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Journal Article

Statistical Considerations for Evaluating Biofidelity, Repeatability, and Reproducibility of ATDs

2013-04-08
2013-01-1249
Reliable testing of a mechanical system requires the procedures used for the evaluation to be repeatable and reproducible. However, it is never possible to exactly repeat or reproduce the tests that are used for evaluation. To overcome this limitation, a statistical evaluation procedure can generally be used. However, most of the statistical procedures use scalar values as input without the ability to handle vectors or time-histories. To overcome these limitations, two numerical/statistical methods for determining if the impact time-history response of a mechanical system is repeatable or reproducible are evaluated and elaborated upon. Such a system could be a vehicle, a biological human surrogate, an Anthropometric Test Device (ATD or dummy), etc. The responses could be sets of time-histories of accelerations, forces, moments, etc., of a component or of the system. The example system evaluated is the BioRID II rear impact dummy.
Journal Article

Development of Additional SAE J2643 Standard Reference Elastomers

2011-04-12
2011-01-0017
The first set of SAE J2643 Standard Reference Elastomers (SRE) was developed in 2004. It was composed of a group of 10 compounds covering multiple elastomer families. Since then, more advanced materials from many elastomer families have been introduced to the automotive industry. The purpose of this study is to add a few more reference compounds to SAE J2643, to enhance the portfolio on FKM, AEM and ACM to reflect advancements in elastomer technology, and make it suitable for a variety of fluids, such as transmission fluid and engine oil. Fourteen standard elastomer compounds were involved in this study, covering various materials currently used in automotive powertrain static and dynamic sealing applications. Participants include OEMs, major rubber manufacturers, a fluid additive company and an independent lab. Manufacturers of each test compound provided formulations, designated ingredients from defined sources, and detailed mixing and molding procedures.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Based Damage Analysis with Correlation to Customer Duty Cycle Using Design Reliability and Confidence

2010-04-12
2010-01-0200
This paper will define the process for correlating fatigue based customer duty cycle with laboratory bench test data. The process includes the development of the Median and Design Load-Life curve equations. The Median Load-Life curve is a best fit linear regression; whereas, the Design Load-Life curve incorporates component specific reliability and confidence targets. To account for the statistical distribution of fatigue life, due to sample size, the one-side lower-bound tolerance limit method ( Lieberman, 1958 ) will be utilized. This paper will include a correlation between the predicted design fatigue life and the actual product life.
Technical Paper

Monotonic and Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Extrusion Alloy AM30: An International Benchmark Test in the “Magnesium Front End Research and Development Project”

2010-04-12
2010-01-0407
Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
Technical Paper

Tonal Metrics in the Presence of Masking Noise and Correlation to Subjective Assessment

2014-04-01
2014-01-0892
As the demand for Sound Quality improvements in vehicles continues to grow, robust analysis methods must be established to clearly represent end-user perception. For vehicle sounds which are tonal by nature, such as transmission or axle whine, the common practice of many vehicle manufacturers and suppliers is to subjectively rate the performance of a given part for acceptance on a scale of one to ten. The polar opposite of this is to measure data and use the peak of the fundamental or harmonic orders as an objective assessment. Both of these quantifications are problematic in that the former is purely subjective and the latter does not account for the presence of masking noise which has a profound impact on a driver's assessment of such noises. This paper presents the methodology and results of a study in which tonal noises in the presence of various level of masking noise were presented to a group of jurors in a controlled environment.
Technical Paper

A Technique to Predict Thermal Buckling in Automotive Body Panels by Coupling Heat Transfer and Structural Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0943
This paper describes a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of vehicle body panel buckling in an electrophoretic coat (electro-coat or e-coat) and/or paint oven environment. The simulation couples computational heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. Heat transfer analysis is used to predict temperature distribution throughout a vehicle body in curing ovens. The vehicle body temperature profile from the heat transfer analysis is applied as an input for a structural analysis to predict buckling. This study is focused on the radiant section of the curing ovens. The radiant section of the oven has the largest temperature gradients within the body structure. This methodology couples a fully transient thermal analysis to simulate the structure through the electro-coat and paint curing environments with a structural, buckling analysis.
Technical Paper

