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Technical Paper

Advanced Mounting System for Light Duty Diesel Filter

2007-04-16
2007-01-0471
This paper employs a systematic approach to packaging design and testing of a system and its components in order to determine the long term durability of light duty diesel filters. This effort has utilized a relatively new aluminum titanate filter technology as well as an advanced support mat technology engineered to provide superior holding force at lower temperatures while maintaining its high temperature performance. Together, these two new technologies form a system that addresses the unique operating conditions of diesel engines. Key physical properties of both the filter and the mat are demonstrated through laboratory testing. The system behavior is characterized by various laboratory techniques and validation procedures.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluations of Aluminum Titanate Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-0656
Over the past decade, regulations for mobile source emissions have become more stringent thus, requiring advances in emissions systems to comply with the new standards. For the popular diesel powered passenger cars particularly in Europe, diesel particulate filters (DPFs) have been integrated to control particulate matter (PM) emissions. Corning Incorporated has developed a new proprietary aluminum titanate-based material for filter use in passenger car diesel applications. Aluminum titanate (hereafter referred to as AT) filters were launched commercially in the fall of 2005 and have been equipped on more than several hundred thousand European passenger vehicles. Due to their outstanding durability, filtration efficiency and pressure drop attributes, AT filters are an excellent fit for demanding applications in passenger cars. Extensive testing was conducted on engine to evaluate the survivability and long-term thermo-mechanical durability of AT filters.
Technical Paper

Silicon Carbide for Diesel Particulate Filter Applications:Material Development and Thermal Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0324
Recently, SiC has been investigated and pursued as an alternative material for diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. SiC has acceptable physical properties such as good thermal conductivity, refractoriness, and chemical durability. Materials for DPF applications require a particular mean pore size, porosity, and permeability. In addition, these material attributes must be coupled to an appropriate thermal design so that the filter can survive the extreme temperature gradients generated during the regeneration process. In this report several approaches to making porous SiC will be discussed and performance data based on material properties and thermal design will be presented.
Technical Paper

In-Situ NH3 Generation for SCR NOx Applications

2002-10-21
2002-01-2872
There is currently a need for a practical solution for NOx abatement in automotive diesel engines. Technologies developed thus far suffer from inherent technical limitations. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx under lean conditions has been proven to be successful for stationary applications. A new approach is described to efficiently remove NOx from the exhaust of a diesel engine powered vehicle and convert it to nitrogen and oxygen. The key to the approach is the development of an on board (in-situ) ammonia generating catalyst. The ammonia is then used as a reagent to react with exhaust NO over a secondary SCR catalyst downstream. The system can remove over 85% of the exhaust NO under achievable diesel engine operating conditions, while eliminating the potential for ammonia slip with a minimal system of sensors and feedback controls.
Technical Paper

Review of Development, Properties and Packaging of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall Ceramic Substrates

2002-11-19
2002-01-3578
Driven by the worldwide automotive emission regulations, ceramic substrates were developed to serve as catalyst support. Since the introduction of Standard wall substrates in 1974, substrates with thinner walls and higher cell densities have been developed to meet the tighter emission requirements; Worldwide, the amount of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates in series applications is increasing continuously. The properties of the substrates determine their performance regarding pressure drop, heat-up and conversion efficiency. These properties are analyzed, as well as the packaging process for Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates; A new packaging technique with lower pressure load is described.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2006-04-03
2006-01-0030
The paper summarizes the key developments in diesel emission control, generally for 2005. Regulatory targets for the next 10 years and projected advancements in engine technology are used to estimate future emission control needs. Recent NOx control developments on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), lean NOx traps (LNT) and lean NOx catalysts (LNC) are then summarized. Likewise, the paper covers important recent developments on diesel particulate filters (DPFs), summarizing regeneration strategies, new filter and catalyst materials, ash management, and PM measurement. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts are also briefly summarized. Finally, the paper discusses examples of how it is all pulled together to meet the tightest future regulations.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Exhaust Thermal and Vibration Mapping

2004-03-08
2004-01-0590
The characterization of the thermal and vibration environment of the exhaust systems of three modern day diesel engines, with displacements ranging from 1.9 liter to 12.7 liter, was carried out to support the development of exhaust after treatment components. Tri-axial accelerometer and in pipe thermocouple measurements were recorded at several locations along the exhaust systems during vehicle acceleration and steady driving conditions up to 70 mph. The vehicles were loaded to various gross weight configurations to provide a wide range of engine load conditions. Narrow band and octave band vibration power spectral densities are presented and conclusions are drawn as to the spectral content of the exhaust vibration environment and its distribution along the exhaust system. Temperature time histories during vehicle acceleration runs are likewise presented to indicate expected peak exhaust temperatures.
Technical Paper

