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Book

Composites in Automotive Applications set

2015-09-10
This set consists of three books, Design of Automotive Composites, CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, and Biocomposites in Automotive Applications all developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena, CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites focuses on the latest use of CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) methods in design and failure analysis of composite materials and structures, and Biocomposites in Automotive Applications, focuses on processing and characterization of biocomposites, their application in the automotive industry and new perspectives on automotive sustainability. Together, they are a focused collection providing the reader with must-read technical papers, hand-picked by the editors, supporting the growing importance of the use of composites in the ground vehicle industry. Dr. Charles Lu is H.E.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Machining of Titanium Components for Lightweight Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0022
Due to titanium's excellent strength-to-weight ratio and high corrosion resistance, titanium and its alloys have great potential to reduce energy usage in vehicles through a reduction in vehicle mass. The mass of a road vehicle is directly related to its energy consumption through inertial requirements and tire rolling resistance losses. However, when considering the manufacture of titanium automotive components, the machinability is poor, thus increasing processing cost through a trade-off between extended cycle time (labor cost) or increased tool wear (tooling cost). This fact has classified titanium as a “difficult-to-machine” material and consequently, titanium has been traditionally used for application areas having a comparatively higher end product cost such as in aerospace applications, the automotive racing segment, etc., as opposed to the consumer automotive segment.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Portable Driving Performance and Analysis System for Education Purposes

2015-04-14
2015-01-0259
According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was μ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called “Target Zone”, defined by a Driver Rating of μ± 1σ.
Technical Paper

Driver Models for Virtual Testing of Automotive Run-Off-Road and Recovery Control Systems and Education Strategies

2015-04-14
2015-01-0256
Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s).
Technical Paper

An Improved Seating Accommodation Model for Older and Younger Drivers

2016-04-05
2016-01-1444
The research objective was to measure and understand the preferred seat position of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices and meet the increased safety needs of all drivers. Improper selection of driver’s seat position may impact safety during a crash event and affect one’s capacity to see the roadway and reach the vehicle’s controls, such as steering wheel, accelerator, brake, clutch, and gear selector lever. Because of the stature changes associated with ageing and the fact that stature is normally distributed for both males and females, it was hypothesized that the SAE J4004 linear regression would be improved with the inclusion of gender and age terms that would provide a more accurate model to predict the seat track position of older drivers. Participants included 97 older drivers over the age of 60 and 20 younger drivers between the ages of 30 to 39.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Roll Control for Passenger Cars during Emergency Maneuvers

1994-03-01
940224
A nonlinear eight degree of freedom vehicle model has been used to examine the effects of roll stiffness on handling and performance. In addition, various control strategies have been devised which vary the total roll couple distribution in order to improve cornering capability and stopping distance. Of all cases tested, a controller which varies the total roll stiffness based on roll angle feedback, and continuously updates the roll couple distribution as a function of steering wheel angle, braking input, and the total roll stiffness, yields the greatest improvements in collision avoidance.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Pulse Steer Method for Determining Automobile Handling Qualities

1993-03-01
930829
The use of pulse steering tests for assessment of handling qualities was investigated using a simulation of a comprehensive, nonlinear four wheel model of an automobile. Evaluations were conducted using frequency response functions of yaw rate and lateral acceleration obtained by FFT processing of the simulated response. In addition, as suggested by the work of Mimuro et al [1], four parameters (steady state yaw rate gain, yaw rate natural frequency and damping ratio, and lateral acceleration phase lag at 1 Hz) that characterize these response functions were also obtained by curve fitting techniques. The effects on accuracy of the response functions and the four parameters of variations in pulse shape, duration, and magnitude were investigated. Results from the simulated pulse steer test were compared with those from simulated swept sine steering tests.
Technical Paper

Thermal Optimization of the ECS on an Advanced Aircraft with an Emphasis on System Efficiency and Design Methodology

1997-06-18
971241
Two methods for analyzing and evaluating the environmental control system on an advanced aircraft as described in this paper include the conventional first law energy conservation technique and the second law entropy generation minimization technique. Simplified analytical models of the ECS are developed for each method and compared to determine the validity of using the latter to facilitate the design process in optimizing the overall system for a minimum gross takeoff weight (GTW). Preliminary results have illustrated the importance of taking into account system optimization based on system (or component) efficiency. For instance, even though different values were obtained for the rate of entropy generation, the second law analysis of a shell-in-tube heat exchanger led to an optimum tube diameter of 0.12 in (3.05 mm) when both R-12 and R-114 were used as the refrigerant in the vapor cycle.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970639
A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effects of Roll Control on Handling and Stability of Passenger Vehicles During Severe Lane Change Maneuvers

