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Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Technical Paper

Assessment Metric Identification and Evaluation for Side Airbag (SAB) Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0257
This paper discusses steps for identifying, evaluating and recommending a quantifiable design metric or metrics for Side Airbag (SAB) development. Three functionally related and desirable attributes of a SAB are assumed at the onset, namely, effective SAB coverage, load distribution and efficient energy management at a controlled force level. The third attribute however contradicts the “banana shaped” force-displacement response that characterizes the ineffective energy management reality of most production SAB. In this study, an estimated ATD to SAB interaction energy is used to size and recommend desired force-deformation characteristic of a robust energy management SAB. The study was conducted in the following three phases and corresponding objectives: Phase 1 is a SAB assessment metric identification and estimation, using a uniform block attached to a horizontal impact machine.
Technical Paper

A Design for Six Sigma Approach to Optimize a Front-Wheel-Drive Transmission for Improved Efficiency and Robustness

2011-04-12
2011-01-0720
Environmental concerns and government regulations are factors that have led to an increased focus on fuel economy in the automotive industry. This paper identifies a method used to improve the efficiency of a front-wheel-drive (FWD) automatic transmission. In order to create improvements in large complex systems, it is key to have a large scope, to include as much of the system as possible. The approach taken in this work was to use Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. This was done to optimize as many of the front-wheel-drive transmission components as possible to increase robustness and efficiency. A focus of robustness, or consistency in torque transformation, is as important as the value of efficiency itself, because of the huge range of usage conditions. Therefore, it was necessary to find a solution of the best transmission component settings that would not depend on specific usage conditions such as temperatures, system pressures, or gear ratio.
Technical Paper

DC Charging and Standards for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1475
This paper is the fourth in the series of documents designed to identify the progress on the SAE Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) communication task force. - The initial paper (2010-01-0837) introduced utility communications (J2836/1™ & J2847/1) and how the SAE task force interfaced with other organizations. - The second paper (2011-01-0866) focused on the next steps of the utility requirements and added DC charging (J2836/2™ & J2847/2) along with initial effort for Reverse Power Flow (J2836/3™ & J2847/3). - The third paper (2012-01-1036) summarized the task force documents and interaction. It also included the continued testing of PowerLine Carrier (PLC) products for Utility and DC charging messages using Electric Power Research Institutes (EPRI) test plan and schedule that were used at EPRI and Argonne National Labs (ANL).
Technical Paper

Battery Development for Stop-Start Application in Brazilian Market

2013-04-08
2013-01-1526
There is a growing worldwide concern regarding the environmental aspects related to the performance of a corporation and its products, whether by consumer demand or government requirements. The constant pressure for innovations and improvements related to sustainable development are current issues in everyday life of any institution that seeks to consolidate a position of acceptance and competitiveness in the global market. The automotive industry is one of the markets more involved and challenged to the demand of the environmental requirements in regards the limits of pollutant emissions and consequently fuel consumption. The European and North America vehicles already have more electrical content inside (either related to safety and comfort or even needs related to weather), which results in significantly higher consumption levels than traditionally observed in Brazil's application.
Technical Paper

Application of Modeling Technology in a Turbocharged SI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1621
Improvements to 1D engine modeling accuracy and computational speed have led to greater reliance on this simulation technology during the engine development process. The benefits of modeling show up in many ways: increased simulation iterations for better optimization, reduction in prototype hardware iterations, reduction in program timing and overall cost. In this study a 1D GT-Power model of a turbocharged engine system was used to assist in the initial design phase and throughout the program. The model was developed using Chrysler Group LLC proprietary modeling features for predictive combustion and knock event prediction. In all stages of this project the model's accuracy was improved through regular correlation with dynamometer data. This paper mainly focuses on engine compression ratio selection, turbocharger selection, and cycle-to-cycle variation/cylinder-to-cylinder variation reduction through the combination of 1D GT-Power model optimization and dynamometer tests.
Technical Paper

Calibrating an Adaptive Pivoting Vane Pump to Deliver a Stepped Pressure Profile

2013-04-08
2013-01-1729
This paper presents a process for the selection of spring rate and pre-load for an adaptively controlled pivoting vane oil pump. The pivoting vane pump has two modes: high and low speed. A spring within the pump is installed to induce a torque that causes an adaptive displacement mechanism within the pump to move toward maximum oil chamber size. In low speed mode, two feedback regions are pressurized that produce torques that counter the spring generated torque. Together, both regions being pressurized by main oil gallery pressure tend to reduce pump displacement more at lower speeds than if only a single chamber is pressurized. At higher speeds, a solenoid switch turns off pressure to one of the feedback pressure chambers, thereby reducing feedback torque that counters spring torque. This enables higher pressure calibrations in this speed mode. In this paper, we identify a process for choosing the spring rate and pre-load that calibrates the adaptive displacement mechanism.
Technical Paper

