
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Transmission Systems using Physical Model Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0898
Physical modeling has been used by the industry to improve development time and produce a quality product. In this paper, we will describe two methods used in system control to take advantage of the physical model. One method describes a complete transmission physical model with a full system control utilizing co-simulation techniques. Data will be presented, and comparison to vehicle data will be conducted and verified. The second method will illustrate how to utilize the physical model to improve system design and modification. In this method, vehicle data will be used as inputs to the model, the model output will be verified against vehicle output data. The two methods are excellent tools for the Design For Six Sigma process (DFSS design).
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Resistance Curve in Engine Cooling System Design

2010-04-12
2010-01-0933
A process to create a vehicle resistance curve based on airflow predictions using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation technique is presented. 1-dimensional engine cooling system simulation tool KULI is used to compute the coefficients of vehicle resistance curve. A full factorial Design of Experiment (DOE) established the relationship between the coefficients and the sum of absolute difference between KULI and CFD predictions. The NLPQL optimization routine is used to accurately predict the coefficients so that sum of absolute difference between KULI and CFD predictions is minimized.
Technical Paper

Kinematic FCW System Modeling and Application for FCW Warning Strategy Evaluation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0590
One method of reducing the number and/or severity of vehicle crashes is to warn the driver of a potential crash. The theory is that there will be driving conditions in which the drivers are unaware of a potential crash and a warning system will allow them to, in some manner, avoid the accident or reduce the severity. In an attempt to develop an analytical understanding of Forward Collision Warning systems (FCW) for frontal impacts a 2-d mathematical/kinematic model representing a set of pre-crash vehicle dynamic maneuvers has been built. Different driving scenarios are studied to explore the potential improvement of warning algorithms in terms of headway reduction and minimization of false alarm rates. The results agree with the field data. NHTSA's new NCAP active safety criteria are evaluated using the model. The result from the analysis indicates that the NHTSA criteria may drive higher false alarm rates. Opportunities of minimizing false positive rates are discussed.
Journal Article

Thermal Map of an IC Engine via Conjugate Heat Transfer: Validation and Test Data Correlation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1180
Accurate numerical prediction of an engine thermal map at a wide range of engine operating conditions can help tune engine performance parameters at an early development stage. This study documents the correlation of an engine thermal simulation using the conjugate heat transfer (CHT) methodology with thermocouple data from an engine operating in a dynamometer and a vehicle drive cell. Three different operating conditions are matched with the simulation data. Temperatures predicted by simulation at specific sections, both at the intake and the exhaust sides of the engine are compared with the measured temperatures in the same location on the operating engine.
Journal Article

Development of Transient Thermal Models Based on Theoretical Analysis and Vehicle Test Data

2014-04-01
2014-01-0726
In this paper, thermal models are developed based on experimental test data, and the physics of thermal systems. If experimental data is available, the data can be fitted to mathematical models that represent the system response to changes in its input parameters. Therefore, empirical models which are based on test data are developed. The concept of time constant is presented and applied to development of transient models. Mathematical models for component temperature changes during transient vehicle driving conditions are also presented. Mathematical models for climate control system warm up and cool-down are also discussed. The results show the significance of adopting this concept in analysis of vehicle test data, and in development of analytical models. The developed models can be applied to simulate the system or component response to variety of changes in input parameters. As a result, significant testing and simulation time can be saved during the vehicle development process.
Journal Article

Optimization of a Porous Ducted Air Induction System Using Taguchi's Parameter Design Method

2014-04-01
2014-01-0887
Taguchi method is a technology to prevent quality problems at early stages of product development and product design. Parameter design method is an important part in Taguchi method which selects the best control factor level combination for the optimization of the robustness of product function against noise factors. The air induction system (AIS) provides clean air to the engine for combustion. The noise radiated from the inlet of the AIS can be of significant importance in reducing vehicle interior noise and tuning the interior sound quality. The porous duct has been introduced into the AIS to reduce the snorkel noise. It helps with both the system layout and isolation by reducing transmitted vibration. A CAE simulation procedure has been developed and validated to predict the snorkel noise of the porous ducted AIS. In this paper, Taguchi's parameter design method was utilized to optimize a porous duct design in an AIS to achieve the best snorkel noise performance.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Various Automotive Bodies in Linear Static Pressure Gradients

2012-04-16
2012-01-0298
Establishing data adjustments that will give an interference free result for bluff bodies in automotive wind tunnels has been pursued for at least the last 45 years. Recently, the Two-Measurement correction method that yields a wake distortion adjustment for open jet wind tunnels has shown promise of being able to adjust for many of the effects of non-ideal static pressure gradients on bluff automotive bodies. Utilization of this adjustment has shown that a consistent drag results when the vehicle is subjected to the various gradients generated in open jet wind tunnels. What has been lacking is whether this consistent result is independent of the other tunnel interference effects. The studies presented here are intended to fill that gap on the performance of the two-measurement technique. The subject CFD studies are designed to eliminate all wind tunnel interference effects except for the variation of the (linear) static pressure gradient.
Technical Paper

