Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Investigating Cleaning Procedures for OEM Engine Air Intake Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1431
Most new passenger vehicles on the road today are equipped with a disposable OEM engine intake filter made of cellulose paper or synthetic non-woven media. Engine intake filters have an expected and recommended service life (by OEMs) of approximately 45K to 75K kilometers under normal driving conditions [ref. 2, 3, 4 & 5]. Majority of air filter element manufacturers do not recommend any type of cleaning to be performed on their OEM products. However, cleaning OEM and aftermarket air filters is common for end-customers in areas such as Asia, Middle East and South America. Vehicle owners in some regions would like to service and clean their own air filter elements in an effort to reduce vehicle operating costs. As a result, a number of OEMs selling passenger vehicles in these regions are requesting their suppliers explore solutions and the effects of whether cleaning air filter elements is appropriate for proper engine operation.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations & Characterization Test Methods for Activated Carbon Foam Hydrocarbon Traps in Automotive Air Induction Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1429
As OEMs race to build their sales fleets to meet ever more stringent California Air Resources Board (CARB) mobile source evaporative emissions requirements, new technologies are emerging to control pollution. Evaporative emissions emanating from sources up-stream in the induction flow and venting through the ducts of the engine air induction system (EIS) need to be controlled in order classify a salable vehicle as a Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) in the state of California. As other states explore adopting California's pollution control standards, demand for emissions control measures in the induction system is expected to increase. This paper documents some of the considerations of designing an adsorbent evaporative emissions device in to a 2007 production passenger car for the North American and Asian markets. This new evaporative emissions device will be permanently installed in the vehicle's air cleaner cover without requiring service for 150K miles (expected vehicle life).
Technical Paper

Low Rhodium Catalyst Technology for Gasoline and FFV Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-1070
An investigation into the design, development and evaluation of a “new” washcoat technology family that enables significant reductions in rhodium usage levels has been concluded. These findings were demonstrated on three vehicle applications utilizing different calibration A/F control strategies. Additional testing investigated optimal Rh placement on a two brick catalyst system and the impact on FTP and US-06 test cycles. This study concludes with an evaluation of full useful life aged catalysts tested on 6 and 8 cylinder applications that are shown to have met Bin 4 FFV and ULEVII emission standards.
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0873
Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
Technical Paper

On the Use of BEA with Engine Simulation as an Input to Predict Air Induction Inlet Noise

2005-05-16
2005-01-2350
Engine air induction noise can play a significant role in the reduction of vehicle interior noise levels and tuning interior sound quality. Given the need to reduce prototyping and testing costs, it is important to gain an understanding of the level and frequency structure of the noise radiating from the open inlet of the air induction system. Engine simulation used independently can predict inlet noise; however, its utility is limited to systems that are largely one-dimensional. Systems that exhibit a three-dimensional nature, such as the wave dynamics in an engine air cleaner, require a more intensive approach. Boundary Element Analysis (BEA) has been demonstrated to be a tool that can be used to predict the frequency response of ducted systems and is particularly useful in highly three-dimensional systems.
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Prediction of Air Induction Systems Using Filter Seal Modeling and Coupled Acoustic-Structural Simulation Techniques

2007-04-16
2007-01-0253
In this paper, an analytical procedure for prediction of shell radiated noise of air induction systems (AIS) due to engine acoustic excitation, without a prototype and physical measurement, is presented. A set of modeling and simulation techniques are introduced to address the challenges to the analytical radiated noise prediction of AIS products. A filter seal model is developed to simulate the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of air cleaner boxes. A finite element model (FEM) of the AIS assembly is established by incorporating the AIS structure, the proposed filter seal model and its acoustic cavity model. The coupled acoustic-structural FEM of the AIS assembly is then employed to compute the velocity frequency response of the AIS structure with respect to the air-borne acoustic excitations.
Technical Paper

A Filter Seal Model for Point Mobility Prediction of Air Induction Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-1209
Virtual design validation of an air induction system (AIS) requires a proper finite element (FE) assembly model for various simulation based design tasks. The effect of the urethane air filter seal within an AIS assembly, however, still poses a technical challenge to the modeling of structural dynamic behaviors of the AIS product. In this paper, a filter seal model and its modeling approach for AIS assemblies are introduced, by utilizing the feature finite elements and empiric test data. A bushing element is used to model the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of the urethane seal, as a function of seal orientation, preloading, temperature and excitation frequency, which are quantified based on the test data and empiric formula. Point mobility is used to character dynamic behaviors of an AIS structure under given loadings, as a transfer function in frequency domain.
Technical Paper

