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Technical Paper

Trend toward weight reduction of automobile body in Japan

2000-06-12
2000-05-0240
With society demanding automobiles that provide higher fuel efficiency, safety of occupants in collisions and that at the end of their service life can be recycled with low environmental impact, the steel industry is tackling the needs of the automobile industry by developing ever-higher performance steel materials and simulation technologies that can demonstrate the performance of steel materials at the development stage without the need for costly prototype testing. In this paper, weight reduction of automobile body in Japan will be discussed. The main items will be as follows: (1) Development of Automobile Steel Sheets, (2) Materials for Automobile Bodies, (3) Materials and Technologies (Tailored Blanks, Hydroforming and Locally Quenching) for Reducing the Weight of Panels and Reinforcing members, (4) Future Prospects.
Technical Paper

NOx Trap Catalyst Technologies to Attain 99.5% NOx Reduction Efficiency for Lean Burn Gasoline Engine Application

2009-04-20
2009-01-1077
For fuel economy improvement by lean-burn gasoline engines, extension of their lean operation range to higher loads is desirable as more fuel is consumed during acceleration. Urgently needed therefore is development of emission control systems having as high NOx conversion efficiency as three-way catalysts (TWC) even with more frequent lean operation. The authors conducted a study using catalysts loaded with potassium (K) as the only NOx trapping agent in an emission control system of a lean-burn gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion of Automobiles - Field Car and Laboratory Investigation

1993-10-01
932367
In order to clarify the effect of design and materials of the hem as well as the climatic factors on perforation corrosion of the automobile doors, field car and laboratory investigation has been carried out Field car investigation revealed that corrosion of the hem can be minimized by using two side galvanized steel plus adhesives. The ratio of wet/dry environment was evaluated in laboratory on hemmed sample, and it was found that the design of the hem in conjunction with the various wet/dry ratio affected the corrosion rate differently.
Technical Paper

Vibro-acoustic FEA Modeling of Two Layer Trim Systems

2005-05-16
2005-01-2325
This paper investigates the potential of using FEA poro-elastic Biot elements for the modeling carpet-like trim systems in a simplified setup. A comparison between FEA computations and experiments is presented for two layer (mass-spring) trim systems placed on a test-rig consisting in a 510×354×1.6 mm flat steel plate clamped in a stiff frame excited at its base. Results are presented for a given heavy layer with two different poro-elastic materials: one foam and one fibrous material. The investigations included accelerometer measurements on the steel plate, laser-doppler vibrometer scans of the heavy layer surface, sound pressure measurements in free field at a distance of 1 meter above the plate, as well as sound pressure in a closed rectangular concrete-walled cavity (0.5×0.6×0.7 m) put on top of the test-rig. Computations were carried out using a commercial FEA software implementing the Biot theory for poro-elastic media.
Technical Paper

Application of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet for Autobody Structural Parts

1992-02-01
920249
As a demand for vehicles of higher functionality grows, automakers and material suppliers are devoting increasing efforts to develop technologies for greater safety, lighter weight, higher corrosion resistance, and enhanced quietness. The resin-sandwiched vibration damping steel sheet (VDSS), developed as a highly functional material for reducing vehicle vibration and noise, has been used for oil pans1) and compartment partitions2). First applied for a structural dash panel of the new Mazda 929, a Zn-Ni electroplated VDSS which allows direct electric welding has contributed to greater weight reduction as well as improved quietness.
Technical Paper

Study of Formable High Strength Steel Sheets for Automotive Panels

1992-02-01
920247
Weight reduction of automobiles is one of the most highlighted subjects in automobile industry from the energy saving and clean environment points of view. A typical approach for the purpose is to use high strength steel sheets as well as optimizing designs and using low density materials. It is not, however, easy to apply high strength steel sheets to automotive panels because of their strict requirement for the shape-fixability although a high dent resistance is also required. Besides the use of bake hardening steels, two different high strength steel sheets, which are a continuously annealed extra-low carbon titanium-added IF steel and a low carbon TRIP steel which contains about six volume% of austenite, were assessed for the application to automotive panels in combination with a tension-controled press-forming technique and showed as good shape-fixability as a conventional box-annealed aluminum-killed DDQ steel sheet when high blank-holding-forces were applied.
Technical Paper

Properties of a Newly Developed Organic Composite Coated Steel Sheet for Automotive Use

1992-02-01
920172
The newly developed sheet steel lightly coated with an organic composite is as follows. Zn-Ni alloy plated sheet steel with a coating weight of 30 g/m2 and average Ni concentration of 11.5 ∼12.0 % is chromated through electrolysis. The coating weight of chromate film is 50 ∼90 mg/m2 in Cr. Furthermore, emulsified olefin-acrylic acid copolymer resin mixed with colloidal silica of particle size 7 ∼8 nm applied to a thickness of 1.0 ∼1.8 μm. Olefin-acrylic acid copolymer resin and colloidal silica are mixed at the rate of 100 and 30 (parts by weight). It maintains excellent corrosion resistance even after forming, C-ED paint corrosion resistance and paint adhesion. Furthermore, it has excellent perforation resistance. The product has excellent weldability and is well suited to continuous forming, too.
Technical Paper