Ash Storage Concept for Diesel Particulate Filters

2004-03-08
2004-01-0948
Ash accumulation in heavy duty and light duty diesel filters has become a growing concern due to its negative impact on filter performance over time. Performance issues include increased backpressure and increased fuel penalty. An additional concern is frequency of filter ash cleaning which contributes to overall maintenance and operational costs. A new ash storage concept filter is discussed in this paper. This concept proposes an exchange between inlet and outlet cells, redistributing surface area and volume resulting in more ash storage and improved pressure drop over traditional filters. Overall filter performance (pressure drop, regeneration, ash/ceramic interactions) was evaluated in the laboratory and results are reported in this paper. This paper will discuss in detail the ash storage concept and its benefits in filter performance.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds Using Dibutyl Maleate and Tripropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Diesel Fuel Additives to Lower NOx Emissions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0475
A previous paper reported (SAE Paper 2002-01-2884) that it was possible to decrease mode-weighted NOx emissions compared to the OEM calibration with corresponding increases in particulate matter (PM) emissions. These PM emission increases were partially overcome with the use of oxygenated diesel fuel additives. We wanted to know if compounds of toxicological concern were emitted more or less using oxygenated diesel fuel additives that were used in conjunction with a modified engine operating strategy to lower engine-out NOx emissions. Emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from fuels containing triproplyene glycol monomethyl ether and dibutyl maleate were the same or lower compared to a low sulfur fuel (15 ppm sulfur) even under engine operating conditions designed to lower engine-out NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Titanate Compositions for Diesel Particulate Filters

2005-04-11
2005-01-0583
Compositions in the mixed strontium/calcium feldspar ([Sr/Ca]O·Al2O3·2SiO2) - aluminum titanate (Al2O3·TiO2) system have been investigated as alternative materials for the diesel particulate filter (DPF) application. A key attribute of these compositions is their low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Samples have been prepared with porosities of >50% having average pore sizes of between 12 and 16μm. The superior thermal shock resistance, increased resistance to ash attack, and high volumetric heat capacity of these materials, coupled with monolithic fabrication, provide certain advantages over currently available silicon carbide products. In addition, based on testing done so far aluminum titanate-based filters have demonstrated chemical durability and comparable pressure drop (both bare and catalyzed) to current, commercially available, silicon carbide products.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Transient Monolith Model for Selective Catalytic Reduction using Vanadia-based Catalyst

2008-01-09
2008-28-0022
In this paper, we report the modeling of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx using ammonia on a commercial vanadia-titania based catalyst. The model combines a steady-state two-dimensional channel model with a transient two- or three-dimensional monolith model of the whole catalytic monolith converter. The reaction mechanism includes the standard and fast SCR reactions and also the high-temperature oxidation of ammonia to model the decrease in conversion observed at higher temperatures. We used in-house experimental data spanning a wide range of inlet compositions and temperatures to validate the model. The model was found to be in excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Different Heavy Duty Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Configurations

2004-03-08
2004-01-1419
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in conjunction with large frontal area substrates is a key element in HDV Diesel emission control systems. This paper describes and reviews tests on a set of various Diesel Oxidation Catalyst configurations (for example cell densities), all with the same catalyst coating. The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst specimens were subjected to the European Stationary Cycle (ESC), the European Transient Cycle (ETC), and the US heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (US FTP). The focus was to study relative emissions, pressure drop, and light-off performance. All tests were conducted using the same Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine operating on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. In addition to this, the exhaust was regulated so that the backpressure on the engine, upstream of the catalyst was also the same for all catalysts.
Technical Paper

Thermal Shock Resistance of Advanced Ceramic Catalysts for Close-Coupled Application

2002-03-04
2002-01-0738
This paper examines the relative thermal shock requirements for ceramic catalysts in underbody vs. close-coupled positions. The higher operating temperature in the latter position may imply higher coefficient of thermal expansion and higher thermal stresses, depending on substrate/washcoat interaction, than those for underbody position. An analysis of thermal stresses, using relevant physical properties and temperature gradients, is presented for both close-coupled and underbody catalysts. Three different high temperature close-coupled catalysts, employing advanced ceramic substrates with 600/3, 600/4 and 900/2 cell structure, and an underbody catalyst with 400/6.5 standard ceramic substrate are examined. Such an analysis is valuable for designing the optimum aspect ratio (length/diameter) and packaging system, which will minimize thermal and mechanical stresses over the desired lifetime of 120K vehicle miles.
Technical Paper

