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Technical Paper

Low Cost Hybrid Motorcycle Optimisation Model

The application of hybridization technology is now widely regarded as a significant step forward to reduce fuel consumption and hence CO₂ emissions for ground vehicles. Many programs and much research has been done on these technologies in the automotive market, however little work has been done in the very cost sensitive market sector of the small motorcycle. This paper introduces and discusses the application of a low-cost hybrid technology to small motorcycles and scooters, and reviews some of the initial trade-offs through the use of a new hybrid simulation model developed at Cranfield University. The study being presented assessed the existing Energy Storage Systems (ESS) in the market. This list was reduced, omitting options which posed a clear safety or cost risk, or solutions which would disproportionally increased the Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW). Also omitted were storage options which could not be production ready in the near term, 3 - 5 years.
Journal Article

Environmental Impact Assessment, on the Operation of Conventional and More Electric Large Commercial Aircraft

Global aviation is growing exponentially and there is a great emphasis on trajectory optimization to reduce the overall environmental impact caused by aircraft. Many optimization techniques exist and are being studied for this purpose. The CLEAN SKY Joint Technology Initiative for aeronautics and Air transport, a European research activity run under the Seventh Framework program, is a collaborative initiative involving industry, research organizations and academia to introduce novel technologies to improve the environmental impact of aviation. As part of the overall research activities, “green” aircraft trajectories are addressed in the Systems for Green Operations (SGO) Integrated Technology Demonstrator. This paper studies the impact of large commercial aircraft trajectories optimized for different objectives applied to the on board systems.
Technical Paper

Development of an Autonomous Battery Electric Vehicle

Autonomous vehicles have been shown to increase safety for drivers, passengers, and pedestrians and can also be used to maximize traffic flow, thereby reducing emissions and congestion. At the same time, governments around the world are promoting the usage of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) to reduce and control the emissions of CO2. This has made the development of autonomous vehicles and electric vehicles a very active research area and has prompted a significant amount of government funding. This article presents the detailed design of a low-cost platform for the development of an autonomous electric vehicle. In particular, it focuses on the design of the electrical architecture and the control strategy, tailored around the usage of affordable sensors and actuators. The specifications of the components are extensively discussed in relation to the performance target.
Technical Paper

Trajectory Optimization of Airliners to Minimize Environmental Impact

With the rapid growth in passenger transportation through aviation projected to continue into the future, it is incumbent on aerospace engineers to seek ways to reduce the negative impact of airliner operation on the environment. Key metrics to address include noise, fuel consumption, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide emissions, and contrail formation. The research presented in this paper generates new aircraft trajectories to reduce these metrics, and compares them with typical scheduled airline operated flights. Results and analysis of test cases on trajectory optimization are presented using an in-house aircraft trajectory optimization framework created under the European Clean Sky Joint Technology Initiative, Systems for Green Operation Integrated Technology Demonstrator. The software tool comprises an optimizer core and relatively high fidelity models of the aircraft's flight path performance, air traffic control constraints, propulsion and other systems.