A Study of Transmission fluid Performance on Fuel Economy

2007-07-23
2007-01-1980
To apply a fuel economy performance to AT&CVT fluid for common use (hereinafter AT/CVT fluid) and manual transmission fluid, by optimizing fluid viscosity, a fundamental study was investigated. Generally, it is well known that the viscosity of polymer-added transmission fluids is gradually reduced, due to deterioration of the viscosity index improver caused by shear stress. An excessive viscosity reduction causes an operation failure or damage to the transmission. Considering above factor, the authors focused attention on the potential of a low viscosity formulation to improve fuel efficiency by reducing an internal stirring-resistance of the transmission. Also from the viewpoint of friction characteristics, the performance of a base oil was studied. Utilizing the EHL (Elast-Hydrodynamic Lubrication) tester [1] and vehicle tests, the performance of base oils was evaluated for the fluid development.
Technical Paper

New DOC for Light Duty Diesel DPF System

2007-07-23
2007-01-1920
A new state of the art DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst) having superior light-off and exothermic activity for forced regeneration compared to conventional Pt base passive DOC, was investigated for LDD application. The DOC uses the latest Pt/Pd technology resulting cost effective DPF system. The newly developed DOC demonstrated improved catalytic activities from Pt only DOC in model gas or engine bench tests. In this study, DOC at early development stage showed excellent light-off activity in model gas and engine bench test compared to conventional Pt only DOC, however, it showed “extinction” phenomenon which is one of the deactivation mode while the post injection and it was observed when post injection operation was done at lower DOC inlet temperatures, e.g. below 250 C. Temperature profiles along diameter and length into DOC bed while active regeneration suggested extinction would be caused by fouling of supplied hydrocarbons derived from diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

The Development of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet For Automotive Use

1989-02-01
890708
Vibration Damping Steel Sheet (VDSS) for automotive use, which has a three layer structure of steel/viscoelastic resin/steel, has been studied. For automotive body panels, VDSS is required to have not only high vibration damping capability but also other properties such as bonding strength, formability, weldability and durability. In this research, the effect of resin layer on these properties was studied. It is found that VDSS which satisfies these properties can be made from thermosetting resin involving metal particles.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Analysis and Proposition to Reduce Self-Excited Vibration of Automotive Shock Absorber

2003-05-05
2003-01-1471
Knock noise induced by automotive shock absorbers has serious influence on driving comfort and vehicle quality. Some research focusing on knock noise had been introduced in the past. However there is the unidentified phenomenon that has been unnoticed. This paper describes the new theory to clarify one of the unidentified phenomenon and proposes the equation for stability assessment which is useful on designing stage of development. First of all, the characteristics of the unidentified rod vibration of shock absorbers are investigated experimentally. Second, the new theory is established on the basis of the non-linear physical model with friction forces between piston and cylinder. This theory shows that the unstable vibration, so called the Self Excited Vibration, can be induced by not only friction property but also structure of rod and piston. Third, the equation for stability assessment, which is useful on designing stage of development, is proposed on the basis of new theory.
Technical Paper

High-Strength Cold-Rolled Steels Produced by Continuous Annealing and Their Automotive Applications

1981-02-01
810028
In continuous annealing, accelerated cooling methods have recently found practical application in addition to conventional gas jet cooling or water jet quenching method. Moderate cooling rate of gas jet cooling or accelerated cooling makes it possible to utilize new high-strength steels with excellent properties. The faster cooling rate deteriorates ductility of steels. These newly developed steels are improved rephosphorized steels with high r̄-value and high bake hardenability, dual phase steels with superior ductility, Ti-stabilized high-strength steels with very high r̄-value, grain boundary hardening steels employing low temperature annealing, and unique ultra high-strength steels. This paper describes properties and process factors of these steels, and their applications to automotive.
Technical Paper

Effect of Strengthening Mechanism on Fatigue Properties of Hot-Rolled Sheet Steels

2002-03-04
2002-01-0042
The influence of tensile strength on fatigue strength and the effect of strengthening mechanism on fatigue notch factor were investigated into conventional mild steels, HSLA steels, DP steels and TRIP steels. The grade of studied steels was altered from 440MPa to 780MPa. Not only smooth fatigue specimens with side surface ground and smooth fatigue specimens with laser-cut side surface but also fatigue specimens with a pierced hole were prepared for each of steel sheets. Fatigue tests were conducted in an axial load method. These experiments made it clear that the fatigue limits of smooth specimen increase along the tensile strength approximately independent of strengthening mechanism but those of notched specimen do not necessarily increase along the tensile strength. Namely, fatigue limits of DP steels and TRIP steels with notch increase in proportion to tensile strength although those of HSLA steels with notch do not increase.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies Applied to High-Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