2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace

2013-04-08
2013-01-1775
The 2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace, styled by Chrysler's Product Design Office (PDO), is as much of a work of art as it is an engineered structural component. Presented in this paper is the design evolution, development and performance refinement of the composite X-Brace (shown in Figure 1). The single-piece, all Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) X-Brace, an important structural component of the body system, was developed from lightweight carbon fiber material to maximize weight reduction and meet performance targets. The development process was driven extensively by virtual engineering, which applied CAE analysis and results to drive the design and improve the design efficiency. Topology optimization and section optimization were used to generate the initial design's shape, form and profile, while respecting the package requirements of the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Die Wear Estimation in Automotive Sheet Metal Stamping

2013-04-08
2013-01-1171
Automotive industry's migration to usage of HSS (High Strength Steels), AHSS (Advance High Strength Steels) from conventional steels for their low weight and high strength properties has had its significant effects on die wear. The unpredictability of die wear can pose manufacturing issues, for example, undesirable tool life. Hence die wear has been gaining immense attention and lot of research work has been carried out to provide a die wear prediction method. This paper focuses on the method of estimating wear mathematically based on the mechanics behind die wear phenomenon. This is also an effort to study wear on die for an automotive component in critical areas for which the amount of wear are calculated. This study is further to be correlated with production data from die maintenance record, explicit measurement of die wear, etc., to validate the estimation.
Technical Paper

Smart Meshing Template Process with CAD/CAE Link

2013-04-08
2013-01-0637
The benefits of utilizing virtual engineering include not only shortened product development time and reduced reliance on expensive physical testing, but also the opportunities for greater standardization to support higher product quality. This paper describes a project for building a smart meshing template with a CAD/CAE link. The objective of the project is to optimize the utilization of CAD software and CAE preprocessing software capabilities. The deliverable of the project is a cylinder head mesh template which meets all the cylinder head durability simulation meshing requirements, and which links to CAD/CAE software. Special surface areas identified are built into the cylinder head CAD model design. By using one of the features in CAD software, all the special surfaces can be automatically updated throughout the design process.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Impact of Active Grille Shutter on Vehicle Thermal Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-1172
Due to increased demand for improved fuel economy and reduction in CO2 emissions, active grille shutter (AGS) has been considered as one option to increase fuel economy by reducing vehicle drag resistance. An AGS system will allow airflow through the grille when demand on cooling system or air conditioning system is high. Under conditions of light load and moderate ambient temperatures and humidity, the grille does not have to be fully open. A reduction in the effective grille size opening can be achieved by either partially or fully closing the grille through a stepped speed motor actuator. When the grille opening size is reduced, under-hood airflow will decrease. Therefore, the operating points for the grille shutter should take into account the effect of temperature rise for under-hood and underbody components and the performance of the cooling and climate control systems.
Journal Article

Estimation of Individual Cylinder Fuel Air Ratios from a Switching or Wide Range Oxygen Sensor for Engine Control and On-Board Diagnosis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0710
The fuel air ratio imbalance between individual cylinders can result in poor fuel economy and severe exhaust emissions. Individual cylinder fuel air ratio control is one of the important techniques used to improve fuel economy and reduce exhaust emission. California Air Resources Board (CARB) also has required automotive manufacturers to equip with on-board diagnosis system for cylinder fuel air ratio imbalance detection starting in 2011. However, one of the most challenging tasks for the individual cylinder fuel air ratio control and cylinder imbalance diagnosis is how to retrieve the cylinder fuel air ratio information effectively at low cost. This paper presents a novel and practical signal processing based fuel air ratio estimation method for individual cylinder fuel air ratio balance control and on-board fuel air ratio imbalance diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Journal Article

