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Technical Paper

Impacts of B20 Biodiesel on Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

2009-11-02
2009-01-2736
Engine laboratory tests were conducted to assess the impact of B20 biodiesel on the performance of cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPFs). Test fuels included 20% soy based methyl ester blended into ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, and two ULSD on-road market fuels. B20 has a higher cetane number, boiling point and oxygen content than typical on-road diesel fuels. A comparative study was performed using a model year 2007 medium duty diesel truck engine. The aftertreatment system included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) followed by a cordierite wall flow DPF. A laboratory-grade supplemental fuel doser was used in the exhaust stream for precise regeneration of the DPF. Tests revealed that the fuel dosing rate was higher and DOC fuel conversion efficiency was poorer for the B20 fuel during low exhaust temperature regenerations. The slip of B20 fuel past the DOC was shown to produce significantly higher exotherms in the DPF during regeneration.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Transient Monolith Model for Selective Catalytic Reduction using Vanadia-based Catalyst

2008-01-09
2008-28-0022
In this paper, we report the modeling of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx using ammonia on a commercial vanadia-titania based catalyst. The model combines a steady-state two-dimensional channel model with a transient two- or three-dimensional monolith model of the whole catalytic monolith converter. The reaction mechanism includes the standard and fast SCR reactions and also the high-temperature oxidation of ammonia to model the decrease in conversion observed at higher temperatures. We used in-house experimental data spanning a wide range of inlet compositions and temperatures to validate the model. The model was found to be in excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Cordierite Thin Wall DPF for Improved Pressure Drop and Lifetime Pressure Drop Solution

2016-04-05
2016-01-0940
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions for non-road engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO2 implications for the DPF operation.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Modeling for Three-Dimensional Lightweight Windshields

2018-04-03
2018-01-0141
In the auto industry, lightweight window designs are drawing more attention for improved gas mileage and reduced exhaust emission. Corning’s Gorilla® Glass used in laminate design enables more than 30% weight reduction compared to conventional soda-lime glass laminates. In addition, Gorilla® Glass hybrid laminates (which are a laminate construction of a thick soda-lime glass outer play, a middle polyvinyl butyral interlayer, and a thin Gorilla Glass inner ply) also show significantly improved toughness due to advanced ion-exchange technology that provides high-surface compression. However, the reduced mass also allows increased transmission of sound waves through the windshield into the vehicle cabin. A system-level measurement approach has always been employed to assess overall vehicle acoustic performance by measuring sound pressure levels (SPL) at the driver’s ears. The measured sound signals are usually a superimposition of a variety of noise sources and transmission paths.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2006-04-03
2006-01-0030
The paper summarizes the key developments in diesel emission control, generally for 2005. Regulatory targets for the next 10 years and projected advancements in engine technology are used to estimate future emission control needs. Recent NOx control developments on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), lean NOx traps (LNT) and lean NOx catalysts (LNC) are then summarized. Likewise, the paper covers important recent developments on diesel particulate filters (DPFs), summarizing regeneration strategies, new filter and catalyst materials, ash management, and PM measurement. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts are also briefly summarized. Finally, the paper discusses examples of how it is all pulled together to meet the tightest future regulations.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2007-04-16
2007-01-0233
This summary covers the developments from 2006 in diesel regulations, engine combustion, and NOx and PM remediation. Regulatory developments are now focused on Europe, where light-duty Euro 5 and 6 regulations have been proposed for 2009 and 2014, respectively. The regulations are lass stringent than those in the US, but options exist for adopting European vehicles for the US market. Europe is just beginning to look at heavy-duty regulations for 2012 and beyond. Engines are making very impressive progress, with clean combustion strategies in active development mainly for US light-duty application. Heavy-duty research engines are more focused on traditional approaches, and will provide numerous engine/aftertreatment options for hitting the tight US 2010 regulations. NOx control is focusing on SCR (selective catalytic reduction) for diverse applications. Focus is on cold operation, durability, secondary emissions, and system optimization.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Catalytic Converter Durability

2000-03-06
2000-01-0220
In this study quantitative techniques were established to assess the low temperature durability of commercially available mat systems. A new low temperature dynamic resistive thermal exposure (LT-RTE) test method was developed. The mats were evaluated in thermal cycling with maximum substrate skin temperatures from 280°C to 450°C. Results indicate that at low use temperatures the residual shear strength of the mat fell to ∼5-15KPa following 280°C cycling. Under the same LT-RTE exposure conditions an equivalent mat system, following thermal preconditioning to 500°C for 3 hours, possessed a residual shear strength of ∼30KPa. An alternative mat system with a lower shot content fiber was also evaluated, following the same thermal preconditioning previously described. This alternative mat was found to exhibit substantially higher residual shear strengths following LT-RTE aging. A residual shear strength of ∼95KPa was observed for this alternative mat following 280°C LT-RTE aging.
Technical Paper

