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Technical Paper

Trend toward weight reduction of automobile body in Japan

2000-06-12
2000-05-0240
With society demanding automobiles that provide higher fuel efficiency, safety of occupants in collisions and that at the end of their service life can be recycled with low environmental impact, the steel industry is tackling the needs of the automobile industry by developing ever-higher performance steel materials and simulation technologies that can demonstrate the performance of steel materials at the development stage without the need for costly prototype testing. In this paper, weight reduction of automobile body in Japan will be discussed. The main items will be as follows: (1) Development of Automobile Steel Sheets, (2) Materials for Automobile Bodies, (3) Materials and Technologies (Tailored Blanks, Hydroforming and Locally Quenching) for Reducing the Weight of Panels and Reinforcing members, (4) Future Prospects.
Technical Paper

Development of Microalloyed Steel for Fracture Split Connecting Rod

2007-04-16
2007-01-1004
In Europe and the U.S., fracture split connecting rods are used in many types of current engines. This process can eliminate the machining of crankshaft end and eliminate the dowel pin for positioning. The most important key for fracture split connecting rods is a reduction in the plastic deformation during the fracture splitting process. For this reason, sinter-forged materials and pearlitic steels (C70S6) are used for fracture split connecting rods because of their low ductility. Such types of steel, however, are inferior to the hot forged microalloyed steels typically used as connecting rod material in Japan in terms of buckling strength and machinability although they are easier to fracture split. On the other hand, the conventional microalloyed steels used for connecting rods in Japan are not suitable for fracture splitting. The reason is that these steels have too much ductility and associated plastic deformation for fracture splitting.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion of Automobiles - Field Car and Laboratory Investigation

1993-10-01
932367
In order to clarify the effect of design and materials of the hem as well as the climatic factors on perforation corrosion of the automobile doors, field car and laboratory investigation has been carried out Field car investigation revealed that corrosion of the hem can be minimized by using two side galvanized steel plus adhesives. The ratio of wet/dry environment was evaluated in laboratory on hemmed sample, and it was found that the design of the hem in conjunction with the various wet/dry ratio affected the corrosion rate differently.
Technical Paper

Application of 980 MPa Grade Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0625
There are strong demands for vehicle weight reductions so as to improve fuel economy. At the same time, it is also necessary to ensure crash safety. One effective measure for accomplishing such both requirements conflicting each other is to apply advanced high strength steel (AHSS) of 780 MPa grade or higher to the vehicle body. On the other hand, higher strength steels generally tend to display lower elongation causing formability deterioration. Nissan Motor Corporation have jointly developed with steel manufacturers a new 980 MPa grade AHSS with high formability with the aim of substituting it for the currently used 590 MPa grade high-tensile steel. Several application technologies have been developed through the verifications such as formability, resistance spot weldability, crashworthiness, and delayed fracture.
Technical Paper

The Development on Cold Forging Technique to form a Component of the Constant Velocity Joint

1985-02-01
850353
Cold forging has been applied to form a component of the constant velocity joint. This part, slide joint housing, is made of JIS S48C (SAE 1048) high carbon steel. As it has been very difficult to form this part by cold forging, it has been formed by hot forging up until now. Success was obtained in forming this part by cold forging through improving the chemical composition of S48C high carbon steel and tool design, determining the optimum condition for heat treating the slug, and using a TiC coated punch. Since this slide joint housing, which is nearly net shape, was able to be formed through this cold forging technique, material saving was improved about 40% and machining time was reduced much in comparison with hot forging. Manufacturing cost can be greatly reduced through this cold forging which has been developed.
Technical Paper

Research on High Strength Material and Its Surface Modification for Parts Used Under Rolling Contact Cycles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0633
This paper describes a newly developed steel composition and surface modification methods for improving the rolling contact fatigue strength of parts used in transmission systems, especially continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) to increase their torque capacity. The mechanisms of two types of typical rolling contact fatigue phenomenon in case hardening steel were examined with the aim of improving rolling contact fatigue strength. One concerned white etching constituents (WEC) and the other one concerned peculiar microstructural changes caused by hydrogen originating from decomposition of the lubrication oil as a result of repeated rolling contact stress cycles. The rolling contact fatigue strength limit due to WEC has been improved markedly by dispersing fine M23C6 alloy carbides in the martensite matrix at the subsurface layer of parts.
Technical Paper