Investigation of LEV-III Aftertreatment Designs

2011-04-12
2011-01-0301
Proposed LEV-III emission level will require improvements in NMOG, CO and NOx emissions as measured over FTP and US06 emission cycles. Incremental improvements in washcoat technologies, cold start calibration and catalyst system design are required to develop a cost effective solution set. New catalyst technologies demonstrated both lower HC and NOx emissions with 25% less platinum group metals (PGM). FTP and US06 emissions were measured on a 4-cylinder 2.4L application which compares a close-coupled converter and close-coupled + underfloor converter systems. A PGM placement study was performed with the close-coupled converter system employing these new catalyst technologies. Emissions results suggest that the placement of PGM is critical in minimizing emissions and PGM costs.
Journal Article

Optimization of a Porous Ducted Air Induction System Using Taguchi's Parameter Design Method

2014-04-01
2014-01-0887
Taguchi method is a technology to prevent quality problems at early stages of product development and product design. Parameter design method is an important part in Taguchi method which selects the best control factor level combination for the optimization of the robustness of product function against noise factors. The air induction system (AIS) provides clean air to the engine for combustion. The noise radiated from the inlet of the AIS can be of significant importance in reducing vehicle interior noise and tuning the interior sound quality. The porous duct has been introduced into the AIS to reduce the snorkel noise. It helps with both the system layout and isolation by reducing transmitted vibration. A CAE simulation procedure has been developed and validated to predict the snorkel noise of the porous ducted AIS. In this paper, Taguchi's parameter design method was utilized to optimize a porous duct design in an AIS to achieve the best snorkel noise performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Standard Spin Loss Test Procedure for 4WD Transfer Cases

2012-04-16
2012-01-0306
As vehicle fuel economy continues to grow in importance, the ability to accurately measure the level of parasitic losses on all driveline components is required. A standardized comparison procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently, in addition to offering a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. This paper reviews the development of a comprehensive test procedure to measure transfer case speed-dependent parasitic losses at key speed, load, and environmental conditions. This procedure was validated for repeatability considering variations in soak time, temperature measurement positions on the transfer case, and test operating conditions. Additional assessments of spin loss at low ambient temperatures, and the effect of component break-in on spin loss were also conducted.
Technical Paper

Impact of Functional Safety on EMC: ISO 26262

2013-04-08
2013-01-0178
The complexity of both hardware and software has increased significantly in automotive over the past decade. This is apparent even in the compact passenger car market segment where the presence of electronic control units (ECU) has nearly tripled. In today's luxury vehicles, software can reach 100 million lines of code and are only projected to increase. Without preventive measures, the risk of safety-related system malfunction becomes unacceptably too high. The functional safety standard ISO 26262, released as first edition in 2011, provides crucial safety-related requirements for passenger vehicles. Although the standard defines the proper development for safety-related systems to ensure the avoidance of a hazard, it's implication for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is not clearly defined. This paper outlines the impact of ISO 26262 for EMC related issues, and discusses the standard's implications for EMC requirements on the present EMC practices for production vehicles.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ethanol Fuels on Regulated Tailpipe Emissions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0872
Flexible fuel vehicle production has been steadily increasing in the US over the past fifteen years. Ethanol is considered a renewable fuel additive to gasoline which helps the US efforts in minimizing the dependency on foreign oil. As a result, it is becoming very hard to find pure gasoline which does not contain some ethanol content at the pump in the US. The fuel currently available at the pump contains close to 10% ethanol. The fuel and evaporative systems components and materials on newer flexible fuel vehicles are being designed to be tolerant of the 10% ethanol content. There is a strong desire from ethanol producers to increase the ethanol content up to a 20% level. This is still being debated by the Environmental Protection Agency and a final decision has not been made yet but will be announced by the upcoming Tier 3 Notice of Public Rule Making (NPRM) in December of 2011.
Technical Paper

Cause and Effect of Reversible Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2014-04-01
2014-01-1518
To meet TierII/LEVII emissions standards, light duty diesel (LDD) vehicles require high conversion efficiencies from the Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) for the removal of both Hydrocarbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) species. The most populous configuration for LDD ATS have the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned on the vehicle behind the close coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF). This SCR position may require active heating measures which rely on the DOC/CDPF to provide heat through the combustion of HC and CO in the exhaust. Although DOCs are always impacted by their aging conditions, some aging conditions are shown to be both reversible and irreversible.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1815
Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Journal Article

Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1007
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution.
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