A Table Update Method for Adaptive Knock Control

2006-04-03
2006-01-0607
Knock correction is the spark angle retard applied to the optimum ignition timing to eliminate knock. In adaptive knock control, this amount of spark retard at an operating point (i.e. Speed, load) is stored in a speed/load characteristic map. It will be reused when the engine is operated in this range once more. In this paper, a method to learn the knock correction values into a speed/load characteristic map is described. This method proportionally distributes the knock correction into the characteristic map according to the distance between the speed/load of these nodes and the current operating point. The distributed knock correction value is filtered and accumulated in its adjacent nodes. Simulation examples demonstrate that the retrieved values from the map by the proposed method are smoother than those produced by the method of [2][3]. The mathematical basis for this method is developed. The one and two independent variable cases are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Method to Efficiently Implement Automotive Application Algorithms Using Signal Processing Engine (SPE) of Copperhead Microcontroller

2008-04-14
2008-01-1222
This paper presents the studies on how to efficiently and easily implement ECU application algorithms using the Signal Processing Engine (SPE) of the Copperhead microcontroller. With the introduced development and testing concepts and methods, users can easily establish their own PC based SPE emulation system. All application unit testing and verification work for the fixed point implementation using SPE functions can be easily conducted in PC without relying on a costly real time test bench and expensive third party dedicated software. With this simple development environment, the code can be run in both embedded controllers and PCs with exact bit to bit numerical behavior. The paper also demonstrates many other benefits such as code statistics information retrieval, floating simulation mode, automated code verification, online and offline code sharing.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1767
The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
Technical Paper

The Impact of E85 Use on Lubricant Performance

2008-06-23
2008-01-1763
Ethanol is widely used as a gasoline component to provide a prescribed amount of oxygenates and for its perceived advantages of less dependence on petroleum based products and lowering overall CO2 emissions. In most cases the level of ethanol in gasoline does not exceed 10%. In some parts of the Unites States, E85 fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline is commonly available. Many US vehicles sold today are specially adapted for use of both gasoline and high ethanol fuels; so-called Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV). While high ethanol fuels are currently a small percentage of the overall gasoline pool, they provide an interesting opportunity to study the effects that ethanol use in gasoline may have on lubricant related performance. Based on past industry experience with methanol based fuel, theoretical areas of concern for ethanol based fuels are valve train rust and potential problems associated with high amounts of water in the lubricant.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection for a Large Displacement Air-Cooled V-Twin Motorcycle Engine Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signals

2008-09-09
2008-32-0028
To obtain the maximum output power and fuel economy from an internal combustion engine, it is often necessary to detect engine knock and operate the engine at its knock limit. This paper presents the ability to detect knock using in-cylinder ionization signals on a large displacement, air-cooled, “V” twin motorcycle engine over the engine operational map. The knock detection ability of three different sensors is compared: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure sensor, and ionization sensor. The test data shows that the ionization sensor is able to detect knock better than the production knock sensor when there is high mechanical noise present in the engine.
Technical Paper

A Scalable Engine Management System Architecture for Motorcycle/Small-Vehicle Application

2008-09-09
2008-32-0054
This paper gives an overview of a scalable engine management system architecture for motorcycle and other small engine based vehicle applications. The system can accommodate any engine sizes and up to four cylinders. The architecture incorporates advanced functionalities such as oxygen sensing, closed loop fueling, wall-wetting compensation, purge control, start & idle control and deceleration fuel cut-off. Additionally, a number of vehicle-related controls are integrated in the system. Diagnostic and safety related features have also been incorporated with limp-home capability. The software architecture is compatible with different hardware solutions. The system has been implemented in several OEM vehicles around the globe and meets EURO-3 emission requirements.
Technical Paper

Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant Loops

2003-07-07
2003-01-2568
The International Space Station (ISS) IATCS (Internal Active Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that use an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide was used initially as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms in the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing has demonstrated that the silver salt is rapidly depleted and not effective as a long-term biocide. Efforts are now underway to select an alternate biocide for the IATCS coolant loop with greatly improved performance. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to select several candidates for test trials.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Modeling and Radiated Noise Prediction for Plastic Air-Intake Manifolds

