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Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Different Heavy Duty Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Configurations

2004-03-08
2004-01-1419
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in conjunction with large frontal area substrates is a key element in HDV Diesel emission control systems. This paper describes and reviews tests on a set of various Diesel Oxidation Catalyst configurations (for example cell densities), all with the same catalyst coating. The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst specimens were subjected to the European Stationary Cycle (ESC), the European Transient Cycle (ETC), and the US heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (US FTP). The focus was to study relative emissions, pressure drop, and light-off performance. All tests were conducted using the same Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine operating on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. In addition to this, the exhaust was regulated so that the backpressure on the engine, upstream of the catalyst was also the same for all catalysts.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Cordierite Thin Wall DPF for Improved Pressure Drop and Lifetime Pressure Drop Solution

2016-04-05
2016-01-0940
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions for non-road engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO2 implications for the DPF operation.
Technical Paper

On-Vehicle Fuel Cut Testing for Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0968
With the introduction of a stringent particulate number (PN) limit and real driving emission (RDE) requirements, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are widely adopted for gasoline engines in Europe and China. The filter collects soot and ash. Like in diesel applications, the collected soot will continuously burn under favorable exhaust conditions. However, at extreme conditions, there could be large amounts of soot build-up, which may induce a highly exothermal event, potentially damaging the filter. Thus, it is important to understand what drives the over-heating in application, and develop counter measures. In this study, an on-vehicle fuel cut (FC) testing procedure was developed. The testing was conducted on two vehicles, one gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle and one multiple port injection (MPI) vehicle, with different exhaust systems designs (a close coupled GPF and an under floor GPF) and catalyst coating levels (bare and heavily coated GPFs).
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filter Operational Characterization

2004-03-08
2004-01-0958
Wall-flow filter technology has been used for many years to remove particulate emissions from a select number of diesel engine exhaust systems. Significant implementation of diesel particulate filters will require the definition of regeneration strategies that permit the filters to be regularly and durably purged of accumulated non-volatile particulates. This paper will examine the laboratory-bench characterization of filter responses to the wide variety of input conditions to which they may be exposed in practice. The lab-bench filter characterization will be done as a function of generic independent variables such as flow rate, inlet temperature, oxygen content and soot loading. The testing will be conducted on uncatalyzed filters for this preliminary study. The characterization approach will examine such dependent variables as completeness of regeneration and maximum exotherm temperatures.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control Technology 2003 in Review

2004-03-08
2004-01-0070
This paper will review the field of diesel emission control with the intent of highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art. First, the author reviews general technology approaches for heavy and light duty applications. Given the emerging significance of ultrafines to health, and to emission control technologies, an overview of the significant developments in ultrafine particulate science is provided, followed by an assessment of filter technology. Regarding NOx control, SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and LNT (lean NOx traps) progress is described. Finally, system integration examples are provided. In general, progress is impressive and studies demonstrate that high-efficiency systems are within reach in all highway vehicle sectors. Engines are making impressive gains, and will increase the options for emission control.
Technical Paper

Diesel SCR NOx Reduction and Performance on Washcoated SCR Catalysts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1293
This paper describes a study of ternary V2O5/WO3/TiO2 SCR catalysts coated on standard Celcor® and new highly porous cordierite substrates. At temperatures below 275°C, where NOx conversion is kinetically limited, high catalyst loadings are required to achieve high conversion efficiencies. In principle there are two ways to achieve high catalyst loadings: 1. On standard Celcor® substrates the washcoat thickness can be increased. 2. With new highly porous substrates a high amount of washcoat can be deposited in the walls. Various catalyst loadings varying from 120g/l to 540 g/l were washcoated on both standard Celcor® and new high porosity cordierite substrates with standard coating techniques. Simulated laboratory testing of these samples showed that high catalyst loadings improved both low temperature conversion efficiency and high temperature ammonia storage capacity and consequently increased the overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermal Mass on Aging and Emissions Performance

2004-03-08
2004-01-1492
This paper seeks to accomplish two objectives. The first is to understand the emissions performance of the newest experimental substrates. The second is to verify or refute the hypothesis that a higher cell density part will age more severely in the same conditions than the lower cell density part. This paper will also seek to identify when during aging this occurs and the shape of the curve of performance loss for each cell density. Three configurations including thinwall and ultra-thinwall cell geometries were tested. The test consisted of five repeated iterations in partial aging and testing, up to 100 hours of aging. The steps were in uneven increments to gain the most knowledge about the aging curve. Testing was performed after each partial aging step on a chassis dynamometer ULEV vehicle using the 3 bag FTP protocol.
Technical Paper

