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Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Different Heavy Duty Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Configurations

2004-03-08
2004-01-1419
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in conjunction with large frontal area substrates is a key element in HDV Diesel emission control systems. This paper describes and reviews tests on a set of various Diesel Oxidation Catalyst configurations (for example cell densities), all with the same catalyst coating. The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst specimens were subjected to the European Stationary Cycle (ESC), the European Transient Cycle (ETC), and the US heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (US FTP). The focus was to study relative emissions, pressure drop, and light-off performance. All tests were conducted using the same Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine operating on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. In addition to this, the exhaust was regulated so that the backpressure on the engine, upstream of the catalyst was also the same for all catalysts.
Technical Paper

A Study into the Impact of Engine Oil on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance through a Real-World Fleet Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-0299
Increasingly stringent vehicle emissions legislation is being introduced throughout the world, regulating the allowed levels of particulate matter emitted from vehicle tailpipes. The regulation may prove challenging for gasoline vehicles equipped with modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology, owing to their increased levels of particulate matter production. It is expected that gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) will soon be fitted to most vehicles sold in China and Europe, allowing for carbonaceous particulate matter to be effectively captured. However, GPFs will also capture and accumulate non-combustible inorganic ash within them, mainly derived from engine oil. Studies exist to demonstrate the impact of such ash on GPF and vehicle performance, but these commonly make use of accelerated ash loading methods, which themselves introduce significant variation.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Cordierite Thin Wall DPF for Improved Pressure Drop and Lifetime Pressure Drop Solution

2016-04-05
2016-01-0940
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions for non-road engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO2 implications for the DPF operation.
Technical Paper

On-Vehicle Fuel Cut Testing for Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0968
With the introduction of a stringent particulate number (PN) limit and real driving emission (RDE) requirements, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are widely adopted for gasoline engines in Europe and China. The filter collects soot and ash. Like in diesel applications, the collected soot will continuously burn under favorable exhaust conditions. However, at extreme conditions, there could be large amounts of soot build-up, which may induce a highly exothermal event, potentially damaging the filter. Thus, it is important to understand what drives the over-heating in application, and develop counter measures. In this study, an on-vehicle fuel cut (FC) testing procedure was developed. The testing was conducted on two vehicles, one gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle and one multiple port injection (MPI) vehicle, with different exhaust systems designs (a close coupled GPF and an under floor GPF) and catalyst coating levels (bare and heavily coated GPFs).
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filter Operational Characterization

2004-03-08
2004-01-0958
Wall-flow filter technology has been used for many years to remove particulate emissions from a select number of diesel engine exhaust systems. Significant implementation of diesel particulate filters will require the definition of regeneration strategies that permit the filters to be regularly and durably purged of accumulated non-volatile particulates. This paper will examine the laboratory-bench characterization of filter responses to the wide variety of input conditions to which they may be exposed in practice. The lab-bench filter characterization will be done as a function of generic independent variables such as flow rate, inlet temperature, oxygen content and soot loading. The testing will be conducted on uncatalyzed filters for this preliminary study. The characterization approach will examine such dependent variables as completeness of regeneration and maximum exotherm temperatures.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control Technology 2003 in Review

2004-03-08
2004-01-0070
This paper will review the field of diesel emission control with the intent of highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art. First, the author reviews general technology approaches for heavy and light duty applications. Given the emerging significance of ultrafines to health, and to emission control technologies, an overview of the significant developments in ultrafine particulate science is provided, followed by an assessment of filter technology. Regarding NOx control, SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and LNT (lean NOx traps) progress is described. Finally, system integration examples are provided. In general, progress is impressive and studies demonstrate that high-efficiency systems are within reach in all highway vehicle sectors. Engines are making impressive gains, and will increase the options for emission control.
Technical Paper

Diesel SCR NOx Reduction and Performance on Washcoated SCR Catalysts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1293
This paper describes a study of ternary V2O5/WO3/TiO2 SCR catalysts coated on standard Celcor® and new highly porous cordierite substrates. At temperatures below 275°C, where NOx conversion is kinetically limited, high catalyst loadings are required to achieve high conversion efficiencies. In principle there are two ways to achieve high catalyst loadings: 1. On standard Celcor® substrates the washcoat thickness can be increased. 2. With new highly porous substrates a high amount of washcoat can be deposited in the walls. Various catalyst loadings varying from 120g/l to 540 g/l were washcoated on both standard Celcor® and new high porosity cordierite substrates with standard coating techniques. Simulated laboratory testing of these samples showed that high catalyst loadings improved both low temperature conversion efficiency and high temperature ammonia storage capacity and consequently increased the overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Driving Down On-Highway Particulate Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-0916
It has been reported that particulate emissions from diesel vehicles could be associated with damaging human health, global warming and a reduction in air quality. These particles cover a very large size range, typically 3 to 10 000 nm. Filters in the vehicle exhaust systems can substantially reduce particulate emissions but until very recently it was not possible to directly characterise actual on-road emissions from a vehicle. This paper presents the first study of the effect of filter systems on the particulate emissions of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle during real-world driving. The presence of sulfur in the fuel and in the engine lubricant can lead to significant emissions of sulfate particles < 30 nm in size (nanoparticles).
Technical Paper