Application Development of Low Carbon Type Dual Phase 980MPa High Strength Steel

2006-04-03
2006-01-1586
Use of high strength steel (HSS) could be an important consideration in achieving competitive weight and safety performance of the body-in-white (BIW). This study covers key technical issues in the application development. Many aspects were studied such as formability, weldability and impact strength for application of this grade to the BIW. One of the key issues is spot weldability, especially in the assembly of heavy gauge materials for structural parts. The spot weld strength appears not to satisfy the target for some HSS applications, when hardness of the nugget is high. The relation between weld strength and the chemical composition of steel sheets was studied, because hardness can be controlled by chemical composition and welding conditions. It was found that using lower carbon content or carbon equivalent compared to conventional grades could improve weld strength.
Technical Paper

Development of High Strength Transmission Gears

1992-02-01
920761
High strength transmission gears have been developed for use in the final gear set of front-wheel-drive vehicles. The steel used as the gear material has a higher molybdenum content, allowing more austenite to be retained following carburizing than is possible with chromium steel. As a result, the steel can be subjected to higher intensity shot peening by using harder peening particles which are projected by an air-nozzle peening system. With this procedure, the fatigue strength of the gears can be increased 1.6 times over that of conventional gears.
Technical Paper

Application of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet for Autobody Structural Parts

1992-02-01
920249
As a demand for vehicles of higher functionality grows, automakers and material suppliers are devoting increasing efforts to develop technologies for greater safety, lighter weight, higher corrosion resistance, and enhanced quietness. The resin-sandwiched vibration damping steel sheet (VDSS), developed as a highly functional material for reducing vehicle vibration and noise, has been used for oil pans1) and compartment partitions2). First applied for a structural dash panel of the new Mazda 929, a Zn-Ni electroplated VDSS which allows direct electric welding has contributed to greater weight reduction as well as improved quietness.
Technical Paper

Study of Formable High Strength Steel Sheets for Automotive Panels

1992-02-01
920247
Weight reduction of automobiles is one of the most highlighted subjects in automobile industry from the energy saving and clean environment points of view. A typical approach for the purpose is to use high strength steel sheets as well as optimizing designs and using low density materials. It is not, however, easy to apply high strength steel sheets to automotive panels because of their strict requirement for the shape-fixability although a high dent resistance is also required. Besides the use of bake hardening steels, two different high strength steel sheets, which are a continuously annealed extra-low carbon titanium-added IF steel and a low carbon TRIP steel which contains about six volume% of austenite, were assessed for the application to automotive panels in combination with a tension-controled press-forming technique and showed as good shape-fixability as a conventional box-annealed aluminum-killed DDQ steel sheet when high blank-holding-forces were applied.
Technical Paper

Properties of a Newly Developed Organic Composite Coated Steel Sheet for Automotive Use

1992-02-01
920172
The newly developed sheet steel lightly coated with an organic composite is as follows. Zn-Ni alloy plated sheet steel with a coating weight of 30 g/m2 and average Ni concentration of 11.5 ∼12.0 % is chromated through electrolysis. The coating weight of chromate film is 50 ∼90 mg/m2 in Cr. Furthermore, emulsified olefin-acrylic acid copolymer resin mixed with colloidal silica of particle size 7 ∼8 nm applied to a thickness of 1.0 ∼1.8 μm. Olefin-acrylic acid copolymer resin and colloidal silica are mixed at the rate of 100 and 30 (parts by weight). It maintains excellent corrosion resistance even after forming, C-ED paint corrosion resistance and paint adhesion. Furthermore, it has excellent perforation resistance. The product has excellent weldability and is well suited to continuous forming, too.
Technical Paper

New PM Valve Seat Insert Materials for High Performance Engines

1992-02-01
920570
Internal combustion engines experience severe valve train wear and the reduction of valve seat and seat insert wear has been a long-standing issue. In this work, worn valve seats and inserts were examined to obtain a fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms and the results were applied in developing new valve seat insert materials. The new exhaust valve insert material for gasoline engines is a sintered alloy steel containing Co-base hard particles, with lead infiltrated only for inserts used in unleaded gasoline engines. The new intake valve insert material for gasoline engines is a high-Mo sintered steel, obtained through transient liquid phase sintering and with copper precipitated uniformly. This material can be used for both leaded and unleaded gasoline engines. Valve and valve seat insert wear has long been an issue of concern to engine designers and manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Uniform Quenching Technology by Using Controlled High Pressure Gas after Low Pressure Carburizing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0365
To reduce quenching distortion, step gas quenching has been proposed in recent years, which refers to rapid gas cooling of steel from austenitizing temperature to a point above or below Ms temperature, where it is held for a specific period of time, followed by gas cooling. In this study, by using infrared thermography combined with conventional thermocouple, a new temperature monitoring and control system was developed to realize the step gas quenching process of a hypoid ring gear after low pressure carburizing. The test production results indicate that by using the new monitoring and control system, we can control the gas quenching process and the distortion of carburized gear treated by step gas quenching can be reduced significantly compared with standard gas quenching.
Technical Paper