2003-05-05
2003-01-1448
Reliable prediction of the radiated noise due to the air pressure pulsation inside air-intake manifolds (AIM) is of significant interest in the automotive industry. A practical methodology to model plastic AIMs and a prediction process to compute the radiated noise are presented in this paper. The measured pressure at the engine inlet valve of an AIM is applied as excitation on an acoustic boundary element model of the AIM in order to perform a frequency response analysis. The measured air pressure pulsation is obtained in the crank-angle domain. This pressure is read into MATLAB and transformed into the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform. The normal modes of the structure are computed in ABAQUS and a coupled analysis in SYSNOISE is launched to couple the boundary element model and the finite element model of the structure. The computed surface vibration constitutes the excitation for an acoustic uncoupled boundary element analysis.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Pressure Pulsations in a Gasoline Injection System and Development of an Effective Damping Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-1149
In today's search for a better fuel economy and lower emissions, it is essential to precisely control the injected fuel quantity, as demanded by the engine load, into each of the engine cylinders. In fuel injection systems, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of the injectors can cause uneven injected fuel amounts between cylinders. In order to develop effective techniques to reduce these pressure pulsations, it is crucial to have a good understanding of the dynamic characteristics of such fuel injection systems. This paper presents the benefits of using simulation as a tool to analyze the dynamic behaviors of a V8 gasoline injection system. The fuel system modeling, based on a one-dimensional (1D) lumped parameter approach, has been developed in the AMESim® environment. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental data shows good agreement in fluid transient characteristics for both time and frequency domains.
Technical Paper

Performance and Benefits of Zero Maintenance Air Induction Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1139
Engine air filtration technologies currently used in air induction systems typically utilize pleated paper or felt type air filters. These air filter designs have been used for many years in panels, cylindrical or round (pancake type) type air cleaners. Pleated air filters are specifically designed to be serviceable and hence their performance is inherently limited by vehicle under-hood packaging and manufacturing constraints. Due to these constraints, majority of air cleaner designs are not optimized for engine filtration and air flow management under the hood. Studies show that use of low performing serviceable aftermarket air filters significantly affect the performance and durability of engine air cleaners [9]. High mileage studies confirm that engine durability, service issues, warranty field returns and customer satisfaction was affected by use of aftermarket filter brands.
Technical Paper

IC Engine Retard Ignition Timing Limit Detection and Control using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2004-10-25
2004-01-2977
Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. However, the usable range of ignition timing is often limited by knock in the advance direction and by combustion instability (partial burn and misfire) in the retard direction. This paper details a retard limit management system utilizing ionization signals in order to maintain the desired combustion quality and prevent the occurrence of misfire without using fixed limits. In-cylinder ionization signals are processed to derive a metric for combustion quality and closeness of combustion to partial burn/misfire limit, which is used to provide a limiting value for the baseline ignition timing in the retard direction. For normal operations, this assures that the combustion variability is kept within an acceptable range.
Technical Paper

MBT Timing Detection and its Closed-Loop Control Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2004-10-25
2004-01-2976
Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing for an internal combustion engine is the minimum advance of spark timing for best torque. Traditionally, MBT timing is an open loop feedforward control whose values are experimentally determined by conducting spark sweeps at different speed, load points and at different environmental operating conditions. Almost every calibration point needs a spark sweep to see if the engine can be operated at the MBT timing condition. If not, a certain degree of safety margin is needed to avoid pre-ignition or knock during engine operation. Open-loop spark mapping usually requires a tremendous amount of effort and time to achieve a satisfactory calibration. This paper shows that MBT timing can be achieved by regulating a composite feedback measure derived from the in-cylinder ionization signal referenced to a top dead center crank angle position. A PI (proportional and integral) controller is used to illustrate closed-loop control of MBT timing.
Technical Paper

Impact of Tumble on Combustion in SI Engines: Correlation between Flow and Engine Experiments

2007-10-29
2007-01-4003
The introduction of tumble into the combustion chamber is an effective method of enhancing turbulence intensity prior to ignition, thereby accelerating the burn rates, stabilizing the combustion, and extending the dilution limit. In this study, the primary intake runners are partially blocked to produce different levels of tumble motion in the cylinder during the air induction process. Experiments have been performed with a Chrysler 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine at maximum brake torque timing under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar BMEP at 1200 rpm. A method has been developed to quantify the tumble characteristics of blockages under steady flow conditions in a flow laboratory, by using the same cylinder head, intake manifold, and tumble blockages from the engine experiments.
X