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Technical Paper

Multibody Dynamic Simulation of Steering Gear Systems With Three-Dimensional Surface Contacts

2006-02-14
2006-01-1960
In an effort to understand steering systems performance and properties at the microscopic level, we developed Multibody simulations that include multiple three-dimensional gear surfaces that are in a dynamic state of contact and separation. These validated simulations capture the dynamics of high-speed impact of gears traveling small distances of 50 microns in less than 10 milliseconds. We exploited newly developed analytic, numeric, and computer tools to gain insight into steering gear forces, specifically, the mechanism behind the inception of mechanical knock in steering gear. The results provided a three dimensional geometric view of the sequence of events, in terms of gear surfaces in motion, their sudden contact, and subsequent force generation that lead to steering gear mechanical knock. First we briefly present results that show the sequence of events that lead to knock.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Tool for Modeling Driveline Systems

2000-12-04
2000-01-3525
In order to facilitate the modeling of vehicle drivelines in ADAMS, an ADAMS/View driveline tool was developed with the aid of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc (MDI). Known as Visteon Axle & Driveline Simulation-Dynamics (VADSIM-DYNA) this tool is used to supply customers with driveline models for use in their full vehicle modeling as well as for predicting forces in the driveline. Of specific interest is a method for calculating the mesh point of a hypoid gear set using the geometry of the ring and pinion gears, and a custom force statement for calculation of the mesh point reactions at the center of gravity for both the pinion and ring gears. With the introduction of ADAMS/Driveline, The comapny has worked with MDI to implement VADSIM-DYNA into the base product. With the aid of VADSIM-DYNA the ability to provide customers with ADAMS models of driveline components and systems has been greatly enhanced.
Technical Paper

Design Evaluations On IRS Axle System NVH Through Analytical Studies

2005-05-16
2005-01-2289
Axle whine is an important driveline NVH issue that originates in the hypoid gear sets due to transmitted error excitations. Improving gear quality to reduce the transmitted error has a cost penalty, as well as practical manufacturing limitations. On the other hand, axle system dynamics play a significant role in the system response to gear excitations and in transmissibility from gears to the structure. Analytical tools can be used to tune axle system dynamics in order to alleviate noise and vibration issues. Analytical results can be utilized to evaluate design alternatives, reduce the number of prototypes, thus to reduce product development time. However, analytical results need to be verified and correlated with test results. In this paper, dynamic behavior of a driveline system is investigated. The finite element model is validated at both component and system levels using frequency response functions and mode shapes.
Technical Paper

A Table Update Method for Adaptive Knock Control

2006-04-03
2006-01-0607
Knock correction is the spark angle retard applied to the optimum ignition timing to eliminate knock. In adaptive knock control, this amount of spark retard at an operating point (i.e. Speed, load) is stored in a speed/load characteristic map. It will be reused when the engine is operated in this range once more. In this paper, a method to learn the knock correction values into a speed/load characteristic map is described. This method proportionally distributes the knock correction into the characteristic map according to the distance between the speed/load of these nodes and the current operating point. The distributed knock correction value is filtered and accumulated in its adjacent nodes. Simulation examples demonstrate that the retrieved values from the map by the proposed method are smoother than those produced by the method of [2][3]. The mathematical basis for this method is developed. The one and two independent variable cases are illustrated.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Residual Gas Fraction Measurement Techniques in a High Degree of Freedom Spark Ignition Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0094
Stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations have driven development of new mixture preparation technologies and increased spark-ignition engine complexity. Additional degrees of freedom, brought about by devices such as cam phasers and charge motion control valves, enable greater range and flexibility in engine control. This permits significant gains in fuel efficiency and emission control, but creates challenges related to proper engine control and calibration techniques. Accurate experimental characterization of high degree of freedom engines is essential for addressing the controls challenge. In particular, this paper focuses on the evaluation of three experimental residual gas fraction measurement techniques for use in a spark ignition engine equipped with dual-independent variable camshaft phasing (VVT).
Technical Paper

IC Engine Retard Ignition Timing Limit Detection and Control using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2004-10-25
2004-01-2977
Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. However, the usable range of ignition timing is often limited by knock in the advance direction and by combustion instability (partial burn and misfire) in the retard direction. This paper details a retard limit management system utilizing ionization signals in order to maintain the desired combustion quality and prevent the occurrence of misfire without using fixed limits. In-cylinder ionization signals are processed to derive a metric for combustion quality and closeness of combustion to partial burn/misfire limit, which is used to provide a limiting value for the baseline ignition timing in the retard direction. For normal operations, this assures that the combustion variability is kept within an acceptable range.
Technical Paper

MBT Timing Detection and its Closed-Loop Control Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2004-10-25
2004-01-2976
Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing for an internal combustion engine is the minimum advance of spark timing for best torque. Traditionally, MBT timing is an open loop feedforward control whose values are experimentally determined by conducting spark sweeps at different speed, load points and at different environmental operating conditions. Almost every calibration point needs a spark sweep to see if the engine can be operated at the MBT timing condition. If not, a certain degree of safety margin is needed to avoid pre-ignition or knock during engine operation. Open-loop spark mapping usually requires a tremendous amount of effort and time to achieve a satisfactory calibration. This paper shows that MBT timing can be achieved by regulating a composite feedback measure derived from the in-cylinder ionization signal referenced to a top dead center crank angle position. A PI (proportional and integral) controller is used to illustrate closed-loop control of MBT timing.
Technical Paper

MBT Timing Detection and its Closed-Loop Control Using In-Cylinder Pressure Signal

2003-10-27
2003-01-3266
MBT timing for an internal combustion engine is also called minimum spark timing for best torque or the spark timing for maximum brake torque. Unless engine spark timing is limited by engine knock or emission requirements at a certain operational condition, there exists an MBT timing that yields the maximum work for a given air-to-fuel mixture. Traditionally, MBT timing for a particular engine is determined by conducting a spark sweep process that requires a substantial amount of time to obtain an MBT calibration. Recently, on-line MBT timing detection schemes have been proposed based upon cylinder pressure or ionization signals using peak cylinder pressure location, 50 percent fuel mass fraction burn location, pressure ratio, and so on. Because these criteria are solely based upon data correlation and observation, both of them may change at different engine operational conditions. Therefore, calibration is still required for each MBT detection scheme.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fuel Efficient Multipurpose 75W-90 Gear Lubricant

2003-10-27
2003-01-1992
Automotive gear oil development has expanded beyond the historical requirements of emphasizing wear protection to encompass modern needs for fuel economy and limited slip frictional properties. This paper describes the development process of a new generation, fuel efficient gear lubricant for use in light duty vehicles. A systematic formulation approach was used, encompassing fluid viscometrics and additive optimization. Performance testing in both laboratory and vehicle tests is described. Though standard GL-5 tests were used to confirm oxidation, wear and corrosion performance, emphasis is given to those methods used for optimizing fuel economy.
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