Microstructural Properties of Soot Deposits in Diesel Particulate Traps

2002-03-04
2002-01-1015
As demand for wall-flow Diesel particulate filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular of the accumulated soot mass, under a wide range of operating conditions become important. This effort is currently hampered by a lack of a systematic knowledge of the accumulated particulate deposit microstructural properties. In this work, an experimental and theoretical study of the growth process of soot cakes in honeycomb ceramic filters is presented. Particular features of the present work are the application of first- principles measurement and simulation methodology for accurate determination of soot cake packing density and permeability, and their systematic dependence on the filter operating conditions represented by the Peclet number for mass transfer. The proposed measurement methodology has been also validated using various filters on different Diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filter Test Methods

2002-03-04
2002-01-1009
Characterization of diesel particulate filters requires test methods that permit rapid and accurate assessment of important performance requirements. The operation of the filter is comprised of two primary functions, particle filtering and filter soot regeneration. One challenge facing implementation of diesel filter technology lies with the difficult process of regenerating the filter after accumulating a full complement of soot. This paper will primarily focus on laboratory bench testing methods developed to study the regeneration characteristics of filters under a variety of test conditions. To rapidly assess the performance of many filters it was important to develop laboratory techniques that approximate engine exposure conditions. A simulated soot loading process and a well-controlled regeneration test method were developed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Stronger Ultra Thin Wall Corning Substrate for Improved Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-1109
Current trends in automotive emissions control have tended towards reduced mass substrates for improved light-off performance coupled with a reduction in PGM levels. This trend has led to increasingly thinner walls in the substrates and increased open frontal areas, with a potential of reducing the overall mechanical strength of the substrate relative to the thicker walled lower cell density supports. This change in demand driven technology has also led to developments, at times costly, in the processing of the catalytic converter system. Changes in mat materials, handling technology and coating variables are only a few sources of overall increased system costs. Corning has introduced the Celcor® XS™ product to the market which significantly increases the strength of thin and ultra thin walled substrates.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermal Mass and Aging on CO-NOx Crossover and Light Off Behavior

2005-04-11
2005-01-1106
The tightening of emissions regulations has required changes in many areas of vehicle systems, including calibration strategies, catalytic converter strategies and exhaust configurations. Engine calibration strategies can be engineered to complement the performance parameters of the converter. Knowledge of the precise window of converter performance for different substrates can therefore provide guidance in targeting engine calibration strategies as well as selecting compatible converter systems within calibration constraints. In a previous paper [5], we explored the effect of thermal mass on emissions performance in the context of the FTP. This paper expands on the previous work and explores the effect of the aging cycle and thermal mass differences on CO-NOx crossover and light-off profiles. This analysis provides a tool to assist in design by defining a window of performance in the converter to be used in matching to a window of operation in the calibration.
Technical Paper

Driving Down On-Highway Particulate Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-0916
It has been reported that particulate emissions from diesel vehicles could be associated with damaging human health, global warming and a reduction in air quality. These particles cover a very large size range, typically 3 to 10 000 nm. Filters in the vehicle exhaust systems can substantially reduce particulate emissions but until very recently it was not possible to directly characterise actual on-road emissions from a vehicle. This paper presents the first study of the effect of filter systems on the particulate emissions of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle during real-world driving. The presence of sulfur in the fuel and in the engine lubricant can lead to significant emissions of sulfate particles < 30 nm in size (nanoparticles).
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Catalytic Converter Durability

2000-03-06
2000-01-0220
In this study quantitative techniques were established to assess the low temperature durability of commercially available mat systems. A new low temperature dynamic resistive thermal exposure (LT-RTE) test method was developed. The mats were evaluated in thermal cycling with maximum substrate skin temperatures from 280°C to 450°C. Results indicate that at low use temperatures the residual shear strength of the mat fell to ∼5-15KPa following 280°C cycling. Under the same LT-RTE exposure conditions an equivalent mat system, following thermal preconditioning to 500°C for 3 hours, possessed a residual shear strength of ∼30KPa. An alternative mat system with a lower shot content fiber was also evaluated, following the same thermal preconditioning previously described. This alternative mat was found to exhibit substantially higher residual shear strengths following LT-RTE aging. A residual shear strength of ∼95KPa was observed for this alternative mat following 280°C LT-RTE aging.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2007-04-16
2007-01-0233
This summary covers the developments from 2006 in diesel regulations, engine combustion, and NOx and PM remediation. Regulatory developments are now focused on Europe, where light-duty Euro 5 and 6 regulations have been proposed for 2009 and 2014, respectively. The regulations are lass stringent than those in the US, but options exist for adopting European vehicles for the US market. Europe is just beginning to look at heavy-duty regulations for 2012 and beyond. Engines are making very impressive progress, with clean combustion strategies in active development mainly for US light-duty application. Heavy-duty research engines are more focused on traditional approaches, and will provide numerous engine/aftertreatment options for hitting the tight US 2010 regulations. NOx control is focusing on SCR (selective catalytic reduction) for diverse applications. Focus is on cold operation, durability, secondary emissions, and system optimization.
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