Driving Down On-Highway Particulate Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-0916
It has been reported that particulate emissions from diesel vehicles could be associated with damaging human health, global warming and a reduction in air quality. These particles cover a very large size range, typically 3 to 10 000 nm. Filters in the vehicle exhaust systems can substantially reduce particulate emissions but until very recently it was not possible to directly characterise actual on-road emissions from a vehicle. This paper presents the first study of the effect of filter systems on the particulate emissions of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle during real-world driving. The presence of sulfur in the fuel and in the engine lubricant can lead to significant emissions of sulfate particles < 30 nm in size (nanoparticles).
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluations of Aluminum Titanate Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-0656
Over the past decade, regulations for mobile source emissions have become more stringent thus, requiring advances in emissions systems to comply with the new standards. For the popular diesel powered passenger cars particularly in Europe, diesel particulate filters (DPFs) have been integrated to control particulate matter (PM) emissions. Corning Incorporated has developed a new proprietary aluminum titanate-based material for filter use in passenger car diesel applications. Aluminum titanate (hereafter referred to as AT) filters were launched commercially in the fall of 2005 and have been equipped on more than several hundred thousand European passenger vehicles. Due to their outstanding durability, filtration efficiency and pressure drop attributes, AT filters are an excellent fit for demanding applications in passenger cars. Extensive testing was conducted on engine to evaluate the survivability and long-term thermo-mechanical durability of AT filters.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Different Heavy Duty Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Configurations

2004-03-08
2004-01-1419
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in conjunction with large frontal area substrates is a key element in HDV Diesel emission control systems. This paper describes and reviews tests on a set of various Diesel Oxidation Catalyst configurations (for example cell densities), all with the same catalyst coating. The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst specimens were subjected to the European Stationary Cycle (ESC), the European Transient Cycle (ETC), and the US heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (US FTP). The focus was to study relative emissions, pressure drop, and light-off performance. All tests were conducted using the same Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine operating on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. In addition to this, the exhaust was regulated so that the backpressure on the engine, upstream of the catalyst was also the same for all catalysts.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Exhaust Thermal and Vibration Mapping

2004-03-08
2004-01-0590
The characterization of the thermal and vibration environment of the exhaust systems of three modern day diesel engines, with displacements ranging from 1.9 liter to 12.7 liter, was carried out to support the development of exhaust after treatment components. Tri-axial accelerometer and in pipe thermocouple measurements were recorded at several locations along the exhaust systems during vehicle acceleration and steady driving conditions up to 70 mph. The vehicles were loaded to various gross weight configurations to provide a wide range of engine load conditions. Narrow band and octave band vibration power spectral densities are presented and conclusions are drawn as to the spectral content of the exhaust vibration environment and its distribution along the exhaust system. Temperature time histories during vehicle acceleration runs are likewise presented to indicate expected peak exhaust temperatures.
Technical Paper

Diesel SCR NOx Reduction and Performance on Washcoated SCR Catalysts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1293
This paper describes a study of ternary V2O5/WO3/TiO2 SCR catalysts coated on standard Celcor® and new highly porous cordierite substrates. At temperatures below 275°C, where NOx conversion is kinetically limited, high catalyst loadings are required to achieve high conversion efficiencies. In principle there are two ways to achieve high catalyst loadings: 1. On standard Celcor® substrates the washcoat thickness can be increased. 2. With new highly porous substrates a high amount of washcoat can be deposited in the walls. Various catalyst loadings varying from 120g/l to 540 g/l were washcoated on both standard Celcor® and new high porosity cordierite substrates with standard coating techniques. Simulated laboratory testing of these samples showed that high catalyst loadings improved both low temperature conversion efficiency and high temperature ammonia storage capacity and consequently increased the overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control Technology 2003 in Review

2004-03-08
2004-01-0070
This paper will review the field of diesel emission control with the intent of highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art. First, the author reviews general technology approaches for heavy and light duty applications. Given the emerging significance of ultrafines to health, and to emission control technologies, an overview of the significant developments in ultrafine particulate science is provided, followed by an assessment of filter technology. Regarding NOx control, SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and LNT (lean NOx traps) progress is described. Finally, system integration examples are provided. In general, progress is impressive and studies demonstrate that high-efficiency systems are within reach in all highway vehicle sectors. Engines are making impressive gains, and will increase the options for emission control.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filter Operational Characterization

