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Video

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Investigating Ankle Injury Mechanisms in Offset Frontal Collisions Utilizing Computer Modeling and Case-Study Data

1999-10-10
99SC14
A significant number of documented ankle injuries incurred in automobile accidents indicate some form of lateral loading is present to either cause or influence injury. A high percentage of these cases occur in the absence of occupant compartment intrusion. To date, no specific ankle injury mechanism has been identified to explain these types of injuries. To investigate this problem, several resources were used including full-scale crash test data, finite element models, and case study field data. Results from car-to-car, offset frontal crash tests indicate a significant lateral acceleration (10-18 g) occurs at the same time as the peak in longitudinal acceleration. The combined loading condition results in a significant lateral force being applied to the foot-ankle region while the leg region is under maximum compression.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulations of a Range of Car-Pedestrian Collisions

1985-01-01
856111
Realistically, the only way to significantly improve the pedestrian injury situation is by separation of the vehicle and pedestrian population to prevent collision occurring, since injury to a pedestrian is inevitable if hit by a car travelling at even low speeds. However, it is important to assess the contribution that vehicle design characteristics can make to minimise the consequences of such collisions for a variety of pedestrian types, and to establish the various vehicle parameters that can influence pedestrian injury. This paper describes the initial stages of an investigation into these parameters by means of computer simulation. First, the joint, inertia, and contact characteristics of a 50th percentile adult dummy and a 6-year-old child dummy were established by tests. The contact characteristics of a range of car fronts were also determined from pendulum tests at speeds of 24 and 40km/h.
Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

Inclusion of Crashworthiness in Concept Design

1985-01-01
856090
A side impact study carried out on a particular vehicle has been described and used as a case study to represent a methodology for incorporating side crashworthiness in a new vehicle concept design. In the automotive design environment, it has proved difficult to include side crashworthiness satisfactorily in the initial stages of the passenger car design. Lack of vehicle data at such a stage does not allow detailed finite element analysis. It is, however, possible to suggest the required collapse properties for individual components within the structure so that, through a coarse finite element idealization, a design for crashworthiness can be carried out. The crash properties of the structure can be arrived at by parametric studies of individual components that are absorbing the major portion of the crash energy.
Technical Paper

The Development of Ford's Natural Gas Powered Ranger

1985-11-11
852277
Operation of America's first factory built vehicles modified to operate on natural gas began in April, 1984, when Ford Motor Company delivered the first of 27 specially equipped 1984 Ranger pickup trucks to 25 major utility and natural gas related companies in the United States and Canada. In addition to the fuel system, modifications to these test vehicles include a 12.8:1 compression ratio engine and a unique distributor calibration to provide performance similar to the gasoline powered vehicle. The fuel tanks are significantly more expensive than gasoline tanks and remain one of the major cost issues with a natural gas powered vehicle. There are however, no unresolvable technological issues that would prevent motor vehicles from operating economically and efficiently on natural gas.
Technical Paper

Low Rhodium Catalyst Technology for Gasoline and FFV Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-1070
An investigation into the design, development and evaluation of a “new” washcoat technology family that enables significant reductions in rhodium usage levels has been concluded. These findings were demonstrated on three vehicle applications utilizing different calibration A/F control strategies. Additional testing investigated optimal Rh placement on a two brick catalyst system and the impact on FTP and US-06 test cycles. This study concludes with an evaluation of full useful life aged catalysts tested on 6 and 8 cylinder applications that are shown to have met Bin 4 FFV and ULEVII emission standards.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analyses and Correlations on Oil Canning of a Door Outer Panel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0818
In this paper the nature and analytical methodologies for sheet metal panel oil canning are introduced. Lab tests, numerical predictions using finite element analysis and their correlations on oil canning of a door outer panel are described. Different modeling approaches in finite element analysis are discussed, and a simplified approach of loading by using a coupling element is recommended.
Technical Paper

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Frontal Impacts: 2D Numerical Study

2008-04-14
2008-01-0506
A 2D model for vehicle-to-vehicle impact analysis that was presented in an earlier paper [1], has been used to study several two-vehicle frontal impacts with different incidence angles, frontal overlap offsets, and mass ratios. The impacts have been evaluated in terms of energy and momentum change in the bullet vehicle and the target vehicle. Based on comparisons between pre- and post-impact longitudinal, lateral, and angular components of kinetic energy, and linear and angular momenta, the impacts experienced by the target vehicle and the bullet vehicle have been classified as collinear or oblique. These results have been used to propose a definition of frontal impact based on vehicle kinematics during a crash.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