Driving Down On-Highway Particulate Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-0916
It has been reported that particulate emissions from diesel vehicles could be associated with damaging human health, global warming and a reduction in air quality. These particles cover a very large size range, typically 3 to 10 000 nm. Filters in the vehicle exhaust systems can substantially reduce particulate emissions but until very recently it was not possible to directly characterise actual on-road emissions from a vehicle. This paper presents the first study of the effect of filter systems on the particulate emissions of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle during real-world driving. The presence of sulfur in the fuel and in the engine lubricant can lead to significant emissions of sulfate particles < 30 nm in size (nanoparticles).
Technical Paper

Relative Benefits of Various Cell Density Ceramic Substrates in Different Regions of the FTP Cycle

2006-04-03
2006-01-1065
Continuous improvement in vehicle emissions is necessary to meet ever tightening regulations. These regulations are advancing in both passenger and light truck vehicle markets, currently at different rates. Divergent design requirements and target markets for these platforms create unique conditions for aftertreatment needs. To understand the performance of various products in these categories and the potential for optimization, we examine various ultrathin-wall products in the context of a close-coupled configuration in a SULEV vehicle. In addition, these comparisons are carried over to a larger platform to show the performance trends in the context of the sport utility vehicle category. This study considers converter performance in FTP tests, examining bag data, light-off behavior, pressure drop comparisons and front and rear converter contributions. Conclusions are drawn regarding the optimization of converter substrate selection for various target design criteria
Technical Paper

Particulate Erosion of Automotive Catalyst Supports

2001-05-07
2001-01-1995
A concern has been expressed regarding the durability of the ceramic thin wall and ultra-thin wall substrates under severe thermal and mechanical conditions. Damage that might result from these conditions would most likely lead to a reduction in catalyst performance. One of the potential damage mechanisms for automotive catalysts is erosion resulting from the impingement of particles onto the front face of the catalyst system. A basic study of the particulate erosion phenomenon of cellular ceramic substrates was undertaken in order to determine, in a controlled setting, the substrate, particulate, and flow conditions that might bring this damage about. This report will discuss a room temperature study of the effects of particle size, particle density, gas flow rate, cellular part orientation, and cellular design parameters on the erosion of ceramic substrates.
Technical Paper

In-Situ NH3 Generation for SCR NOx Applications

2002-10-21
2002-01-2872
There is currently a need for a practical solution for NOx abatement in automotive diesel engines. Technologies developed thus far suffer from inherent technical limitations. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx under lean conditions has been proven to be successful for stationary applications. A new approach is described to efficiently remove NOx from the exhaust of a diesel engine powered vehicle and convert it to nitrogen and oxygen. The key to the approach is the development of an on board (in-situ) ammonia generating catalyst. The ammonia is then used as a reagent to react with exhaust NO over a secondary SCR catalyst downstream. The system can remove over 85% of the exhaust NO under achievable diesel engine operating conditions, while eliminating the potential for ammonia slip with a minimal system of sensors and feedback controls.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Titanate Compositions for Diesel Particulate Filters

2005-04-11
2005-01-0583
Compositions in the mixed strontium/calcium feldspar ([Sr/Ca]O·Al2O3·2SiO2) - aluminum titanate (Al2O3·TiO2) system have been investigated as alternative materials for the diesel particulate filter (DPF) application. A key attribute of these compositions is their low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Samples have been prepared with porosities of >50% having average pore sizes of between 12 and 16μm. The superior thermal shock resistance, increased resistance to ash attack, and high volumetric heat capacity of these materials, coupled with monolithic fabrication, provide certain advantages over currently available silicon carbide products. In addition, based on testing done so far aluminum titanate-based filters have demonstrated chemical durability and comparable pressure drop (both bare and catalyzed) to current, commercially available, silicon carbide products.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds Using Dibutyl Maleate and Tripropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Diesel Fuel Additives to Lower NOx Emissions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0475
A previous paper reported (SAE Paper 2002-01-2884) that it was possible to decrease mode-weighted NOx emissions compared to the OEM calibration with corresponding increases in particulate matter (PM) emissions. These PM emission increases were partially overcome with the use of oxygenated diesel fuel additives. We wanted to know if compounds of toxicological concern were emitted more or less using oxygenated diesel fuel additives that were used in conjunction with a modified engine operating strategy to lower engine-out NOx emissions. Emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from fuels containing triproplyene glycol monomethyl ether and dibutyl maleate were the same or lower compared to a low sulfur fuel (15 ppm sulfur) even under engine operating conditions designed to lower engine-out NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Advanced Mounting System for Light Duty Diesel Filter