Shape Recovery Simulation of Flexible Airdam

2013-04-08
2013-01-0166
Airdam is an aerodynamic component in automobile and is designed to reduce the drag and increase fuel efficiency. It is also an important styling component. The front airdam below the bumper is to direct the air flow away from the front tires and towards the underbody, where the drag coefficient becomes less. The flexible airdam is made of Santoprene™ - thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV), which belongs to thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) family. When a vehicle is parked over a parking block, the flexible airdam will be under strain subjected to bending load from the parking block. If the airdam is kept under constant strain for a certain period, a set will occur and the force will decay over a period of time. Due to the force decay, the stress will reduce and this behavior is called as stress relaxation.
Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ethanol Fuels on Regulated Tailpipe Emissions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0872
Flexible fuel vehicle production has been steadily increasing in the US over the past fifteen years. Ethanol is considered a renewable fuel additive to gasoline which helps the US efforts in minimizing the dependency on foreign oil. As a result, it is becoming very hard to find pure gasoline which does not contain some ethanol content at the pump in the US. The fuel currently available at the pump contains close to 10% ethanol. The fuel and evaporative systems components and materials on newer flexible fuel vehicles are being designed to be tolerant of the 10% ethanol content. There is a strong desire from ethanol producers to increase the ethanol content up to a 20% level. This is still being debated by the Environmental Protection Agency and a final decision has not been made yet but will be announced by the upcoming Tier 3 Notice of Public Rule Making (NPRM) in December of 2011.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Automotive Bodies in Static Pressure Gradients

2014-04-01
2014-01-0612
Recently, the Two-Measurement correction method that yields a wake distortion adjustment for open jet wind tunnels has shown promise of being able to adjust for many of the effects of non-ideal static pressure gradients on bluff automotive bodies. Utilization of this adjustment has shown that a consistent drag results when the vehicle is subjected to the various gradients generated in open jet wind tunnels. What has been lacking is whether this consistent result is independent of the other tunnel interference effects. The studies presented here are intended to fill that gap and add more realistic model and wind tunnel conditions to the evaluations of the performance of the two-measurement technique. The subject CFD studies are designed to greatly reduce all wind tunnel interference effects except for the variation of the non-linear static pressure gradients. A zero gradient condition is generated by simulating a solid wall test section with a blockage ratio of 0.1%.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis in Computational Thermal Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-0656
Computational tools have been extensively applied to predict component temperatures before an actual vehicle is built for testing [1, 2, 3, 4, and 5]. This approach provides an estimate of component temperatures during a specific driving condition. The predicted component temperature is compared against acceptable temperature limits. If violations of the temperature limits are predicted, corrective actions will be applied. These corrective actions may include adding heat shields to the heat source or to the receiving components. Therefore, design changes are implemented based on the simulation results. Sensitivity analysis is the formal technique of determining most influential parameters in a system that affects its performance. Uncertainty analysis is the process of evaluating the deviation of the design from its intended design target.
Technical Paper

Optimization of HVAC Panel Aiming Studies using Parametric Modeling and Automated Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0684
In an Automotive air conditioning system, the air flow distribution in the cabin from the HVAC (Heating, ventilation and air conditioning), ducts and outlets is evaluated by the velocity achieved at driver and passenger mannequin aim points. Multiple simulation iterations are being carried out before finalizing the design of HVAC panel duct and outlets until the target velocity is achieved. In this paper, a parametric modeling of the HVAC outlet is done which includes primary and secondary vane creation using CATIA. Java macro files are created for simulation runs in STAR CCM+. ISIGHT is used as an interface tool between CATIA and STARCCM+. The vane limits of outlet and the target velocity to be achieved at mannequin aim points are defined as the boundary conditions for the analysis. Based on the optimization technique and the number of iterations defined in ISIGHT, the vane angle model gets updated automatically in CATIA followed by the simulation runs in STARCCM+.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Modeling of Bushings and Cab Mounts for Calculation of Durability Loads

2014-04-01
2014-01-0880
Cab mounts and suspension bushings are crucial for ride and handling characteristics and must be durable under highly variable loading. Such elastomeric bushings exhibit non-linear behavior, depending on excitation frequency, amplitude and the level of preload. To calculate realistic loads for durability analysis of cars and trucks multi-body simulation (MBS) software is used, but standard bushing models for MBS neglect the amplitude dependent characteristics of elastomers and therefore lead to a trade-off in simulation accuracy. On the other hand, some non-linear model approaches lack an easy to use parameter identification process or need too much input data from experiments. Others exhibit severe drawbacks in computing time, accuracy or even numerical stability under realistic transient or superimposed sinusoidal excitation.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Body Panel Thermal Buckling Resistance Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0926
This paper discusses CAE simulation methods to predict the thermal induced buckling issues when vehicle body panels are subjected to the elevated temperature in e-coat oven. Both linear buckling analysis and implicit quasi-static analysis are discussed and studied using a quarter cylinder shell as an example. The linear buckling analysis could produce quick but non-conservative buckling temperature. With considering nonlinearity, implicit quasi-static analysis could predict a relative conservative critical temperature. In addition, the permanent deformations could be obtained to judge if the panel remains visible dent due to the buckling. Finally these two approaches have been compared to thermal bucking behavior of a panel on a vehicle going through thermal cycle of e-coat oven with the excellent agreement on its initial design and issue fix design. In conclusion, the linear buckling analysis could be used for quick thermal buckling evaluation and comparison on a series of proposals.
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