Head Injury Potential Assessment in Frontal Impacts by Mathematical Modeling

1994-11-01
942212
The potential of head injury in frontal barrier impact tests was investigated by a mathematical model which consisted of a finite element human head model, a four segments rigid dynamic neck model, a rigid body occupant model, and a lumped-mass vehicle structure model. The finite element human head model represents anatomically an average adult head. The rigid body occupant model simulates an average adult male. The structure model simulates the interior space and the dynamic characteristics of a vehicle. The neck model integrates the finite element human head to the occupant body to give a more realistic kinematic head motion in a barrier crash test. Model responses were compared with experimental cadaveric data and vehicle crash data for the purpose of model validation to ensure model accuracy. Model results show a good agreement with those of the tests.
Technical Paper

Development of a Tunable Stamped Collector to Improve Exhaust System Performance

1994-11-01
942271
A tunable stamped collector was developed to improve vehicle performance, drive-by noise and subjective noise quality, and reduced thermal stress concentrations. The stamped collector is located at the junction of the legs of the down pipe/catalytic converter assembly for a transverse mounted V-6 engine and acts to equalize the leg length of the down pipe, as well as provide acoustic tuning volume. This collector differs from most other methods to equalize leg lengths on transverse mounted engines in that it has a tuning chamber incorporated into the design itself, which allows for specific noise frequencies to be reduced. Performance characteristics were measured for a conventional down-pipe and the stamped collector using the following analysis techniques: Frequency analysis of tailpipe noise emissions. Drive-by noise emissions. Horsepower measurements using an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

1994-11-01
942256
Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Delivery Module for Light Truck Applications

1993-11-01
932980
This paper reviews the design and development of a self-filling, in-tank fuel system reservoir intended for use in diesel engine vehicle applications. This new idea eliminates engine driveability concerns (stumbles, hesitations, stalling, etc.) associated with an inconsistent supply of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine, particularly during sudden vehicle maneuvers and with low fuel tank conditions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Computer Aided Engineering on Ford Motor Company Light Truck Cooling Design and Development Processes

1993-11-01
932977
This paper presents the benefits of following a disciplined thermal management process during the design and development of Ford Light Truck engine cooling systems. The thermal management process described has evolved through the increased use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. The primary CAE tool used is a numerical simulation technique within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The paper discusses the need to establish a heat management team, develop a heat management model, construct a three dimensional CFD model to simulate the thermal environment of the engine cooling system, and presents CFD modeling examples of Ford Light Trucks with engine driven cooling fans.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Weight Reduction in Truck Frame Design

1993-11-01
933037
A new, systematic, sensitivity based design process for weight reduction is presented. Traditionally, a trial and error method is used when a design fails to meet the weight and the design criteria, which often conflict. This old approach not only is time and cost consuming but also does not provide insight into structural behavior. This proposed process uses state-of-the-art technologies such as design sensitivity analysis, numerical optimization, graphical user interface, etc. It handles multi-discipline design criteria simultaneously and provides design engineers insight into structural responses for frequency, durability, and stiffness concerns and a means for systematic weight reduction and quality improvement. The new design process has been applied for the weight reduction of advanced truck frame designs. Results show that a significant weight savings has been achieved while all design criteria are met.
Journal Article

Extending Tensile Curves beyond Uniform Elongation Using Digital Image Correlation: Capability Analysis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0981
A uniaxial stress-strain curve obtained from a conventional tensile test is only valid up to the point of uniform elongation, beyond which a diffuse neck begins to develop, followed by localized necking and eventual fracture. However Finite Element Analysis for sheet metal forming requires an effective stress-strain curve that extends well beyond the diffuse necking point. Such an extension is usually accomplished by analytical curve fitting and extrapolation. Recent advancement in Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques allows direct measurement of full-range stress-strain curves by continuously analyzing the deformation within the diffuse neck zone until the material ruptures. However the stress-strain curve obtained this way is still approximate in nature. Its accuracy depends on the specimen size, the gage size for analysis, and the material response itself.
Technical Paper

Ford Motor Companys' new Torqshift 6 Automatic Transmission for Super Duty F250-F550 Truck

2010-04-12
2010-01-0859
Ford developed the 6R140 TorqShift six-speed transmission for the Ford F-series SuperDuty trucks. The 6R140 transmission is specifically designed to manage the increased torque produced by the 6.7-liter Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine. It is also matched with the 6.2-liter V-8 gasoline engine. By design, the new 6R140 transmission seamlessly delivers the enormous low-rpm torque produced by the new diesel engine and efficiently manages the higher rpm of the new gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

2010-04-12
2010-01-0405
Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
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