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Technical Paper

External Corrosion Resistance of CuproBraze® Radiators

2001-05-14
2001-01-1718
New technology for the manufacturing of copper/brass heat exchangers has been developed and the first automotive radiators are already in operation in vehicles. This new technology is called CuproBraze®. One of the essential questions raised is the external corrosion resistance with reference to the present soldered copper/brass radiators and to the brazed aluminium radiators. Based on the results from electrochemical measurements and from four different types of accelerated corrosion tests, the external corrosion resistance of the CuproBraze® radiators is clearly better than that of the soldered copper/brass radiators and competitive with the brazed aluminum radiators, especially as regards marine atmosphere. Due to the relatively high strength of the CuproBraze® heat exchangers, down gauging of fins and tubes in some applications is attractive. High performance coatings can ensure long lifetime from corrosion point of view, even for thin gauge heat exchangers.
Technical Paper

LES and RNG Turbulence Modeling in DI Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-1069
The one-equation subgrid scale model for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model has been compared to the popular k-ε RNG turbulence model in very different sized direct injection diesel engines. The cylinder diameters of these engines range between 111 and 200 mm. This has been an initial attempt to study the effect of LES in diesel engines without any modification to the combustion model being used in its Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) form. Despite some deficiencies in the current LES model being used, it already gave much more structured flow field with approximately the same kind of accuracy in the cylinder pressure predictions than the k-ε RNG turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Coupled Eulerian Internal Nozzle Flow and Lagrangian Spray Simulations for GDI Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-0834
An extensive numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector is presented. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counter-bored injector, from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with the mixture multiphase approach in the Eulerian framework has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside the nozzle holes. Our previous studies have demonstrated that this approach is capable of capturing the effect of injection transients and thermodynamic conditions in the combustion chamber, by predicting phenomenon such as flash boiling. However, these simulations were expensive, especially if there is significant interest in predicting the spray behavior as well.
Technical Paper

Urea Deposit Predictions on a Practical Mid/Heavy Duty Vehicle After-Treatment System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0960
Urea/SCR systems have been proven effective at reducing NOx over a wide range of operating conditions on mid/heavy duty diesel vehicles. However, design changes due to reduction in the size of modern compact Urea/SCR systems and lower exhaust temperature have increased the possibility of urea deposit formation. Urea deposits are formed when urea in films and droplets undergoes undesirable secondary reactions and generate by-products such as ammelide, biuret and cyanuric Acid (CYA). Ammelide and CYA are difficult to decompose which lead to the formation of solid deposits on the surface. This phenomenon degrades the performance of the after treatment system by decreasing overall mixing efficiency, lowering de-NOx efficiency and increasing pressure drop. Therefore, mitigating urea deposits is a primary design goal of modern diesel after-treatment systems.
Technical Paper

Conjugate Heat Transfer in CI Engine CFD Simulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0973
The development of new high power diesel engines is continually going for increased mean effective pressures and consequently increased thermal loads on combustion chamber walls close to the limits of endurance. Therefore accurate CFD simulation of conjugate heat transfer on the walls becomes a very important part of the development. In this study the heat transfer and temperature on piston surface was studied using conjugate heat transfer model along with a variety of near wall treatments for turbulence. New wall functions that account for variable density were implemented and tested against standard wall functions and against the hybrid near wall treatment readily available in a CFD software Star-CD.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Grid Convergence for Spray Simulations using an LES Turbulence Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-1083
A state-of-the-art spray modeling methodology, recently applied to RANS simulations, is presented for LES calculations. Key features of the methodology, such as Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, are described. The ability of this approach to use cell sizes much smaller than the nozzle diameter is demonstrated. Grid convergence of key parameters is verified for non-evaporating and evaporating spray cases using cell sizes down to 1/32 mm. It is shown that for global quantities such as spray penetration, comparing a single LES simulation to experimental data is reasonable, however for local quantities the average of many simulated injections is necessary. Grid settings are recommended that optimize the accuracy/runtime tradeoff for LES-based spray simulations.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation on Scalability and Grid Convergence of Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1095
Traditional Lagrangian spray modeling approaches for internal combustion engines are highly grid-dependent due to insufficient resolution in the near nozzle region. This is primarily because of inherent restrictions of volume fraction with the Lagrangian assumption together with high computational costs associated with small grid sizes. A state-of-the-art grid-convergent spray modeling approach was recently developed and implemented by Senecal et al., (ASME-ICEF2012-92043) in the CONVERGE software. The key features of the methodology include Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, which enables use of cell sizes smaller than the nozzle diameter. This modeling approach was rigorously validated against non-evaporating, evaporating, and reacting data from the literature.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Combustion Modeling of Direct and Port-Fuel Injected Engines using a Reduced Chemical Mechanism

