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Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0873
Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Life Cycle Development for Electronic Throttle Control Software using Model-Based/Auto-Code Technology

2004-03-08
2004-01-0276
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate our success in taking advantage of model-based development tools and auto-code technology to accelerate the typical life cycle development of powertrain software. In particular, we applied the technology as a clean sheet approach to Visteon's third generation Electronic Throttle Control system. In the process of applying model-based development and 100% auto-code, we identified various pitfalls and created solutions to overcome the gap between technology and development process during each phase of the entire software development life cycle. We will share our lessons learned during the requirement, design, implementation, and validation stages.
Technical Paper

A Table Update Method for Adaptive Knock Control

2006-04-03
2006-01-0607
Knock correction is the spark angle retard applied to the optimum ignition timing to eliminate knock. In adaptive knock control, this amount of spark retard at an operating point (i.e. Speed, load) is stored in a speed/load characteristic map. It will be reused when the engine is operated in this range once more. In this paper, a method to learn the knock correction values into a speed/load characteristic map is described. This method proportionally distributes the knock correction into the characteristic map according to the distance between the speed/load of these nodes and the current operating point. The distributed knock correction value is filtered and accumulated in its adjacent nodes. Simulation examples demonstrate that the retrieved values from the map by the proposed method are smoother than those produced by the method of [2][3]. The mathematical basis for this method is developed. The one and two independent variable cases are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Method to Efficiently Implement Automotive Application Algorithms Using Signal Processing Engine (SPE) of Copperhead Microcontroller

2008-04-14
2008-01-1222
This paper presents the studies on how to efficiently and easily implement ECU application algorithms using the Signal Processing Engine (SPE) of the Copperhead microcontroller. With the introduced development and testing concepts and methods, users can easily establish their own PC based SPE emulation system. All application unit testing and verification work for the fixed point implementation using SPE functions can be easily conducted in PC without relying on a costly real time test bench and expensive third party dedicated software. With this simple development environment, the code can be run in both embedded controllers and PCs with exact bit to bit numerical behavior. The paper also demonstrates many other benefits such as code statistics information retrieval, floating simulation mode, automated code verification, online and offline code sharing.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1767
The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
Technical Paper

The Impact of E85 Use on Lubricant Performance

2008-06-23
2008-01-1763
Ethanol is widely used as a gasoline component to provide a prescribed amount of oxygenates and for its perceived advantages of less dependence on petroleum based products and lowering overall CO2 emissions. In most cases the level of ethanol in gasoline does not exceed 10%. In some parts of the Unites States, E85 fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline is commonly available. Many US vehicles sold today are specially adapted for use of both gasoline and high ethanol fuels; so-called Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV). While high ethanol fuels are currently a small percentage of the overall gasoline pool, they provide an interesting opportunity to study the effects that ethanol use in gasoline may have on lubricant related performance. Based on past industry experience with methanol based fuel, theoretical areas of concern for ethanol based fuels are valve train rust and potential problems associated with high amounts of water in the lubricant.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection for a Large Displacement Air-Cooled V-Twin Motorcycle Engine Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signals

2008-09-09
2008-32-0028
To obtain the maximum output power and fuel economy from an internal combustion engine, it is often necessary to detect engine knock and operate the engine at its knock limit. This paper presents the ability to detect knock using in-cylinder ionization signals on a large displacement, air-cooled, “V” twin motorcycle engine over the engine operational map. The knock detection ability of three different sensors is compared: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure sensor, and ionization sensor. The test data shows that the ionization sensor is able to detect knock better than the production knock sensor when there is high mechanical noise present in the engine.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Pressure Pulsations in a Gasoline Injection System and Development of an Effective Damping Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-1149
In today's search for a better fuel economy and lower emissions, it is essential to precisely control the injected fuel quantity, as demanded by the engine load, into each of the engine cylinders. In fuel injection systems, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of the injectors can cause uneven injected fuel amounts between cylinders. In order to develop effective techniques to reduce these pressure pulsations, it is crucial to have a good understanding of the dynamic characteristics of such fuel injection systems. This paper presents the benefits of using simulation as a tool to analyze the dynamic behaviors of a V8 gasoline injection system. The fuel system modeling, based on a one-dimensional (1D) lumped parameter approach, has been developed in the AMESim® environment. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental data shows good agreement in fluid transient characteristics for both time and frequency domains.
Technical Paper

