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Technical Paper

Additional Notes on Finite Element Models of Deformable Featureless Headform

Model characteristics of a finite element deformable featureless headform with one to four layers of solid elements for the headform skin are studied using both the LS-DYNA3D and FCRASH codes. The models use a viscoelastic material law whose constitutive parameters are established through comparisons of drop test simulations at various impact velocities with the test data. Results indicate that the one-layer model has a significant distinct characteristic from the other (2-to-4-layer) models, thus requiring different parametric values. Similar observation is also noticed in simulating drop tests with one and two layers of solid elements for the headform skin using PAM-CRASH. When using the same parametric values for the viscoelastic material, both the LS-DYNA3D and FCRASH simulations yield the same results under identical impact conditions and, thereby, exhibit a “functional equivalency” between these two codes.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Structural Foam and Head Impact Interaction with Vehicle Upper Interior

This paper first describes an experimental analytical approach and numerical procedures used to establish crushable foam material constants needed in finite element (FE) analysis. Dynamic compressive stress-strain data of a 2 pcf Dytherm foam, provided by ARCO Chemical, is used to determine the material parameters which appears in the foam constitutive equation. A finite element model simulating a 15 mph spherical headform impact with a foam sample 6 in. x 6 in. x 1 in. fixed against a rigid plate is developed. The predicted force-deflection characteristic is validated against test data to characterize the initial loading and final unloading stiffnesses of the foam during impact. Finite element modeling and analysis of 15 mph spherical headform impact with component sections of upper interior structures of a passenger compartment is presented.