The Development of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet For Automotive Use

1989-02-01
890708
Vibration Damping Steel Sheet (VDSS) for automotive use, which has a three layer structure of steel/viscoelastic resin/steel, has been studied. For automotive body panels, VDSS is required to have not only high vibration damping capability but also other properties such as bonding strength, formability, weldability and durability. In this research, the effect of resin layer on these properties was studied. It is found that VDSS which satisfies these properties can be made from thermosetting resin involving metal particles.
Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2014-04-01
2014-01-0991
To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Technical Paper

Development of Door Guard Beams Utilizing Ultra High Strength Steel

1981-02-01
810031
Door guard beams have been developed through the utilization of ultra high strength steel (tensile strength>100 kg/mm2). At first, the sheet metal gauge was reduced in proportion to the strength of the ultra high strength without changing the shape of the beam section. This caused beam buckling and did not meet guard beam specifications. Analyzing this phenomena in accordance with the buckling theory of thin plates, a design criteria that makes effective use of the advantages of ultra high strength was developed. As a result, our newly designed small vehicle door guard beams are 20% lighter and 26% thinner than conventional ones. This makes it possible to reduce door thickness while increasing interior volume.
Technical Paper

High-Strength Cold-Rolled Steels Produced by Continuous Annealing and Their Automotive Applications

1981-02-01
810028
In continuous annealing, accelerated cooling methods have recently found practical application in addition to conventional gas jet cooling or water jet quenching method. Moderate cooling rate of gas jet cooling or accelerated cooling makes it possible to utilize new high-strength steels with excellent properties. The faster cooling rate deteriorates ductility of steels. These newly developed steels are improved rephosphorized steels with high r̄-value and high bake hardenability, dual phase steels with superior ductility, Ti-stabilized high-strength steels with very high r̄-value, grain boundary hardening steels employing low temperature annealing, and unique ultra high-strength steels. This paper describes properties and process factors of these steels, and their applications to automotive.
Technical Paper

Effect of Strengthening Mechanism on Fatigue Properties of Hot-Rolled Sheet Steels

2002-03-04
2002-01-0042
The influence of tensile strength on fatigue strength and the effect of strengthening mechanism on fatigue notch factor were investigated into conventional mild steels, HSLA steels, DP steels and TRIP steels. The grade of studied steels was altered from 440MPa to 780MPa. Not only smooth fatigue specimens with side surface ground and smooth fatigue specimens with laser-cut side surface but also fatigue specimens with a pierced hole were prepared for each of steel sheets. Fatigue tests were conducted in an axial load method. These experiments made it clear that the fatigue limits of smooth specimen increase along the tensile strength approximately independent of strengthening mechanism but those of notched specimen do not necessarily increase along the tensile strength. Namely, fatigue limits of DP steels and TRIP steels with notch increase in proportion to tensile strength although those of HSLA steels with notch do not increase.
Journal Article

Dissimilar Joining of Aluminum Alloy and Steel by Resistance Spot Welding

2009-04-20
2009-01-0034
This study concerns a dissimilar materials joining technique for aluminum (Al) alloys and steel for the purpose of reducing the vehicle body weight. The tough oxide layer on the Al alloy surface and the ability to control the Fe-Al intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness are issues that have so far complicated the joining of Al alloys and steel. Removing the oxide layer has required a high heat input, resulting in the formation of a thick Fe-Al IMC layer at the joint interface, making it impossible to obtain satisfactory joint strength. To avoid that problem, we propose a unique joining concept that removes the oxide layer at low temperature by using the eutectic reaction between Al in the Al alloy and zinc (Zn) in the coating on galvanized steel (GI) and galvannealed steel (GA). This makes it possible to form a thin, uniform Fe-Al IMC layer at the joint interface. Welded joints of dissimilar materials require anticorrosion performance against electrochemical corrosion.
Technical Paper

Development of Lightweight Connecting Rod Based on Fatigue Resistance Analysis of Microalloyed Steel

1990-02-01
900454
Application of microalloyed steel to automobile parts is becoming increasingly common in Japan. However, fatigue properties of actual automotive forged parts with slight notches on their surface have not been fully clarified. In this work, the fatigue properties of microalloyed steel were studied using test specimens and also actual automotive parts. The results indicated that microalloyed steel with an optimal microstructure showed higher notch fatigue resistance than quenched-tempered steel. The improvement of material technology and the application of microalloyed steel have not only served to bring product costs down, but have paved the way for part weight reductions. Lightweight connecting rods for the newly developed Nissan engines have been produced, contributing to improved engine performance.
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