MBT Timing Detection and its Closed-Loop Control Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2004-10-25
2004-01-2976
Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing for an internal combustion engine is the minimum advance of spark timing for best torque. Traditionally, MBT timing is an open loop feedforward control whose values are experimentally determined by conducting spark sweeps at different speed, load points and at different environmental operating conditions. Almost every calibration point needs a spark sweep to see if the engine can be operated at the MBT timing condition. If not, a certain degree of safety margin is needed to avoid pre-ignition or knock during engine operation. Open-loop spark mapping usually requires a tremendous amount of effort and time to achieve a satisfactory calibration. This paper shows that MBT timing can be achieved by regulating a composite feedback measure derived from the in-cylinder ionization signal referenced to a top dead center crank angle position. A PI (proportional and integral) controller is used to illustrate closed-loop control of MBT timing.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine with Different Fuels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0325
This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of the mixing and combustion of ethanol and gasoline in a single-cylinder 3-valve direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The numerical simulations are conducted with the KIVA code with global reaction models. However, an ignition delay model mitigates some of the deficiencies of the global one-step reaction model and is implemented via a two-dimensional look-up table, which was created using available detailed kinetics models. Simulations demonstrate the problems faced by ethanol operated engines and indicate that some of the strategies used for emission control and downsizing of gasoline engines can be employed for enhancing the combustion efficiency of ethanol operated engines.
Technical Paper

Multibody Dynamic Simulation of Steering Gear Systems With Three-Dimensional Surface Contacts

2006-02-14
2006-01-1960
In an effort to understand steering systems performance and properties at the microscopic level, we developed Multibody simulations that include multiple three-dimensional gear surfaces that are in a dynamic state of contact and separation. These validated simulations capture the dynamics of high-speed impact of gears traveling small distances of 50 microns in less than 10 milliseconds. We exploited newly developed analytic, numeric, and computer tools to gain insight into steering gear forces, specifically, the mechanism behind the inception of mechanical knock in steering gear. The results provided a three dimensional geometric view of the sequence of events, in terms of gear surfaces in motion, their sudden contact, and subsequent force generation that lead to steering gear mechanical knock. First we briefly present results that show the sequence of events that lead to knock.
Technical Paper

A Real Time Statistical Method for Engine Knock Detection

2007-04-16
2007-01-1507
The traditional method of engine knock detection is to compare the knock intensity with a predetermined threshold. The calibration of this threshold is complex and difficult. A statistical knock detection method is proposed in this paper to reduce the effort of calibration. This method dynamically calculates the knock threshold to determine the knock event. Theoretically, this method will not only adapt to different fuels but also cope with engine aging and engine-to-engine variation without re-calibration. This method is demonstrated by modeling and evaluation using real-time engine dynamometer test data.
Technical Paper

Model Reference Adaptive Control of a Pneumatic Valve Actuator for Infinitely Variable Valve Timing and Lift

2007-04-16
2007-01-1297
Electro-pneumatic valve actuators are used to eliminate the cam shaft of a traditional internal combustion engine. They are used to control the opening timing, duration, and lift of both intake and exhaust valves. A physics based nonlinear mathematical model called the level one model was built using Newton's law, mass conservation and thermodynamic principles. A control oriented model, the level two model, was created by partially linearizing the level one model for model reference parameter identification. This model reduces computational throughput and enables real-time implementation. A model reference adaptive control system was used to identify the nonlinear parameters that were needed for generating a feedforward control signal. The closed-loop valve lift tracking, valve opening and closing timing control strategies were proposed.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Analysis and Tuning of Electronic Throttle Controllers

2004-03-08
2004-01-0524
This paper describes two electronic throttle controllers of Visteon Corporation with one already in production and the other currently under development. Analysis and tuning of the two controllers are described. The general structure of the controllers consists of a reference shaping subsystem and a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative(PID) controller supplemented with additional terms that deal with the nonlinearility of the electronic throttle body. Due to a friction cancellation term in the controller that minimizes the nonlinearity of the system, linear system analysis techniques are applied. The transfer functions of the electronic throttle body at six different operating conditions are derived. Analysis of the closed-loop dynamics is performed based on the plant and the controller transfer-functions. Controller fine-tuning is performed using frequency response techniques, MATLAB simulations and testing on the actual system.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Limit Control and Its Application to Knock Limit Control Using Ionization Feedback