Predicting Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filters - Theory and Experiment

2000-03-06
2000-01-0184
Information on transport mechanisms in a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) provides crucial insight into the filter performance. Extensive experimental work has been pursued to modify, customize and validate a model yielding accurate predictions of a ceramic wall-flow DPF pressure drop. The model accounts, not only for the major pressure drop components due to flow through porous walls but also, for viscous losses due to channel plugs, flow contraction and expansion due to flow entering and exiting the trap and also for flow secondary inertial effects near the porous walls. Experimental data were collected on a matrix of filters covering change in filter diameter and length, cell density and wall thickness and for a wide range of flow rates. The model yields accurate predictions of DPF pressure drop with no particulate loading and, with adequate adjustment, it is also capable of making predictions of pressure drop for filters lightly-loaded with particulates.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Catalytic Converter Durability

2000-03-06
2000-01-0220
In this study quantitative techniques were established to assess the low temperature durability of commercially available mat systems. A new low temperature dynamic resistive thermal exposure (LT-RTE) test method was developed. The mats were evaluated in thermal cycling with maximum substrate skin temperatures from 280°C to 450°C. Results indicate that at low use temperatures the residual shear strength of the mat fell to ∼5-15KPa following 280°C cycling. Under the same LT-RTE exposure conditions an equivalent mat system, following thermal preconditioning to 500°C for 3 hours, possessed a residual shear strength of ∼30KPa. An alternative mat system with a lower shot content fiber was also evaluated, following the same thermal preconditioning previously described. This alternative mat was found to exhibit substantially higher residual shear strengths following LT-RTE aging. A residual shear strength of ∼95KPa was observed for this alternative mat following 280°C LT-RTE aging.
Technical Paper

In-Situ NH3 Generation for SCR NOx Applications

2002-10-21
2002-01-2872
There is currently a need for a practical solution for NOx abatement in automotive diesel engines. Technologies developed thus far suffer from inherent technical limitations. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx under lean conditions has been proven to be successful for stationary applications. A new approach is described to efficiently remove NOx from the exhaust of a diesel engine powered vehicle and convert it to nitrogen and oxygen. The key to the approach is the development of an on board (in-situ) ammonia generating catalyst. The ammonia is then used as a reagent to react with exhaust NO over a secondary SCR catalyst downstream. The system can remove over 85% of the exhaust NO under achievable diesel engine operating conditions, while eliminating the potential for ammonia slip with a minimal system of sensors and feedback controls.
Technical Paper

Silicon Carbide for Diesel Particulate Filter Applications:Material Development and Thermal Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0324
Recently, SiC has been investigated and pursued as an alternative material for diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. SiC has acceptable physical properties such as good thermal conductivity, refractoriness, and chemical durability. Materials for DPF applications require a particular mean pore size, porosity, and permeability. In addition, these material attributes must be coupled to an appropriate thermal design so that the filter can survive the extreme temperature gradients generated during the regeneration process. In this report several approaches to making porous SiC will be discussed and performance data based on material properties and thermal design will be presented.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Titanate Compositions for Diesel Particulate Filters

2005-04-11
2005-01-0583
Compositions in the mixed strontium/calcium feldspar ([Sr/Ca]O·Al2O3·2SiO2) - aluminum titanate (Al2O3·TiO2) system have been investigated as alternative materials for the diesel particulate filter (DPF) application. A key attribute of these compositions is their low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Samples have been prepared with porosities of >50% having average pore sizes of between 12 and 16μm. The superior thermal shock resistance, increased resistance to ash attack, and high volumetric heat capacity of these materials, coupled with monolithic fabrication, provide certain advantages over currently available silicon carbide products. In addition, based on testing done so far aluminum titanate-based filters have demonstrated chemical durability and comparable pressure drop (both bare and catalyzed) to current, commercially available, silicon carbide products.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds Using Dibutyl Maleate and Tripropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Diesel Fuel Additives to Lower NOx Emissions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0475
A previous paper reported (SAE Paper 2002-01-2884) that it was possible to decrease mode-weighted NOx emissions compared to the OEM calibration with corresponding increases in particulate matter (PM) emissions. These PM emission increases were partially overcome with the use of oxygenated diesel fuel additives. We wanted to know if compounds of toxicological concern were emitted more or less using oxygenated diesel fuel additives that were used in conjunction with a modified engine operating strategy to lower engine-out NOx emissions. Emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from fuels containing triproplyene glycol monomethyl ether and dibutyl maleate were the same or lower compared to a low sulfur fuel (15 ppm sulfur) even under engine operating conditions designed to lower engine-out NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermal Mass and Aging on CO-NOx Crossover and Light Off Behavior