The New Powertrain Virtual Analysis Process in Engine Design and Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-1720
Due to new federal regulations and higher environmental awareness, the market demands for high fuel economy and low exhaust emission engines are increasing. At the same time customer demands for engine performance, NVH and reliability are also increasing. It is a challenge for engineers to design an engine to meet all requirements with less development time. Currently, the new engine development time has been trimmed in order to introduce more products to the market. Utilizing CAE technology and processes in an engine development cycle can enable engineers to satisfy all requirements in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper describes a new Powertrain Virtual Analysis Process which has been successfully implemented into Chrysler PTCP (Powertrain Creation Process) and effectively utilized to shorten and improve the product development process. This new virtual analysis process guides the product development from concept through the production validation phases.
Technical Paper

2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace

2013-04-08
2013-01-1775
The 2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace, styled by Chrysler's Product Design Office (PDO), is as much of a work of art as it is an engineered structural component. Presented in this paper is the design evolution, development and performance refinement of the composite X-Brace (shown in Figure 1). The single-piece, all Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) X-Brace, an important structural component of the body system, was developed from lightweight carbon fiber material to maximize weight reduction and meet performance targets. The development process was driven extensively by virtual engineering, which applied CAE analysis and results to drive the design and improve the design efficiency. Topology optimization and section optimization were used to generate the initial design's shape, form and profile, while respecting the package requirements of the engine compartment.
Journal Article

Statistical Considerations for Evaluating Biofidelity, Repeatability, and Reproducibility of ATDs

2013-04-08
2013-01-1249
Reliable testing of a mechanical system requires the procedures used for the evaluation to be repeatable and reproducible. However, it is never possible to exactly repeat or reproduce the tests that are used for evaluation. To overcome this limitation, a statistical evaluation procedure can generally be used. However, most of the statistical procedures use scalar values as input without the ability to handle vectors or time-histories. To overcome these limitations, two numerical/statistical methods for determining if the impact time-history response of a mechanical system is repeatable or reproducible are evaluated and elaborated upon. Such a system could be a vehicle, a biological human surrogate, an Anthropometric Test Device (ATD or dummy), etc. The responses could be sets of time-histories of accelerations, forces, moments, etc., of a component or of the system. The example system evaluated is the BioRID II rear impact dummy.
Journal Article

Estimation of Individual Cylinder Fuel Air Ratios from a Switching or Wide Range Oxygen Sensor for Engine Control and On-Board Diagnosis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0710
The fuel air ratio imbalance between individual cylinders can result in poor fuel economy and severe exhaust emissions. Individual cylinder fuel air ratio control is one of the important techniques used to improve fuel economy and reduce exhaust emission. California Air Resources Board (CARB) also has required automotive manufacturers to equip with on-board diagnosis system for cylinder fuel air ratio imbalance detection starting in 2011. However, one of the most challenging tasks for the individual cylinder fuel air ratio control and cylinder imbalance diagnosis is how to retrieve the cylinder fuel air ratio information effectively at low cost. This paper presents a novel and practical signal processing based fuel air ratio estimation method for individual cylinder fuel air ratio balance control and on-board fuel air ratio imbalance diagnosis.
Journal Article

Development of a Standard Spin Loss Test Procedure for FWD-Based Power Transfer Units

2013-04-08
2013-01-0361
As vehicle fuel economy continues to grow in importance, the ability to accurately measure the level of efficiency on all driveline components is required. A standardized test procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently and provides data to make comparisons. In addition, the procedure offers a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. Previous published studies have outlined the development of a comprehensive test procedure to measure transfer case speed-dependent parasitic losses at key speed, load, and environmental conditions. This paper will take the same basic approach for the Power Transfer Units (PTUs) used on Front Wheel Drive (FWD) based All Wheel Drive (AWD) vehicles. Factors included in the assessment include single and multi-stage PTUs, fluid levels, break-in process, and temperature effects.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Impact of Active Grille Shutter on Vehicle Thermal Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-1172
Due to increased demand for improved fuel economy and reduction in CO2 emissions, active grille shutter (AGS) has been considered as one option to increase fuel economy by reducing vehicle drag resistance. An AGS system will allow airflow through the grille when demand on cooling system or air conditioning system is high. Under conditions of light load and moderate ambient temperatures and humidity, the grille does not have to be fully open. A reduction in the effective grille size opening can be achieved by either partially or fully closing the grille through a stepped speed motor actuator. When the grille opening size is reduced, under-hood airflow will decrease. Therefore, the operating points for the grille shutter should take into account the effect of temperature rise for under-hood and underbody components and the performance of the cooling and climate control systems.
Journal Article