2005-04-11
2005-01-0018
Spark timing of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine is often limited by engine knock in the advanced direction. The ability to operate the engine at its advanced (borderline knock) spark limit is the key for improving output power and fuel economy. Due to combustion cycle-to-cycle variations, IC engine combustion behaves similar to a random process and so does the engine performance criteria, such as IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure), and knock intensity. The combustion stability measure COVariance of IMEP assumes the IMEP is a random process. Presently, the spark limit control of IC engines is deterministic in nature. The controller does not utilize any stochastic information associated with control parameters such as knock intensity for borderline spark limit control. This paper proposes a stochastic limit control strategy for borderline knock control. It also develops a simple stochastic model for evaluating the proposed stochastic controller.
Technical Paper

Inaudible Knock and Partial-Burn Detection Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2003-10-27
2003-01-3149
Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. Maximizing engine power and fuel economy is limited by engine knock for a given air-to-fuel charge. Therefore, the ability to detect engine knock and run the engine at its knock limit is a key for the best power and fuel economy. This paper shows inaudible knock detection ability using in-cylinder ionization signals over the entire engine speed and load map. This is especially important at high engine speed and high EGR rates. The knock detection ability is compared between three sensors: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure and ionization sensors. The test data shows that the ionization signals can be used to detect inaudible engine knock while the conventional knock sensor cannot under some engine operational conditions.
Journal Article

Next Generation Power and Thermal Management System

2008-11-11
2008-01-2934
The power and thermal management system (PTMS) developed by Honeywell for aircraft is an integral approach combining the functions of the auxiliary power unit (APU), emergency power unit (EPU), environmental control system (ECS), and thermal management system (TMS). The next generation PTMS discussed in this paper incorporates the new more electric architecture (MEA) and energy efficient aircraft (EEA) initiatives. Advanced system architectures with increased functionality and further integration capabilities with other systems are included. Special emphasis is given to improvements resulting from interactions with the main engine, main electric power generation, and flight actuation. The major drivers for advancement are highlighted, as well as the potential use of new technologies for turbomachinery, heat exchangers, power electronics, and electric machines. More advanced control and protection algorithms are considered.
Technical Paper

Radar-based Target Tracking Method: Application to Real Road

2005-04-11
2005-01-1478
Principle of the target tracking method for the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system, which is applicable to non-uniform or transient condition, had been proposed by one of the authors. This method does not need any other information rather than that from the radar and host vehicle. Here the method is modified to meet more complex traffic scenarios and then applied to data measured on real highway. The modified method is based on the phase chart between the lateral component of the relative velocity and azimuth of a preceding vehicle. From the trace on the chart, the behavior of a preceding vehicle is judged and the discrimination between the lane change and curve-entry/exit can be made. The method can deal with the lane-change of a preceding vehicle on the curve as well as on the straight lane. And it is applied to more than 20 data including several road/vehicle conditions: road is straight, or turns right or left; vehicles are motorbikes, sedans and trucks.
Technical Paper

Development of a Steer-by-Wire System for the GM Sequel

2006-04-03
2006-01-1173
Steer-by-wire systems (SBW) offer the potential to enhance steering functionality by enabling features such as automatic lane keeping, park assist, variable steer ratio, and advanced vehicle dynamics control. The lack of a steering intermediate shaft significantly enhances vehicle architectural flexibility. These potential benefits led GM to include steer-by-wire technology in its next generation fuel cell demonstration vehicle, called “Sequel.” The Sequel's steer-by-wire system consists of front and rear electromechanical actuators, a torque feedback emulator for the steering wheel, and a distributed electronic control system. Redundancy of sensors, actuators, controllers, and power allows the system to be fault-tolerant. Control is provided by multiple ECU's that are linked by a fault-tolerant communication system called FlexRay. In this paper, we describe the objectives for fault tolerance and performance that were established for the Sequel.
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