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Journal Article

Review of Diesel Emissions and Control

This review summarizes the latest developments in diesel emissions regarding regulations, engines, NOx (nitrogen oxides) control, particulate matter (PM) reductions, and hydrocarbon (HC) and CO oxidation. Regulations are advancing with proposals for PN (particle number) regulations that require diesel particulate filters (DPFs) for Euro VI in 2013-14, and SULEV (super ultra low emission vehicle) fleet average light-duty (LD) emissions likely to be proposed in California for ~2017. CO₂ regulations will also impact diesel engines and emissions, probably long into the future. Engine technology is addressing these needs. Heavy-duty (HD) research engines show 90% lower NOx at the same PM or fuel consumption levels as a reference 2007 production engine. Work is starting on HD gasoline engines with promising results. In light duty (LD), engine downsizing is progressing and deNOx is emerging as a fuel savings strategy.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ash on Gasoline Particulate Filter Using an Accelerated Ash Loading Method

Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is considered a suitable solution to meet the increasingly stringent particle number (PN) regulations for both gasoline direct injection (GDI) and multi-port fuel injection (MPI) engines. Generally, GDI engines emit more particulate matter (PM) and PN. In recent years, GDI engines have gained significant market penetration in the automobile industry owing to better fuel economy and drivability. In this study, an accelerated ash loading method was tested by doping lubricating oil into the fuel for a GDI engine. Emission tests were performed at different ash loads with different driving cycles and GPF combinations. The results showed that the GPF could significantly reduce particle emissions to meet the China 6 regulation. With further ash loading, the filtration efficiency increased above 99% and the effects on fuel consumption and backpressure were found to be limited, even with an ash loading of up to 50 g/l.
Technical Paper

Particulate Filter Soot Load Measurements using Radio Frequency Sensors and Potential for Improved Filter Management

Efficient aftertreatment management requires accurate sensing of both particulate filter soot and ash levels for optimized feedback control. Currently a combination of pressure drop measurements and predictive models are used to indirectly estimate the loading state of the filter. Accurate determination of filter soot loading levels is challenging under certain operating conditions, particularly following partial regeneration events and at low flow rate (idle) conditions. This work applied radio frequency (RF)-based sensors to provide a direct measure of the particulate filter soot levels in situ. Direct measurements of the filter loading state enable advanced feedback controls to optimize the combined engine and aftertreatment system for improved DPF management. This study instrumented several cordierite and aluminum titanate diesel particulate filters with RF sensors. The systems were tested on a range of light- and heavy-duty applications, which included on- and off-road engines.
Technical Paper

The Design of Automotive Catalyst Supports for Improved Pressure Drop and Conversion Efficiency

The current automotive catalytic converter is highly dependable and provides excellent emissions reduction while at the same time it offers little resistance to the flow of gasses through the exhaust system. As automobile performance requirements increase, and as the allowable tailpipe emissions are tightened, there is a need on the one hand to reduce the back pressure even further, and on the other, to increase the already excellent catalytic performance. This paper will analyze the substrate factors which influence the pressure drop and conversion efficiency of the catalyst system. The converter frontal area has the most significant influence on both pressure drop and conversion efficiency, followed in order by part length, cell density, and wall thickness.
Technical Paper

Technique for the Analysis of FTP Emissions

Previous papers have considered the role of the substrate in the catalyst system. It has been shown that the total catalyzed surface area of the substrate (defined as the substrate geometric surface area multiplied by the substrate volume) can act as a surrogate for the catalyst performance. The substrate affects the back pressure of the exhaust system and therefore, the available power. Relationships have been developed between the substrate physical characteristics, and both the pressure drop and total surface area of the substrate. The substrate pressure drop has also been related to power loss. What has been lacking is a means of quantitatively relating the substrate properties to the conversion efficiency. This paper proposes a simple relationship between the substrate total surface area and the emissions of the vehicle as measured on the FTP cycle.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converter Mat Material Durability Measurement Under Controlled Thermal and Vibration Environments

To aid in the catalytic converter design and development process, a test apparatus was designed and built which will allow comparative evaluation of the durability of candidate mat materials under highly controlled thermal and vibration environments. The apparatus directly controls relative shear deflection between the substrate and can to impose known levels of mat material strain while recording the transmitted shear force across the mat material. Substrate and can temperatures are controlled at constant levels using a resistive thermal exposure (RTE) technique. Mat material fatigue after several million cycles is evident by a substantial decrease in the transmitted force. A fragility test was found to be an excellent method to quickly compare candidate materials to be used for a specific application. Examples of test results from several materials are given to show the utility of the mat material evaluation technique.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control - Last 12 Months in Review