2013-04-08
2013-01-1098
A set of reduced chemical mechanisms was developed for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations of premixed gasoline combustion. The detailed Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) mechanism (1034 species, 4236 reactions) from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was employed as the starting mechanism. The detailed mechanism, referred to here as LLNL-PRF, was reduced using a technique known as Parallel Direct Relation Graph with Error Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis. This technique allows for efficient mechanism reduction by parallelizing the ignition delay calculations used in the reduction process. The reduction was performed for a temperature range of 800 to 1500 K and equivalence ratios of 0.5 to 1.5. The pressure range of interest was 0.75 bar to 40 bar, as dictated by the wide range in spark timing cylinder pressures for the various cases. In order to keep the mechanisms relatively small, two reductions were performed.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Chemical Mechanism Reduction for Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1110
This paper presents on-the-fly chemical mechanism reduction (termed as dynamic mechanism reduction) for speeding up the chemistry solution for practical internal combustion engine simulations. Small mechanisms are built at each time step which are valid under the local conditions of each cell. The Directed Relation Graph with Error Propagation (DRGEP) algorithm is used for generating local skeletal mechanisms. Dynamic mechanism reduction is combined with adaptive zoning (termed as multi-zone) to achieve good computational speed-up for engine simulations. The accuracy and efficiency of dynamic mechanism reduction is evaluated for a wide range of scenarios including (a) Diesel combustion, (b) Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion, and (c) Dual fuel combustion.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements of a Diesel Spray

2008-04-14
2008-01-0942
The current study was focused on flow field measurements of diesel sprays. The global fuel spray characteristics, such as spray penetration, have also been measured. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was utilized for flow field measurements and the global spray characteristics were recorded with high-speed back light photographing. The flow field was scanned to get an idea of the compatibility of PIV technique applied to dense and high velocity sprays. It is well proven that the PIV technique can be utilized at areas of low number density of droplets, but the center of the spray is way beyond the ideal PIV measurement conditions. The depth at which accurate flow field information can be gathered was paid attention to.
Technical Paper

Diesel Spray Penetration and Velocity Measurements

2008-10-06
2008-01-2478
This study is presenting a comparative spray study of modern large bore medium speed diesel engine common rail injectors. One subject of paper is to focus on nozzles with same nominal flow rate, but different machining. The other subject is penetration velocity measurements, which have a new approach when trying to understand the early phase of transient spray. A new method to use velocimetry for spray tip penetration measurements is here introduced. The length where spray penetration velocity is changed is found. This length seems to have clear connection to volume fraction of droplets at gas. These measurements also give a tool to divide the development of spray into acceleration region and deceleration region, which is one approach to spray penetration. The measurements were performed with backlight imaging in pressurized injection test rig at non-evaporative conditions. Gas density and injection pressure were matched to normal diesel engine operational conditions.
Technical Paper

Optical In-Cylinder Measurements of a Large-Bore Medium-Speed Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2477
The objective of this study was to build up an optical access into a large bore medium-speed research engine and carry out the first fuel spray Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the running large bore medium-speed engine in high pressure environment. The aim was also to measure spray penetration with same optical access and apparatus. The measurements were performed in a single-cylinder large bore medium-speed research engine, the Extreme Value Engine (EVE) with optical access into the combustion chamber. The authors are not aware of any other studies on optical spray measurements in large bore medium-speed diesel engines. Successful optical measurements of the fuel spray penetration and the velocity fields were carried out. This confirms that the exceptional component design and laser sheet alignment used in this study proved to be valid for optical fuel spray measurements in large-bore medium-speed diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil and Miller Timing in a Medium-Speed CI Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0862
The objective of this paper is to analyse the performance and the combustion of a large-bore single-cylinder medium speed engine running with hydrotreated vegetable oil. This fuel has a paraffinic chemical structure and high Cetane number. These features enable achievement of complete and clean combustion with different engine setups. The main benefits are thus lower soot and nitrogen oxides emissions compared to diesel fuel. The facility used in this study is a research engine, where the conditions upstream the machine, the valve timing and the injection parameters are fully adjustable. In fact, the boundary conditions upstream and downstream the engine are freely controlled by a separated supply air plant and by a throttle valve, located at the end of the exhaust pipe. The injection system is common-rail: rail pressure, injection timing and duration are completely adjustable.
Technical Paper

Acceleration of Detailed Chemical Kinetics Using Multi-zone Modeling for CFD in Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2012-04-16
2012-01-0135
Detailed chemical kinetics, although preferred due to increased accuracy, can significantly slow down CFD combustion simulations. Chemistry solutions are typically the most computationally costly step in engine simulations. The calculation time can be significantly accelerated using a multi-zone combustion model. The multi-zone model is integrated into the CONVERGE CFD code. At each time-step, the CFD cells are grouped into zones based on the cell temperature and equivalence ratio. The chemistry solver is invoked only on each zone. The zonal temperature and mass fractions are remapped onto the CFD cells, such that the temperature and composition non-uniformities are preserved. Two remapping techniques published in the literature are compared for their relative performance. The accuracy and speed-up of the multi-zone model is improved by using variable bin sizes at different temperature and equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Modeling Turbulent Combustion Using a RANS Model, Detailed Chemistry, and Adaptive Mesh Refinement