2007-04-16
2007-01-0471
This paper employs a systematic approach to packaging design and testing of a system and its components in order to determine the long term durability of light duty diesel filters. This effort has utilized a relatively new aluminum titanate filter technology as well as an advanced support mat technology engineered to provide superior holding force at lower temperatures while maintaining its high temperature performance. Together, these two new technologies form a system that addresses the unique operating conditions of diesel engines. Key physical properties of both the filter and the mat are demonstrated through laboratory testing. The system behavior is characterized by various laboratory techniques and validation procedures.
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2013-04-08
2013-01-0538
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies (light-duty, heavy-duty, gasoline, diesel) in 2012. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including finalized criteria pollutant tightening in California; and in Europe, the development of real-world driving emissions (RDE) standards. The US finalized LD (light-duty) greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation for 2017-25. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key developments in LD and HD engine technology, covering both gasoline and diesel. Marked improvements in engine efficiency are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are just starting to demonstrate 50% brake thermal efficiency. NOx control technologies are then summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction) with ammonia, and hydrocarbon-based approaches.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review – The Last 12 Months

2003-03-03
2003-01-0039
Driven mainly by tightening of regulations, advance diesel emission control technologies are rapidly advancing. This paper will review the field with the intent of highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art. First, the author makes estimates of the emission control efficiency targets for heavy and light duty applications. Given the emerging significance of ultrafines to health, and to emission control technologies, an overview of the significant developments in ultrafine particulate science is provided, followed by an assessment of filter technology. Major deNOx catalyst developments, in addition to SCR and LNT progress is described. Finally, system integration examples are provided. In general, progress is impressive and studies have demonstrated that high-efficiency systems are within reach in all sectors highway vehicle sectors. Engines are making impressive gains, and will increase the options for emission control.
Journal Article

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2009-04-20
2009-01-0121
This summary covers representative developments from 2008 in diesel regulations, engine technology, and NOx, particulate matter (PM), and hydrocarbon (HC) control. Europe is finalizing the Euro VI heavy-duty (HD) regulations for 2013 with the intent of technologically harmonizing with the US. A new particle number standard will be adopted. California is considering tightening the light-duty fleet average to US Tier 2 Bin 2 levels, and CO2 mandates are emerging in Europe for LD, and in the US for all vehicles. LD engine technology is focused on downsizing to deliver lower CO2 emissions, enabled by advances in boost and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). Emerging concepts are shown for attaining Bin 2 emission levels. HD engines will make deNOx systems optional for even the tightest NOx standards, but deNOx systems enable much lower fuel consumption levels and will likely be used. NOx control is centered on SCR (selective catalytic reduction) for diverse applications.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

2000-03-06
2000-01-0493
Stringent emissions standards with 95+% conversion efficiency requirements call for advanced ceramic catalyst supports with thinner walls, higher cell density and optimum cell shape. The extrusion technology for cellular ceramics has also made significant progress which permits the manufacture of advanced catalyst supports. Similarly, modifications in cordierite chemistry and the manufacturing process have led to improved microstructure from coatability and thermal shock points of view. The design of these supports, however, requires a systems approach to balance both the performance and durability requirements. Indeed as the wall gets thinner, the contribution of washcoat becomes more significant in terms of thermal mass, heat transfer, thermal expansion, hydraulic diameter and structural stiffness - all of which have an impact on performance and durability. For example, the thinner the wall is, the better the light-off performance will be.
Technical Paper

Modeling of SCR DeNOx Catalyst - Looking at the Impact of Substrate Attributes

2003-03-03
2003-01-0845
The present work intends to examine the selective NOx reduction efficiency of a current commercial Titanium-Vanadium washcoated catalyst and to develop a transient numerical model capable of describing the SCR process while using a wide range of inlet conditions such as space velocity, oxygen concentrations, water concentration and NO2/NO ratio. The concentrations of different components (NO, NO2, N2O, NH3, H2O and HNO3) were analyzed continuously by a FT-IR spectrometer. A temperature range from 150°C up to 650°C was examined and tests were carried out using a model exhaust gas comparable to the real diesel exhaust gas composition. There is a very good correlation between experimental and calculated results with the given chemical kinetics.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2006-04-03
2006-01-0030
The paper summarizes the key developments in diesel emission control, generally for 2005. Regulatory targets for the next 10 years and projected advancements in engine technology are used to estimate future emission control needs. Recent NOx control developments on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), lean NOx traps (LNT) and lean NOx catalysts (LNC) are then summarized. Likewise, the paper covers important recent developments on diesel particulate filters (DPFs), summarizing regeneration strategies, new filter and catalyst materials, ash management, and PM measurement. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts are also briefly summarized. Finally, the paper discusses examples of how it is all pulled together to meet the tightest future regulations.
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