The key diesel emission control papers of the last 12 months have been summarized. In addition, the emerging US and European light-duty and heavy-duty tailpipe regulations are compared. Results are reported on light-duty diesel filtration regeneration systems and experiences, including effects of ash build-up and some recent modeling work. On the heavy-duty side, optimization of SCR catalysts and systems are described, as well as experiences with the first integrated SCR/filter systems, which are already achieving “Euro V” 2008 standards. An update on NOx adsorbers is also provided. The results with new NOx formulations are described, as well as the system performance in a light-duty diesel application.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration: Thermal Management Through Filter Design

Honeycomb based diesel particulate filters have proven to be extremely effective in the removal of diesel soot. Under certain conditions, involving heavy soot loads and a shift of the engine into the idle mode during the early stages of the regeneration process, the current designs of cordierite filters have shown some tendency toward partial melting. A brief review of the SAE literature is presented, indicating that the temperatures reached during regeneration decrease substantially as the bulk heat capacity of the filter increases. Analysis of these literature data indicates that the top temperatures experienced during regeneration can be decreased by hundreds of degrees, by relatively modest increases in the bulk heat capacity of the bodies. New data are presented confirming how the top temperature varies with different filter designs in which the bulk heat capacity varies.
Technical Paper

Ultra Thinwall Light-off Performance - Varying Substrates, Catalysts, and Flow Rates; Models and Engine Testing

To establish performance trends in ultra thin wall substrates and help support their selection criteria for designing catalytic converter systems, the light-off behavior of five Ultra Thin Wall ceramic substrates and two catalysts on an engine dynamometer are hereby examined. Modeling predictions are also compared to the engine results and the trends and implications are discussed. To quantify the performance of these different systems, light-off tests were performed on an engine dynamometer using a simulated FTP cycle. Five systems were evaluated (600/4, 600/3, 600/2, 900/2 and 1200/2) each with two different catalyst formulations. Engine bench aging was used to simulate typical aged conditions in the converter systems. Second by second emissions data for temperature, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, were used to evaluate the relative performances of the substrates.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cell Geometry on Emissions Performance of Ceramic Catalytic Converters

More stringent emissions regulations, space limitations for catalytic converters in modern automotive applications, and new engine technologies constitute design challenges for today's engineers. In that context high cell density thinwall and ultrathinwall ceramic substrates have been designed into advanced catalytic converters. Whereas the majority of these substrates have a square cell geometry, a potential for further emissions improvement has been predicted for hexagonal cell structures. In order to verify these predictions, a ceramic substrate has been developed combining the features of high cell density, ultrathin cell walls, and hexagonal cell structure. Based on modeling data, the actual cell density and wall thickness of the hexagonal cell substrate will be defined. The performance of that substrate will be assessed by comparing experimental emissions results using two modern Volkswagen engines.
Technical Paper

Performance and Durability Evaluation of Continuously Regenerating Particulate Filters on Diesel Powered Urban Buses at NY City Transit - Part II

In urban areas, particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the pollutants of most concern. As a result, particulate emission control from urban bus diesel engines using particle filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in the US. A project entitled, “Clean Diesel Vehicle Air Quality Project” has been initiated by NY City Transit under the supervision of NYSDEC and with active participation from several industry partners. Under this program, 25 NY City transit buses with DDC Series 50 engines have been equipped with continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter systems and have been operating with ultra low sulfur diesel (< 30 ppm S) in transit service in Manhattan since February 2000. These buses were evaluated over a 9 month period for operations, maintainability and durability of the particulate filter.

Diesel Particulate Filter Technology

Until recently, the complexity of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system has hindered its commercial success. Stringent regulations of diesel emissions has lead to advancements in this technology, therefore mainstreaming the use of DPFs in light- and heavy-duty diesel filtration applications. This book covers the latest and most important research in DPF systems, focusing mainly on the advancements of the years 2002-2006. Editor Timothy V. Johnson selected the top 29 SAE papers covering the most significant research in this technology.
Technical Paper

Real World Study of Diesel Particulate Filter Ash Accumulation in Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

In April 2003, a small field study was initiated to evaluate the effect of lube oil formulations on ash accumulation in heavy-duty diesel DPFs. Nine (9) Fuel Delivery Trucks were retrofitted with passive diesel particulate filters and fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel which contains less than 15 ppm sulfur. Each vehicle operated in the field for 18 months or approximately 160,000 miles (241,401 km) using one of three lube oil formulations. Ash accumulation was determined for each vehicle and compared between the three differing lube oil formulations. Ash analyses, used lube oil analysis and filter substrate evaluations were performed to provide a complete picture of DPF operations. The evaluation also examined some of the key parameters that allows for the successful implementation of the passive DPF in this heavy-duty application.
Technical Paper