Assessing Dirlik's Fatigue Damage Estimation Method for Automotive Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-0757
Fatigue analysis in the time domain using the rainflow cycle counting algorithm is considered the most accurate method for estimating damage. Dirlik's method has been found to be very accurate for damage estimation in the frequency domain. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of Dirlik's method for ocean engineering and wind turbines but few have shown how well Dirlik performs in automotive applications. This study compares Dirlik's method with the rainflow cycle counting and with other frequency domain methods. The study analyzes measured data for an automotive component subjected to five test track load conditions. In addition, fourteen of Dirlik's original spectra and seven additional spectra which combine sine and random spectra are studied. It was found that Dirlik's method predicts more damage than the rainflow cycle counting method when applied to the original data used in creating the method.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1815
Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Journal Article

Optimizing Electric Vehicle Battery Life through Battery Thermal Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-1370
In order to define and to optimize a thermal management system for a high voltage vehicular battery, it is essential to understand the environmental factors acting on the battery and their influence on battery life. This paper defines a calendar life aging model for a battery, and applies real world environmental and operating conditions to that model. Charge and usage scenarios are combined with various cooling/heating approaches. This set of scenarios is then applied to the calendar life model, permitting optimization of battery thermal management strategies. Real-world battery life can therefore be maximized, and trade-offs for grid energy conversion efficiency and fuel economy/vehicle range can be determined.
Journal Article

Assessing the Propensity for Valve Train Tick Noise

2013-04-08
2013-01-1737
Valve ticking noises within a cam actuated valve train can arise mysteriously. One valve train may produce valve ticking noises, while a second, geometrically similar valve train may perform more quietly. To better understand this phenomena, we examine in detail the prototypical motion of a valve driven by a rocker arm with cylindrical rocker pad. General features of a valve's motion through its guide, induced by a rocker arm with a cylindrical pad, are derived. From these general features of valve motion, guide contact points during lift events can be inferred, and as a result, detailed forces and moments acting on the valve may be derived. From this derivation of forces acting on the valve, a metric for assessing the propensity of a valve train to tick as a result of the valve stem impacting its guide is proposed. The proposed metric indicates how the likelihood of valve tick noise can be reduced through judicious choices for valve train geometries, clearances and surface finishes.
Journal Article

Development of Corrosion Testing Protocols for Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium-Intensive Subassemblies

2013-04-08
2013-01-0978
Corrosion tendency is one of the major inhibitors for increased use of magnesium alloys in automotive structural applications. Moreover, systematic or standardized methods for evaluation of both general and galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloys, either as individual components or eventually as entire subassemblies, remains elusive, and receives little attention from professional and standardization bodies. This work reports outcomes from an effort underway within the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership - ‘USAMP’ (Chrysler, Ford and GM) directed toward enabling technologies and knowledge base for the design and fabrication of magnesium-intensive subassemblies intended for automotive “front end” applications. In particular, subassemblies consisting of three different grades of magnesium (die cast, sheet and extrusion) and receiving a typical corrosion protective coating were subjected to cyclic corrosion tests as employed by each OEM in the consortium.
Journal Article

Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1007
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution.
Journal Article

Transient Thermal Analysis of Diesel Fuel Systems

2012-04-16
2012-01-1049
In this paper, a transient thermal analysis model for Diesel fuel systems is presented. The purpose of this work is to determine the fuel temperature at various locations along the system, especially inside the tank and at the returned fuel inlet to the tank. Due to the fact that the fuel level is continuously changing during any driving condition, the fuel mass inside the tank is also continuously changing. Consequently, the fuel temperature will change even under steady driving or idle conditions, therefore, this problem should be analyzed using transient thermal analysis models. Effective thermal management requires controlling the surface temperature of the fuel tank, fuel lines and the fuel temperature at the fuel return line as well as inside the tank [1, 2]. Based on the thermal analysis results, it is possible to determine the major source of heat input at several locations of the fuel system.
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