1995-02-01
950305
The control of body roll on passenger vehicles can be used as a tool for controlling the “weight shift” that occurs during maneuvering. Distribution of load to the tires will determine the ability of each tire to generate lateral forces required for the maneuver and thus will significantly affect handling. In this investigation, the effects on weight shift and hence, on handling, of total roll stiffness, front to rear roll stiffness distribution, total roll damping, and roll damping distribution were examined. These results were then used to guide the development and analysis of several roll control algorithms. The results of the investigation indicate that roll control can be effective in improving handling and stability. However, simulation of the control algorithms showed that the controllers must be specifically tuned for the vehicle in which they are to be used.
Technical Paper

Development and Qualitative Testing of Traction Concepts as an Undergraduate Experience

2010-04-12
2010-01-0312
Recent research at Clemson University has focused on the development of an advanced non-pneumatic, non-elastomeric lunar wheel for NASA with superior traction. This paper reports on several concepts for tread materials and geometries that have been explored for tire-on-sand use. Specifically, fourteen concepts, involving the use of metal meshes, textile carpet materials, soft grousers, foams, and screens, were physically tested in an on-vehicle environment. Prototypes for each concept and formal test procedures to quantify traction were developed. This paper presents the results of the tests for several different concepts and the comparison between the concepts that were developed. Students developed their own testing environment through which these test procedures are implemented, an inclined hill 45 ft. in length and 8 ft. wide will approximately 6 inches deep filled with sand.
Technical Paper

Clemson University Motorsports Engineering Program

1996-12-01
962496
The newly initiated Clemson Motorsports Engineering Program, housed in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, provides unique educational opportunities to our students combining classroom engineering education, research, and race team experience. Additionally, the research and service projects conducted provide valuable information to race teams and companies in the automotive industry as well as involving students in both applied technology development and fundamental engineering activities. This paper describes the current activities and structure of the program together with our view for future development.
Technical Paper

Procedure for the Characterization of Friction in Automobile Power Steering Systems

1996-02-01
960933
In developing a nonlinear steering system model for vehicle simulation, it was determined that proper inclusion of system friction is necessary to correctly predict steering wheel torque response in on-center driving using simulation models. A method to characterize the inherent friction behavior for a given steering gear has been developed and performed on two types of power steering gears: a recirculating ball gear and a rack-and-pinion gear. During this research it was discovered that levels of static and dynamic friction can differ widely for these two types. Therefore this characterization procedure provides a method to ascertain both static and dynamic friction levels. The results from these tests show that friction levels can depend on steering gear input shaft position, steering gear input angular velocity and steering gear loading conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Chassis Flexibility on Roll Stiffness of a Winston Cup Race Car

1998-11-16
983051
Predictable handling of a racecar may be achieved by tailoring chassis stiffness so that roll stiffness between sprung and unsprung masses are due almost entirely to the suspension. In this work, the effects of overall chassis flexibility on roll stiffness and wheel camber response, will be determined using a finite element model (FEM) of a Winston Cup racecar chassis and suspension. The FEM of the chassis/suspension is built from an assembly of beam and shell elements using geometry measured from a typical Winston cup race configuration. Care has been taken to model internal constraints between degrees-of-freedom (DOF) at suspension to chassis connections, e.g. t ball and pin joints and internal releases. To validate the model, the change in wheel loads due to an applied jacking force that rolls the chassis agrees closely with measured data.
Book

Biocomposites in Automotive Applications

2015-08-13
The automotive sector has taken a keen interest in lightweighting as new required performance standards for fuel economy come into place. This strategy includes parts consolidation, design optimization, and material substitution, with sustainable polymers playing a major role in reducing a vehicle’s weight. Sustainable polymers are largely biodegradable, biocompatible, and sourced from renewable plant and agricultural stocks. A facile way to enhance their properties, so they can indeed replace the ones made from fossil fuels, is by reinforcing them with fibers to make composites. Natural fibers are gaining more acceptance in the industry due to their renewable nature, low cost, low density, low energy consumption, high specific strength and stiffness, CO2 sequestration potential, biodegradability, and less wear imposed on machinery. Biocomposites then become a very feasible way to help address the fuel consumption challenge ahead of us.
Technical Paper