2005-04-11
2005-01-1106
The tightening of emissions regulations has required changes in many areas of vehicle systems, including calibration strategies, catalytic converter strategies and exhaust configurations. Engine calibration strategies can be engineered to complement the performance parameters of the converter. Knowledge of the precise window of converter performance for different substrates can therefore provide guidance in targeting engine calibration strategies as well as selecting compatible converter systems within calibration constraints. In a previous paper [5], we explored the effect of thermal mass on emissions performance in the context of the FTP. This paper expands on the previous work and explores the effect of the aging cycle and thermal mass differences on CO-NOx crossover and light-off profiles. This analysis provides a tool to assist in design by defining a window of performance in the converter to be used in matching to a window of operation in the calibration.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2007-04-16
2007-01-0233
This summary covers the developments from 2006 in diesel regulations, engine combustion, and NOx and PM remediation. Regulatory developments are now focused on Europe, where light-duty Euro 5 and 6 regulations have been proposed for 2009 and 2014, respectively. The regulations are lass stringent than those in the US, but options exist for adopting European vehicles for the US market. Europe is just beginning to look at heavy-duty regulations for 2012 and beyond. Engines are making very impressive progress, with clean combustion strategies in active development mainly for US light-duty application. Heavy-duty research engines are more focused on traditional approaches, and will provide numerous engine/aftertreatment options for hitting the tight US 2010 regulations. NOx control is focusing on SCR (selective catalytic reduction) for diverse applications. Focus is on cold operation, durability, secondary emissions, and system optimization.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluations of Aluminum Titanate Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-0656
Over the past decade, regulations for mobile source emissions have become more stringent thus, requiring advances in emissions systems to comply with the new standards. For the popular diesel powered passenger cars particularly in Europe, diesel particulate filters (DPFs) have been integrated to control particulate matter (PM) emissions. Corning Incorporated has developed a new proprietary aluminum titanate-based material for filter use in passenger car diesel applications. Aluminum titanate (hereafter referred to as AT) filters were launched commercially in the fall of 2005 and have been equipped on more than several hundred thousand European passenger vehicles. Due to their outstanding durability, filtration efficiency and pressure drop attributes, AT filters are an excellent fit for demanding applications in passenger cars. Extensive testing was conducted on engine to evaluate the survivability and long-term thermo-mechanical durability of AT filters.
Journal Article

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2008-04-14
2008-01-0069
This summary covers the developments from 2007 in diesel regulations, engine technology, and NOx and PM control. Regulatory developments are now focused on Europe, where heavy-duty regulations have been proposed for 2013. The regulations are similar in technology needs to US2010. Also, the European Commission proposed the first CO2 emission limits of 130 g/km, which are nearly at parity to the Japanese fuel economy standards. Engines are making very impressive progress, with clean combustion strategies in active development mainly for US light-duty application. Heavy-duty research engines are more focused on traditional approaches, and will provide numerous engine/aftertreatment options for hitting the tight US 2010 regulations. NOx control is centered on SCR (selective catalytic reduction) for diverse applications. Focus is on cold operation and system optimization. LNT (lean NOx traps) durability is quantified, and performance enhanced with a sulfur trap.
Journal Article

Regeneration Strategies for an Enhanced Thermal Management of Oxide Diesel Particulate Filters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0328
Diesel particulate filters are expected to be used on most passenger car applications designed to meet coming European emission standards, EU5 and EU6. Similar expectations hold for systems designed to meet US Tier 2 Bin 5 standards. Among the various products oxide filter materials, such as cordierite and aluminum titanate, are gaining growing interest due to their unique properties. Besides the intrinsic robustness of the filter products a well designed operating strategy is required for the successful use of filters. The operating strategy is comprised of two elements: the soot estimation and the regeneration strategy. In this paper the second element is discussed in detail by means of theoretical considerations as well as dedicated engine bench experiments. The impact the key operating variables, soot load, exhaust mass flow, oxygen content and temperature, have on the conditions inside the filter are discussed.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Transient Monolith Model for Selective Catalytic Reduction using Vanadia-based Catalyst

2008-01-09
2008-28-0022
In this paper, we report the modeling of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx using ammonia on a commercial vanadia-titania based catalyst. The model combines a steady-state two-dimensional channel model with a transient two- or three-dimensional monolith model of the whole catalytic monolith converter. The reaction mechanism includes the standard and fast SCR reactions and also the high-temperature oxidation of ammonia to model the decrease in conversion observed at higher temperatures. We used in-house experimental data spanning a wide range of inlet compositions and temperatures to validate the model. The model was found to be in excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental data.
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