2004-03-08
2004-01-0958
Wall-flow filter technology has been used for many years to remove particulate emissions from a select number of diesel engine exhaust systems. Significant implementation of diesel particulate filters will require the definition of regeneration strategies that permit the filters to be regularly and durably purged of accumulated non-volatile particulates. This paper will examine the laboratory-bench characterization of filter responses to the wide variety of input conditions to which they may be exposed in practice. The lab-bench filter characterization will be done as a function of generic independent variables such as flow rate, inlet temperature, oxygen content and soot loading. The testing will be conducted on uncatalyzed filters for this preliminary study. The characterization approach will examine such dependent variables as completeness of regeneration and maximum exotherm temperatures.
Technical Paper

Principles for the Design of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2002-05-06
2002-01-1723
The diesel oxidation catalyst is required to remove hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide from the diesel engine exhaust stream while minimizing the impact of all other features such as cost, space, pressure drop, weight, fuel consumption, etc. The challenge of designing a catalytic converter for a particular application then becomes to: first, understand the emissions and other performance targets and requirements for the engine; second, understand the influence each of the converter parameters has on the overall system performance and; third, optimize the system using these relationships. This paper will explore some of the considerations with respect to the second of the above challenges.
Technical Paper

In-Situ NH3 Generation for SCR NOx Applications

2002-10-21
2002-01-2872
There is currently a need for a practical solution for NOx abatement in automotive diesel engines. Technologies developed thus far suffer from inherent technical limitations. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx under lean conditions has been proven to be successful for stationary applications. A new approach is described to efficiently remove NOx from the exhaust of a diesel engine powered vehicle and convert it to nitrogen and oxygen. The key to the approach is the development of an on board (in-situ) ammonia generating catalyst. The ammonia is then used as a reagent to react with exhaust NO over a secondary SCR catalyst downstream. The system can remove over 85% of the exhaust NO under achievable diesel engine operating conditions, while eliminating the potential for ammonia slip with a minimal system of sensors and feedback controls.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Titanate Compositions for Diesel Particulate Filters

2005-04-11
2005-01-0583
Compositions in the mixed strontium/calcium feldspar ([Sr/Ca]O·Al2O3·2SiO2) - aluminum titanate (Al2O3·TiO2) system have been investigated as alternative materials for the diesel particulate filter (DPF) application. A key attribute of these compositions is their low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Samples have been prepared with porosities of >50% having average pore sizes of between 12 and 16μm. The superior thermal shock resistance, increased resistance to ash attack, and high volumetric heat capacity of these materials, coupled with monolithic fabrication, provide certain advantages over currently available silicon carbide products. In addition, based on testing done so far aluminum titanate-based filters have demonstrated chemical durability and comparable pressure drop (both bare and catalyzed) to current, commercially available, silicon carbide products.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Stronger Ultra Thin Wall Corning Substrate for Improved Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-1109
Current trends in automotive emissions control have tended towards reduced mass substrates for improved light-off performance coupled with a reduction in PGM levels. This trend has led to increasingly thinner walls in the substrates and increased open frontal areas, with a potential of reducing the overall mechanical strength of the substrate relative to the thicker walled lower cell density supports. This change in demand driven technology has also led to developments, at times costly, in the processing of the catalytic converter system. Changes in mat materials, handling technology and coating variables are only a few sources of overall increased system costs. Corning has introduced the Celcor® XS™ product to the market which significantly increases the strength of thin and ultra thin walled substrates.
Technical Paper

DPF Regeneration-Concept to Avoid Uncontrolled Regeneration During Idle

2004-10-26
2004-01-2657
Significant particulate emission reductions of diesel engines can be achieved using diesel particulate filters (DPFs). Ceramic wall flow filters with a PM efficiency of >90% have proven to be effective components in emission control. The challenge for the application lies with the development and adaptation of a reliable regeneration strategy. The main focus is emission efficiency over the legally required durability periods, as well as over the useful vehicle life. It will be shown, that new DPF systems are characterized by a high degree of integration with the engine management system, to allow for initiation of the regeneration and its control for optimum DPF protection. Using selected cases, the optimum combination and tuning will be demonstrated for successful regenerations, taking into account DPF properties.
Technical Paper

Silicon Carbide for Diesel Particulate Filter Applications:Material Development and Thermal Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0324
Recently, SiC has been investigated and pursued as an alternative material for diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. SiC has acceptable physical properties such as good thermal conductivity, refractoriness, and chemical durability. Materials for DPF applications require a particular mean pore size, porosity, and permeability. In addition, these material attributes must be coupled to an appropriate thermal design so that the filter can survive the extreme temperature gradients generated during the regeneration process. In this report several approaches to making porous SiC will be discussed and performance data based on material properties and thermal design will be presented.
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