1998-02-01
980173
In this paper, emissions reduction technologies applied to high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel passenger car engines to meet the stricter exhaust emission legislation are described. To reduce smoke, the F.I.E. has been improved by using a radial-piston distributor pump which delivers fuel-injection-pressure up to 120MPa. Cooled exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) system and increase in volume ratio of the combustion chamber has made it possible to increase EGR ratio and reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke simultaneously. Furthermore, improvements in the oxidation catalyst activating temperature reduces PM at lower exhaust gas temperatures. As a result of applying these technologies, a clean and economical HSDI diesel engine for passenger cars, which complies with Japanese '98 exhaust emissions legislation and has better fuel economy than indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines (above 15%), has been developed.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2000-06-19
2000-01-1870
In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Flexibly Controlled Injection Rate Shape with Next Generation Common Rail System for Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0705
Injection rate shape control is one feature of a diesel fuel injection system that is strongly desired at this time. However, in the conventional Common Rail System (CRS), it is difficult to control the injection rate because the injection pressure is constant during the injection period, resulting in a nearly rectangular rate shape. Thus, in order to achieve injection rate control in a CRS, a Next-generation Common Rail System (NCRS) was designed and the prototype system was fabricated. With two common rails, one for low pressure fuel, and the other for high pressure fuel, the NCRS achieves injection rate shape control by controlling the fuel injector supply pressure, from the two rails. The NCRS can achieve a clear “boot” shaped injection rate, and injection rig tests confirmed that the shape could be flexibly controlled via several control parameters.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Experiments and FEM Simulation of High Velocity Tensile Test Methods to Clarify Test Method's Influence of High Strength Steel

2000-10-03
2000-01-2725
In order to examine the compatibility of improvement of crashworthiness with weight-saving of automobiles by using high strength steel, a combination analysis of Finite Element Method and Dynamic Mechanical Properties has been established. The material properties used in this analysis have been measured by “one bar method” high velocity tensile tests, which can examine the deformation behaviour of materials at an actual crash speed range (∼55km/h). As for the accuracy of this system, comparison between experiments and FEM simulation both of this test machine and other high-velocity-tensile-test machines have clarified the feature of one bar method and the metallurgical features of high velocity deformation. It was confirmed that the stress-strain curve measured by the one bar method agreed with that measured by the modified Split Hopkinson pressure bar method.
Technical Paper

Trial of New Concept Diesel Combustion System - Premixed Compression-Ignited Combustion -

1999-03-01
1999-01-0185
A premixed compression-ignited (PCI) combustion system, which realizes lean combustion with high efficiency and low emissions, was investigated and its effects and problems were ascertained. With PCI combustion, fuel was injected early on the compression stroke and a premixed lean mixture was formed over a long mixing period. The test engine was operated with self-ignition of this premixed lean mixture. From the results of combustion observation and numerical simulation, a need to prevent the fuel spray from adhering to the cylinder liner and combustion-chamber wall was identified. Consequently, an impinged-spray nozzle with low penetration was made and tested. As a result, an extremely low nitrogen-oxide (NOx) emission level was realized but fuel efficiency was detracted slightly. Also, the engine operating range possible with PCI combustion was found to be limited to partial-load conditions and PCI combustion was found to cause an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) emission.
Technical Paper

Forming Performance of Aluminum Alloy Sheets for Automobile Body Panels

1995-02-01
950924
Improvement of material characteristic values, adjustment of forming conditions as well as introduction of new forming technics are necessary to promote wide application of aluminum alloy sheets into automotive parts. 5000 series and 6000 series aluminum alloy sheets are concerned about the relationship between material characteristic values and fundamental forming ability required to apply them to automobile body parts as well as the effect of lubricant on their formability. The hardening parameters, n values, of them are larger than those of cold-rolled steel sheets. However, the r values and the local elongations are extremely small. The improvement of stretch formability owing to increase of n value is smaller than that of the steel sheets. Inferior deep drawability of the aluminum alloy sheets is due to low fracture resistance force caused by low r value.
Technical Paper

Development of High Strength Steel Sheet with Excellent Stretch Flange Formability for Automobile Application

1994-03-01
940943
With the aim of improving stretch-flange formability by further reducing carbides in steel, the authors studied the hole expansion ratio of a steel consisting entirely of ferrite and the factors governing the hole expansion ratio. Ultra low carbon steels adding Ti and/or Nb showed a higher hole expansion ratio than conventional steels, but their hole expansion ratio was not higher than the hole expansion ratio of bainitic steel reported before1). On the other hand, it was found from study of the relationship between hole expansion ratio and r-value of various steels, including cold-rolled interstitial-free steels, that the hole expansion ratio of a steel consisting only of the ferrite phase is strongly influenced by the minimum r-value and n-value and that it improves as the r- and n-values increase. The steel added Ti and/or Nb has a strong anisotropy of r-value, hence its minimum r-value is small. This is disadvantageous to hole expansion ratio.
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