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Technical Paper

Comparison of the Far-Field Aerodynamic Wake Development for Three DrivAer Model Configurations using a Cost-Effective RANS Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1514
The flow field and body aerodynamic loads on the DrivAer reference model have been extensively investigated since its introduction in 2012. However, there is a relative lack of information relating to the models wake development resulting from the different rear-body configurations, particularly in the far-field. Given current interest in the aerodynamic interaction between two or more vehicles, the results from a preliminary CFD study are presented to address the development of the wake from the Fastback, Notchback, and Estateback DrivAer configurations. The primary focus is on the differences in the far-field wake and simulations are assessed in the range up to three vehicle lengths downstream, at Reynolds and Mach numbers of 5.2×106 and 0.13, respectively. Wake development is modelled using the results from a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation within a computational mesh having nominally 1.0×107 cells.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

2018-04-03
2018-01-0819
In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Preview based Vehicle Steering Control using Neural Networks

2013-04-08
2013-01-0409
The motion of a vehicle along a desired path is possible due to steering action of the driver. Hence, vehicle dynamics and control simulations should take into consideration the action of the driver. This work presents a preview based vehicle steering controller using Neural Networks which can be used in the vehicle lateral dynamics simulations. The training data for the Neural Network is being obtained using a steering controller from the existing literature and its gains are determined using Optimization. Three different architectures are being designed and conclusions are presented. These Neural Network models are validated by testing against real track data.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Thin Water Film Stability and Its Characteristics in SLD Icing Problem

2011-06-13
2011-38-0064
The objective of this work is to investigate the thin water film characteristics by performing a range of experiments for different icing conditions. Our focus is on the SLD conditions where the droplets are larger and other effects like splashing and re-impingement could occur. Three features for the thin water film have been studied experimentally: the water film velocity, wave celerity and its wavelength. The experiments are performed in the icing facilities at Cranfiled University. The stability of the water film for the different conditions has been studied to find a threshold for transient from continues water film to non-continues form. A new semi-empirical method is introduced to estimate the water film thickness based on the experimental data of water film velocity in combination of theoretical analysis of water film dynamics. The outcome of this work could be implemented in SLD icing simulation but more analysis is needed.
Technical Paper

Applying a Concept for Robot-Human Cooperation to Aerospace Equipping Processes

2011-10-18
2011-01-2655
Significant effort has been applied to the introduction of automation for the structural assembly of aircraft. However, the equipping of the aircraft with internal services such as hydraulics, fuel, bleed-air and electrics and the attachment of movables such as ailerons and flaps remains almost exclusively manual and little research has been directed towards it. The problem is that the process requires lengthy assembly methods and there are many complex tasks which require high levels of dexterity and judgement from human operators. The parts used are prone to tolerance stack-ups, the tolerance for mating parts is extremely tight (sub-millimetre) and access is very poor. All of these make the application of conventional automation almost impossible. A possible solution is flexible metrology assisted collaborative assembly. This aims to optimise the assembly processes by using a robot to position the parts whilst an operator performs the fixing process.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Driver Braking Intention with Vehicle Data Using Unsupervised Learning Methods

2017-03-28
2017-01-0433
Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, two types unsupervised clustering methods are used to build a driver braking intention predictor. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. The proposed unsupervised learning algorithms can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different algorithms which are K-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) will be compared.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Brake-by-Wire System Development and Hardware-In-Loop Test for Autonomous Electrified Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-0401
As the essential of future driver assistance system, brake-by-wire system is capable of performing autonomous intervention to enhance vehicle safety significantly. Regenerative braking is the most effective technology of improving energy consumption of electrified vehicle. A novel brake-by-wire system scheme with integrated functions of active braking and regenerative braking, is proposed in this paper. Four pressure-difference-limit valves are added to conventional four-channel brake structure to fulfill more precise pressure modulation. Four independent isolating valves are adopted to cut off connections between brake pedal and wheel cylinders. Two stroke simulators are equipped to imitate conventional brake pedal feel. The operation principles of newly developed system are analyzed minutely according to different working modes. High fidelity models of subsystems are built in commercial software MATLAB and AMESim respectively.
Technical Paper

Transient Aerodynamic Characteristics of Simple Vehicle Shapes by the Measurement of Surface Pressures

2000-03-06
2000-01-0876
Transient force and surface pressure data has been measured on a range of simple geometric shapes in order to gain an understanding of the complex time dependent and separated flow around a vehicle when subjected to a crosswind. The experiments were carried out using the Cranfield University model crosswind facility. It is found that the leeward face is the dominant area of transient activity. Maximum and minimum peak yawing moments at gust entry and exit are compared
Technical Paper

Regenerative Braking Strategies for A Parallel Hybrid Powertrain with Torque Controlled IVT

2005-10-24
2005-01-3826
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are considered as the most cost effective solution, in the short term perspective, for the achievement of improved fuel economy (FE) and reduced emissions. This paper focuses on regenerative braking in a mild hybrid powertrain with infinitely variable transmission (IVT) and specifically on how its control strategy can be formulated and optimized. The study is conducted using a previously validated fully dynamic powertrain model. An initial investigation of the dynamic vehicle behaviour under braking conditions serves as the basis for the development of a control strategy for best braking performance and maximum energy recovery, the implementation of which requires a fully active and integrated brake control system. Limitations and constraints due to driveline configuration and driveability issues are considered and their effect evaluated. Simulation results show that fuel consumption reductions of 12% are achievable along a standard drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Development of a Broad Delta Airframe and Propulsion Concepts for Reducing Aircraft Noise around Airports

2007-09-17
2007-01-3806
This paper describes the impact of noise on the civil aircraft design process. The challenge to design ‘silent’ aircraft is the development of efficient airframe-engine technologies, for which integration is essential to produce an optimum aircraft, otherwise penalties such as higher fuel consumption, and, or noise are a concern. A description of work completed by Cranfield University will cover design methodologies used for a Broad delta airframe concept, with reference to future studies into alternate concepts. Engine cycle designs for ultra-high bypass ratio, constant volume combustor, and recuperated propulsion cycles are described, with a discussion of integration challenges within the airframe.
Technical Paper

Contrail Avoidance Project Summary

2007-09-17
2007-01-3808
As aviation is one of the fastest growing industrial sector world wide, air-traffic emissions are projected to increase their stake in the contribution to global warming. According to recent studies, both CO2 and contrails will be the principal air-traffic pollutants. Since the environmental impact of contrails is potentially larger, their avoidance is becoming discussed in the aeronautical community. Work on this topic has been carried out at Cranfield University in form of a PhD project. A project summary is given in this paper where contrail avoidance strategies and the different aspects of contrail avoidance are highlighted. The first section provides an overview on the formation principles of contrails based on a literature review. Different technologies are given in the second part, and their introduction is discussed in the last section.
Technical Paper

Potential for Fuel Economy Improvements by Reducing Frictional Losses in a Pushing Metal V-Belt CVT

2004-03-08
2004-01-0481
This paper gives an overview of the development of a number of loss models for the pushing metal V-belt CVT. These were validated using a range of experimental data collected from two test rigs. There are several contributions to the torque losses and new models have been developed that are based upon relative motion between belt components and pulley deflections. Belt slip models will be proposed based upon published theory, expanded to take account of new findings from this work. The paper introduces a number of proposals to improve the efficiency of the transmission based on redesign of the belt geometry and other techniques to reduce frictional losses between components. These proposed efficiency improvements have been modelled and substituted into a complete vehicle simulation to show improvements in vehicle fuel economy over a standard European drive cycle.
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