Development of a Diesel Particulate Filter Composition and Its Effect on Thermal Durability and Filtration Performance

This paper details the development of the EX-80 composition, a new cordierite material for use as a diesel particulate filter (DPF), that was developed based on the following objectives; (1) improved thermal durability, (2) high filtration efficiency and (3) low pressure drop. The achievement of these goals was demonstrated through engine testing, stress modeling, and other evaluations. EX-80 has a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) averaging less than 4x10-7°C-1 (25°C-800°C), the Modulus of Rupture (MOR) averages greater than 350 psi and the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) averages less than 0.8 x 106 psi. The improvement of these three properties has resulted in improved thermal durability for EX-80 as compared to the current Corning DPF compositions (EX-47, EX-54 and EX-66). The new cordierite composition has been designed to achieve a low pressure drop as a function of soot loading (0.30 inHg/gm of soot collected), coupled with high efficiency, averaging greater than 90%.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Durability of Cordierite–Based NOx Adsorber/Catalyst Systems for Lean Burn Gasoline Applications

One approach to the remediation of NOx generated under lean automotive engine conditions is its controlled storage and then periodic release and reaction under enriched conditions. This process is being considered for automotive exhaust systems that will be operated pre–dominantly lean for reasons of fuel economy. Because of the special characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth elements in the presence of NOx, they are being considered for use, in conjunction with γ–alumina–based washcoats and precious metal catalysts, as NOx catalyst coatings on cellular supports. It is known that alumino–silicates will react with alkali and alkaline earth elements to form stable ceramic phases when mixtures of the components are held in direct contact at elevated temperatures.
Technical Paper

Performance and Durability Evaluation of Continuously Regenerating Particulate Filters on Diesel Powered Urban Buses at NY City Transit

Particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the most important pollutants in urban areas. As a result, particulate emission control from urban bus diesel engines using particle filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in the US. A project entitled “Clean Diesel Demonstration Program” has been initiated by NY City Transit under the supervision of NY State DEC and with active participation from several industrial partners. Under this program, several NY City transit buses with DDC Series 50 engines have been equipped with continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter system and are operating with ultra low sulfur diesel (< 30 ppm S) in transit service in Manhattan since February 2000. These buses are being evaluated over a 8-9 month period for operations, maintainability and durability of the particulate filter.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art in diesel emission control. The nature of diesel particulates is summarized. The variety of diesel particulate filter regeneration strategies that will become so important to filter application are reviewed. Filter retrofit and durability issues are addressed. DeNOx catalysts, SCR, NOx traps for diesel, and non-thermal plasma methods are summarized. Integrated NOx/PM systems are described. And reduction of exhaust toxics is discussed. The paper covers all major conferences in the year 2000 that occurred in the US and Europe. US and Europe.
Technical Paper

Effects of Microstructure and Cell Geometry on Performance of Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters

Cordierite has been the cost-effective material of choice for diesel particulate filters (DPFs) for heavy duty vehicles due to its combination of excellent thermal shock resistance, filtration efficiency, and durability under most operating conditions. However, it has been observed that under some conditions of uncontrolled regeneration at moderately high soot loading, localized regions of melting in cordierite DPF bodies can occur. A new cordierite monolithic diesel particulate filter has been developed for medium and heavy duty trucks for OEM and retrofit applications. Through modification in pore microstructure and filter cell geometry, this new DPF provides improved survivability during uncontrolled regenerations, reduced pressure drop, and improved thermal shock resistance and strength.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Model and Development of a Simulator for Predicting the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

As demand for wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular their pressure drop, under a wide range of operating conditions bears significant engineering applications. In this work, validation of a model and development of a simulator for predicting the pressure drop of clean and particulate-loaded DPFs are presented. The model, based on a previously developed theory, has been validated extensively in this work. The validation range includes utilizing a large matrix of wall-flow filters varying in their size, cell density and wall thickness, each positioned downstream of light or heavy duty Diesel engines; it also covers a wide range of engine operating conditions such as engine load, flow rate, flow temperature and filter soot loading conditions. The validated model was then incorporated into a DPF pressure drop simulator.
Technical Paper

Inertial Contributions to the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

Wall-flow Diesel particulate filters operating at low filtration velocities usually exhibit a linear dependence between the filter pressure drop and the flow rate, conveniently described by a generalized Darcy's law. It is advantageous to minimize filter pressure drop by sizing filters to operate within this linear range. However in practice, since there often exist serious constraints on the available vehicle underfloor space, a vehicle manufacturer is forced to choose an “undersized” filter resulting in high filtration velocities through the filter walls. Since secondary inertial contributions to the pressure drop become significant, Darcy's law can no longer accurately describe the filter pressure drop. In this paper, a systematic investigation of these secondary inertial flow effects is presented.