Effect of Icing Environment and Humidity on Reference Air Data Parameters in an Icing Tunnel
Wind tunnel facilities typically rely upon reference instrumentation combined with isentropic flow relationships to define the fluid properties in the test section. For the particular case of icing wind tunnels, the icing environment can affect the airflow such that the definition of test section parameters via isentropic relationships is not strictly correct. These influences are of particular importance for testing air data probes because the nature of the test is to evaluate the performance of a sensor directly measuring the parameters being affected. Momentum, heat, and mass transfer from the water phase to the air phase can result in total temperature and total pressure measurements in the test section that differ from those measured at an upstream station, where reference measurements are typically taken. This effect was first observed by Luers & Fiscus  in the context of wind tunnel tests for heavy rain conditions.