2014-04-01
2014-01-1116
Combustion is governed by only two phenomena: chemical reactions and mixing (i.e., transport of energy, species, and momentum). A Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model is commonly employed to account for the enhanced mixing due to the presence of turbulence in fluid flow. A RANS turbulence model enhances mixing by introducing a turbulent viscosity. The addition of a turbulent viscosity not only enhances mixing but it also eliminates smaller scales in the CFD simulation. Even though the turbulent viscosity eliminates smaller scales, it is common for RANS engine combustion simulations to be under-resolved. The lack of sufficient mesh resolution to resolve the remaining scales in a RANS combustion simulation may result in a significant sub-grid term that needs to be modeled. In the context of combustion simulation, it is shown that frequently this sub-grid term is significantly more important than Turbulent Chemistry Interaction terms (TCI).
Technical Paper

An Innovative Approach Combining Adaptive Mesh Refinement, the ECFM3Z Turbulent Combustion Model, and the TKI Tabulated Auto-Ignition Model for Diesel Engine CFD Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0604
The 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z) and the Tabulated Kinetics for Ignition (TKI) auto-ignition model are widely used for RANS simulations of reactive flows in Diesel engines. ECFM3Z accounts for the turbulent mixing between one zone that contains compressed air and EGR and another zone that contains evaporated fuel. These zones mix to form a reactive zone where combustion occurs. In this mixing zone TKI is applied to predict the auto-ignition event, including the ignition delay time and the heat release rate. Because it is tabulated, TKI can model complex fuels over a wide range of engine thermodynamic conditions. However, the ECFM3Z/TKI combustion modeling approach requires an efficient predictive spray injection calculation. In a Diesel direct injection engine, the turbulent mixing and spray atomization are mainly driven by the liquid/gas coupling phenomenon that occurs at moving liquid/gas interfaces.
Technical Paper

Application of High Performance Computing for Simulating Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Combustion Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0798
Interest in operational cost reduction is driving engine manufacturers to consider low-cost fuel substitution in heavy-duty diesel engines. These dual-fuel (DF) engines could be operated either in diesel-only mode or operated with premixed natural gas (NG) ignited by a pilot flame of compression-ignited direct-injected diesel fuel. Under certain conditions, dual-fuel operation can result in increased cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) during combustion. CFD can greatly help in understanding and identifying critical parameters influencing CCV. Innovative modelling techniques and large computing resources are needed to investigate the factors affecting CCV in dual-fuel engines. This paper discusses the use of the High Performance Computing resource Titan, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to investigate CCV of a dual-fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Cycle to Cycle Variation Study in a Dual Fuel Operated Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0772
The standard capability of engine experimental studies is that ensemble averaged quantities like in-cylinder pressure from multiple cycles and emissions are reported and the cycle to cycle variation (CCV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is captured from many consecutive combustion cycles for each test condition. However, obtaining 3D spatial distribution of all the relevant quantities such as fuel-air mixing, temperature, turbulence levels and emissions from such experiments is a challenging task. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of engine flow and combustion can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. A dual fuel engine is considered in the current study, with manifold injected natural gas (NG) and direct injected diesel pilot for ignition.
Technical Paper

Coupled Fluid-Solid Simulation for the Prediction of Gas-Exposed Surface Temperature Distribution in a SI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0669
The current trend of downsizing used in gasoline engines, while reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, imposes severe thermal loads inside the combustion chamber. These critical thermodynamic conditions lead to the possible auto-ignition (AI) of fresh gases hot-spots around Top-Dead-Center (TDC). At this very moment where the surface to volume ratio is high, wall heat transfer influences the temperature field inside the combustion chamber. The use of a realistic wall temperature distribution becomes important in the case of a downsized engine where fresh gases hot spots found near high temperature walls can initiate auto-ignition. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical methodology for an accurately prediction of thermodynamic conditions inside the combustion chamber based on Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT).
Technical Paper

Advanced Methodology to Investigate Knock for Downsized Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Using 3D RANS Simulations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0579
Nowadays Spark Ignition (SI) engine developments focus on downsizing, in order to increase the engine load level and consequently its efficiency. As a side effect, knock occurrence is strongly increased. The current strategy to avoid knock is to reduce the spark advance which limits the potential of downsizing in terms of consumption reduction. Reducing the engine propensity to knock is therefore a first order subject for car manufacturers. Engineers need competitive tools to tackle such a complex phenomenon. In this paper the 3D RANS simulations ability to satisfactorily represent knock tendencies is demonstrated. ECFM (Extended Coherent Flame Model) has been recently implemented by IFPEN in CONVERGE and coupled with TKI (Tabulated Kinetics Ignition) to represent Auto-Ignition in SI engine. These models have been applied on a single cylinder engine configuration dedicated to abnormal combustion study.
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