Effects of Cellular Shear Bands on Interaction between a Non-pneumatic Tire and Sand

2010-04-12
2010-01-0376
To facilitate the design of a non-pneumatic tire for NASA's new Moon mission, the authors used the Finite Element Method (FEM) to investigate the interaction between soil and non-pneumatic tire made of different cellular shear bands. Cellular shear bands, made of an aluminum alloy (AL7075-T6), are designed to have the same effective shear modulus of 6.5E+6 Pa, which is the shear modulus of an elastomer. The Lebanon sand of New Hampshire is used in the model. This sand has a complete set of material properties in the literature and Drucker-Prager/Cap plasticity constitutive law with hardening is employed to model the sand. The tires are treated as deformable bodies, and the authors used the penalty contact algorithm to model the tangential behavior of the contact. The friction between tire and sand is considered by using Coulomb's law. Numerical results show deformation of sand and tire.
Journal Article

Design of Cellular Shear Bands of a Non-Pneumatic Tire -Investigation of Contact Pressure

2010-04-12
2010-01-0768
In an effort to build a shear band of a lunar rover wheel which operates at lunar surface temperatures (40 to 400K), the design of a metallic cellular shear band is suggested. Six representative honeycombs with aluminum alloy (7075-T6) are tailored to have a shear modulus of 6.5MPa which is a shear modulus of an elastomer by changing cell wall thickness, cell angles, cell heights and cell lengths at meso-scale. The designed cellular solids are used for a ring typed shear band of a wheel structure at macro-scale. A structural performance such as contact pressure at the outer layer of the wheel is investigated with the honeycomb shear bands when a vertical force is applied at the center of the wheel. Cellular Materials Theory (CMT) is used to obtain in-plane effective properties of a honeycomb structure at meso-scale. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with commercial software ABAQUS is employed to investigate the structural behavior of a wheel at macro-scale.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of Ring Rolling Process

2010-04-12
2010-01-0270
Three-dimensional simulation has become an indispensable approach to develop improved understanding of ring rolling technology, with validity as the basic requirement of the ring rolling simulation. Cold ring rolling is simple conceptually, however complex to analyze as the metal forming process is subject to coupled effects with multiple influencing factors such as sizes of rolls and ring blank, form geometry, material, process parameters, and frictional effects. Investigating the coupled thermal and plastic deformation behavior (the plastic deformation state and its development) in the deformation zone during the process is significant for predicting metal flow in order to control the geometric and tensile residual stress quality of deformed rings, and to provide for cycle time optimization of the cold ring rolling process.
Technical Paper

Roll Stability Control for Torsionally Compliant Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0102
Rollover prevention is now part of complete vehicle stability control systems for many vehicles. Given that rollover is predominantly associated with vehicles with high centers of gravity, the targeted vehicles for rollover protection include medium and heavy duty commercial vehicles. Unfortunately, the chassis designs of these vehicles are often so compliant in torsion that the ends of the vehicles may have significantly different roll responses at any given time. The potential need to assess and correct for the roll behavior of the front and rear ends of the vehicle is the subject of this paper. Most rollover mitigation research to date has used rigid chassis assumptions in modeling the vehicle. This paper deals with the roll control of vehicles with torsionally flexible chassis based on a yaw-correction system.
Journal Article

Hydrostatic Wheel Drives for Vehicle Stability Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0105
Hydrostatic (hydraulic hybrid) drives have demonstrated energy efficiency and emissions reduction benefits. This paper investigates the potential of an independent hydrostatic wheel drive system for implementing a traction-based vehicle lateral stability control system. The system allows an upper level vehicle stability controller to produce a desired corrective yaw moment via a differential distribution of torque to the independent wheel motors. In cornering maneuvers that require braking on any one wheel of the vehicle, the motors can be operated as pumps for re-generating energy into an on-board accumulator. This approach avoids or reduces activation of the friction brakes, thereby reducing energy waste as heat in the brake pads and offering potential savings in brake maintenance costs. For this study, a model of a 4×4 hydrostatic independent wheel drive system is constructed in a causal and modular fashion and is coupled to a 7 DOF vehicle handling dynamics model.
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